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Late adulthood 1
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Late adulthood 1


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  • 1.  ERIKSON Ego Integrity vs. DespairEgo Integrity Despair Feel whole, complete,  Feel many decisions satisfied with were wrong, but now achievements time is too short Serenity and  Bitter and unaccepting contentment of coming death Associated with  Expressed as anger psychosocial maturity and contempt for others
  • 2. --Ego differentiation versus work-rolepreoccupation--Body transcendence versus bodypreoccupation--Ego transcendence versus egopreoccupation
  • 3. PERSONALITY Remains stable Some slight changes Agreeableness and acceptance of change increase slightly Extraversion decreases slightly
  • 4. COPING/DEALING WITH STRESS Seniors have developed coping styles to deal with problems Seniors have social support, familial support, and friends which help to reduce stress High quality relationships have the greatest impact on psychological health
  • 5. COGNITIVE-APPRAISAL COPING MODEL (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) States that people choose appropriate coping strategies to deal with situations that tax their normal resources 2 types of coping strategies: problem- focused or emotion-focused
  • 6.  Problem focused coping: aims at eliminating, managing, or improving a stressful situation This strategy is used when the person sees that they have a chance of changing the situation
  • 7.  Emotion focused coping: managing or regulating the emotional response to a stressful situation Works to lessen the physical or psychological impact of the stressor Utilized when a person realizes that little or nothing can be done about a situation/stressor
  • 8. SOCIAL INTERACTION Disengagement theory: social interactions decline because of mutual withdrawal between elders and society Adults are anticipating death Not everyone disengages
  • 9. ACTIVITY THEORY States that social barriers cause decreased engagement not the desire of elders Yet, offering adults opportunities for social contact does not guarantee greater social activity
  • 10. CONTINUITY THEORY (Atchley, 1989) People need to maintain a connection between past and present activities Activity levels represents the continuation of a person’s individual lifestyle; adults should remain active
  • 11.  Adults engage in the same sorts of behaviors they always have: MEN: engage in work, leisure activities, role of father, husband WOMEN: engage in roles of mother, wife, worker, volunteer, and leisure activities
  • 12. SOCIOEMOTIONAL SELECTIVITY THEORY As we age we become more socially selective Adults tend to limit their contacts to individuals with whom they have developed pleasurable, rewarding, relationships
  • 13. RELATIONSHIPS IN LATE ADULTHOOD Social Convoy: cluster of family members and friends that provides safety and supportMARITAL SATISFACTION Tends to rise in late adulthood Couples engage in joint leisure activities Less overall stress; no children to support
  • 14.  When divorce occurs, remarriage rates are low Widowhood: wide variation in adaptation Maintain social ties, outgoing personality, high self esteem, and self efficacy in handling daily living tasks foster adjustment Women who have developed relationships outside the marriage fare better than men
  • 15. FRIENDSHIPS/RELATIONSHIPS Social support from siblings increases; especially when they live nearby Siblings engage in joint reminiscing Friendships provide companionship, acceptance, and a link to the larger community
  • 16.  Women are more likely to have intimate friends and secondary friends: people with whom they spend time occasionally Adults and their adult children are often in touch They exchange advice and give moderate support
  • 17.  Grandparent/grandchild contact tends to decline over time, but grandparent affection remains
  • 18. RETIREMENT AND LEISURE Decision to retire depends on affordability, health status, opportunities to pursue meaningful activities, and societal factors Women tend to retire earlier than men because of family events Those near poverty will continue to work
  • 19. FACTORS THAT AFFECT ADJUSTMENT TO RETIREMENT Health status financial stability Satisfaction derived from work Social support marital happiness
  • 20.  Family-focused lifestyle: low cost activities that revolve around the home, family, and friends Balanced investment: time is spent across family, work, and leisure Serious leisure: lifestyle focused around pursuing an interest or hobby