P1/01-11-2011/ TUDelft/ Name: Hong Yang/ Student nr. 4121139/ e-mail: H.Yangemail@example.com/ graduation studio: Complex City Achieving a balanced network Governmental Plan A new developing strategy for a High-speed Train Station, emphasizing the Social-Spatial Integration in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei mega region corridor, the northeast of China. Ecological belt ChengdeZhangjiakou Beijing-Tianjin Corridor Qinhuangdao Beijing Tangshan Langfang Tianjin Baoding Binhai Coastal economic belt CangzhouShijiazhuang HengshuiXingtai Traditional industry beltHandan 0 24 10 20km 0 100 200 300km
Motivation Ecological belt Zhangjiakou Chengde Beijing-Tianjin CorridorContradiction 1: Beijing Qinhuangdao Tangshan Langfang TianjinA new high-speed train station will be located in Binhai Baoding Binhai CoastalNew District - an strategic new city in Beijing-Tianjin- Cangzhou economic beltHebei mega region. From the two newest versions of Shijiazhuang Hengshuigovernmental plan, its potential impact on the local Xingtai fig01. Second stage of Beijing-Tianjin- Traditional industry beltdevelopment is far from fully exploration. Handan Heibei Regional Strategy Plan Sources: (by Wu. The second report of research on rural & urban development planning for Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, 2006) 0 100 200 300km ? ? ? ? 0 48 0 4 8 20 20 40km 40km 0 48 0 4 8 20 20 40km 40kmfig02. HST station area in 2005 Tianjin Master Plan for 2020 fig03. HST station area in 2006 Binhai Master Plan for 2020Sources: (Tianjin Master Plan, 2005) Sources: (Binhai Master Plan, 2006)
MotivationContradiction 2:The current development in the mode of setting large monofunctional industry parks in Binhai New District, hasraised a series of urban issues: functional segregation, high energy cost, low living quality. In the newest version ofgovernmental plan, the problems have not been addressed to solve or lease. In-between Tianjin Binhaifig04. Image of working and living separatelySources: (by the author, 2011)
MotivationBased on the above two contradictions, the motivation of the graduation project is to usethe HST station as an opportunity to find a proper development mode for Binhai NewDistrict.The methodology could also be applied to the other areas/cities in a rapid developingregion.
Location and Content Area:Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region is located in the 183,700 km2northeast of China. It is the third biggest coastal city region Population:following Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta. It is the China Yangtze River Delta 76,000,000most dynamic node in Bohai Sea Rim, also play a key role in Pearl River Northeast Asia. Delta Beijing-Tianjin -Hebei RegionBeijing and Tianjin are two main cities in this region andthey are surrounded by eleven small cities in Hebei province. Area: 11,920 km2 (Beijing: 16,800 km2)The distance between the two cities is only 120 km. Beijing Population: 12,900,000 (Beijing: 19,600,000) Heibei Distance from Beijing: 120kmBinhai New District is a vice-province district in Tianjin. 0 100 200 300km TianjinIt is located in the east coastal area of Tianjin. It was set Area:up as a national economic development district. The GDP of 2,270 km2 (19% of Tianjin)it in 2010 has been the half of Tianjin, beyond Pudong NewDistrict in Shanghai. Population: 2,300,000 (17.8% of Tianjin) GDP: 371billion yuan (51% of Tianjin) Employment: 368,500 (18% of Tianjin) Distance from city centre: 40km 0 20 40 60km Binhai New District fig05. Location in national, regional and city scale Sources: ( Google map & the author, 2011)
BackgroundBeijing-Tianjin-Hebei Mega Region Beijing-Tianjin CorridorThe region: In the second phase of regional plan for Beijing-Tianjin--A polycentric metropolitan region Hebei. A new pattern as “One axis, three belts” was-The hinterland of Beijing linking resource, market and mentioned to improve the regional development balance.space.Tianjin: The expansion of “Beijing-Tianjin Corridor” meets “Coastal-The Second city, a traditional industry city. economical belt” at Binhai New District, which highlightsBinhai New District the role of Binhai New District in the regional level.-The most important port in the region (the third inChina), which is Beijing lack of.The regional cooperation is still in starting stage. Ecological belt-Core cities have not bring more opportunities to the Chengdehinterland. Zhangjiakou-regional resource has not given sufficient support to Beijing-Tianjin Corridorcore cities. Qinhuangdao Beijing Tangshan Gross Regional Product, 2009 Langfang Tianjin Chengde 14000.00 Zhangjiakou Baoding Unit: 100,000,000 yuan 12000.00 10000.00 Beijing Qinhuangdao Binhai Coastal economic belt Tangshan 8000.00 Langfang Tianjin 6000.00 Baoding Cangzhou 4000.00 Cangzhou 2000.00 Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang 0.00 Hengshui Xingtai Hengshui Handan Xingtai fig06. Gross regional product 0 100 200 300km Traditional industry belt Sources: ( Chinese regional economic year book, 2010, by the author, 2011) Handan 0 100 200 300km fig07. Second stage of Beijing-Tianjin-Heibei Regional Strategy Plan Sources: (by Wu. The second report of research on rural & urban development planning for Beijing- Tianjin-Hebei, 2006)
BackgroundRegional InfrastructureThe new high-speed train system in the region pushesforward the formation of network in hard infrastructure,as the backbone of regional cooperation network. Theresource sharing and industry chain reconstruction gio n Regradually starts. nin g ao Li h ut SoTwo important high-speed railways, Beijing-Tianjin intercityrailway and Tianjin-Qinhuangdao railway meet at BinhaiNew District. The existing Tianjin-Binhai metro line alsohas improved the mobility along Beijing-Tianjin corridor.Besides, a plan for a Beijing Second Airport is still under- Bohai Seadiscussion to lease the stress of Beijing Airport. To usethe existing Tianjin Airport (between Tianjin and Binhai)effectively is also another proposed option. to Ya High-speed railway n gt High-speed railway ze under construction Ri ve r Metro De lta 0 48 0 40 20 100 40km 200km g an hu ng ng az di iji i ji o ao Be Sh Ba gd n ha an ai in gs hu nh nj 0.5h 0.5h 0.5 n in Bi a Ta h Q Ti 0.25h 0.5h 0.5h ai 6h gh an Sh fig08. High-speed train system in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Sources: ( by the author, 2011)
BackgroundRegional mode Ecology belt Ecology beltThe mobility is reforming the mode of the region. Beijing-Tianjin Corridor Beijing-Tianjin CorridorBinhai New District is becoming an essential node both onhard network and flow of resource and market. Coastal Coastal economic belt economic belt Ecologic belt Ecologic belt Formal region mode New region mode fig09. Abstraction of regional mode Sources: (by the author, 2011) Beijing Tianjin Binhai Traditional role Core in all Industry city Port Restructuring Industry Role in network Service core ? Sub-core ? Manufactory core ? fig10. Doubting of role in network Sources: (by the author, 2011)
Background Industry Restructuring Since Beijing turned to focus on developing the tertiary industry, it has launched a massive industry relocation. During last 20 years, Beijing has move most its formal large factories in secondary industry to its surrounding areas in Beijing-Tianjin-Heibei Region. Tianjin, as the second biggest economic sector in the region, became the main receiving zone. >70% 50% - 70% 40% - 50% 30% - 40% 20% - 30% 2002 2009 fig12. Rate of the tertiary industry in GDP, in Beijing- Tianjin-Hebei region Sources: (Chinese regional economic year book, 2003&2010, by the author, 2011) Gross Regional Product, 2009 Chengde 14000.00 ZhangjiakouUnit: 100,000,000 yuan 12000.00 Beijing 10000.00 Qinhuangdao Tangshan 8000.00 Langfang Tianjin 6000.00 Baoding 4000.00 Cangzhou 2000.00 Shijiazhuang 0.00 Hengshui Xingtai >60% 50% - 60% Handan 30% - 50% 20% - 30% 2002 2009 0 - 20% 0 100 200 300km fig13. Rate of the secondary industry in GDP, in fig11. Gross regional product of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region Sources: ( Chinese regional economic year book, 2010, by the author, 2011) Sources: (Chinese regional economic year book, 2003&2010, by the author, 2011)
BackgroundIndustry RestructuringThe similar process also happened inside Tianjin itself: theinner city depends on the well linkage with Beijing, also getmore opportunity to take part in tertiary industry and strivesto consolidate its role as service and culture centre of Tianjin.Therefore, it also needs to move the secondary industry out formore available land.To achieve this, Binhai New District was established in 1994by Tianjin municipality. The formal rural salt lick has been >70%the most important sector in Tianjins economy, mainly on the 50% - 70% 40% - 50%secondary industry. 30% - 40% 20% - 30% 1993 2009 Gross Domes c Product of Tianjin, 1993 500 fig15. Rate of the tertiary industry in GDP, in Tianjin Sources: (Tianjin economic year book, 1994&2010, by the author, 2011) Unit: 100,000,000 yuan 400 300 Primary Industry 200 Secondary Industry 100 Ter ary Industry 0 Innercity Suburban Coun es Binhai New District Gross Domes c Product of Tianjin, 2009 Counties 3000 2500 Unit: 100,000,000 yuan 2000 Primary Industry Innercity 1500 Binhai New District Secondary Industry Suburban 1000 >60% Ter ary Industry 50% - 60% 500 Counties 30% - 50% 20% - 30% 0 Innercity Suburban Coun es Binhai New 0 - 20% District 0 20 40 60km 1993 2009 fig14. GDP of Tianjin, 2008 fig16. Rate of the secondary industry in GDP, in Tianjin Sources: ( Tianjin economic year book, 2008, by the author, 2011) Sources: (Tianjin economic year book, 1994&2010, by the author, 2011)
BackgroundIndustry RestructuringThe restructuring of industry is not only in the single direction. Thisrelocation in Binhai was started with setting several industry parks.With the new industry gathering, more business service relatedto these industries appeared around the industry parks. Theopportunity for new business centre comes in following. >70% 50% - 70% 40% - 50% 30% - 40% 20% - 30% 2002 2009 fig18. Rate of the tertiary industry in GDP, in Binhai Sources: (Binhai economic year book, 1994&2010, by the author, 2011) Hangu Binhai Hi-tech Gross Domestic Product of Binhai New District, 2009 TEDA 1200.00 TPFTZ Tanggu 1000.00 Unit: 100,000,000 yuan 800.00 600.00 Primary Industry 400.00 Secondary Industry Tertiary Industry Dagang 200.00 >60% 50% - 60% 0.00 30% - 50% Tanggu Hangu Dagang TEDA TPFTZ Binhai Hi- 20% - 30% tech 0 10 20 30km 0 - 20% 2002 2009 fig17. GDP of Binhai, 2008 fig19. Rate of the secondary industry in GDP, in Binhai Sources: ( Binhai economic year book, 2008, by the author, 2011) Sources: (Binhai economic year book, 1994&2010, by the author, 2011)
BackgroundIndustry RestructuringI describe the process by using the Dupuys definition of place in network and Sassen view in global city:- Absolute high level and low level has disappeared in the network. Service and industry did not separate simply inspace (Dupuy, 2008).- They distribute in network in a kind of interactive balance (Dupuy, 2008).- Dynamic high-tech development department also includes low-income position. Backward sectors, such as thedegraded manufacture or low-paid service, are maybe the most important sectors in rapid development (Sassen,1991).- The place in the low-level economic activity sometimes is another kind of highly specialized centre (Sassen, 1991).
Problem fieldRegional Problem-No concrete relationship between regional plan and local governmental master plan.-HST station has not been considered as an opportunity to restructure the surrounding urban area, even less in social-spatial integrated potentiality. ? ? ? ? 0 48 0 4 8 20 20 40km 40km 0 48 0 4 8 20 20 40km 40kmfig20. HST station area in Tianjin Master Plan for 2020 fig21. HST station area in Binhai Master Plan for 2020Sources: (Tianjin Master Plan, 2005) Sources: (Tianjin Master Plan, 2006)
Problem field Ecological beltGovernmentalCity master plan Plan Chengde Zhangjiakou Beijing-Tianjin Corridor Qinhuangdao BeijingExisting urban structure: Duo-centre mode with several fragments in in-between area, in these Tangshanfragments, segregations existed in all aspects - spatial, economy, social, environment. Langfang Tianjin Baoding Binhai Coastal economic belt CangzhouGovernmental proposal and tools Shijiazhuang-To full fill the corridor by simply enlarging pieces of fragments to clusters, but keep the Hengshui Xingtaimonofunctional mode without expressing as a linking structure. Traditional industry belt-To control the developments, to leave the possibility for the future development and the access Handanto regional landscape, by setting green belt between monofunctional industry clusters. 0 100 200 300kmfig22. Existing spatial structure of Tianjin fig23. Planned spatial structure of Tianjin for 2020Sources: (Tianjin Master Plan, 2005, by the author, 2011) 0 24 10 20km Sources: (Tianjin Master Plan, 2005, by the author, 2011) 0 24 10 20km
Problem fieldUrban reality1. Monofunctional industry fragments: 2. Separation between living and workingWorkers cannot use the area. Rural inhabitants cannot -traffic congestionget benefits from the factory. -high energy cost -high time cost, low quality of life for commuting groups Workers in Binhai New District, 2009 live in Binhai 273 000 travel by metro 350,000 travel by bus travel by shuttle or car 31,500 45,500fig24. Industry typology in the in-between corridor fig26. The rate of traffic mode of workers in BinhaiSources: (Google map, 2011) Sources: (Population plan of Binhai, 2009, Binhai economic year book, 2010, by the author, 2011 )fig25. Factory in the in-between corridor fig27. Traffic congestion between Tianjin and BinhaiSources: (Google map, 2011) Sources: (http://tianjinwe.com, 2011)
Problem field In-between Tianjin Binhaifig28. Image of working and living separatelySources: (by the author, 2011)
Problem fieldPolicy feature of fast-developing economic development zone-Less policy restrict-Less application period-Local municipality has high autonomy rightsLand-use feature of economic development zone-High uncertainty-Loose land-use, reserved land for future development-Market-oriented, most function is only for industry. Service offering is less.Plan feature of economic development zone-Offer mass of available lands, no hierarchy.-Similar function planned in different projects.-Quickly made to attract investment-Service facilities are planned but delay to implement due to market-oriented content.
Problem field Ecological belt Zhangjiakou Chengde Beijing-Tianjin CorridorThe governmental local plan Beijing Qinhuangdao Tangshan Langfang Tianjin Baoding Binhai Coastal economic belt Cangzhou Shijiazhuang Hengshui Xingtai Traditional industry belt Handan 0 24 10 20km 0 24 10 20km 0 100 200 300km 0 4 16 0 8 8 20 40 40km 80km 0 4 16 0 8 8 20 40 40km 80kmfig29. Existing situation of the corridor and centre of Binhai fig30. Planned the corridor and centre of Binhai for 2020Sources: (Tianjin Master Plan, 2005) Sources: (Tianjin Master Plan, 2005)
Problem fieldEvaluate the governmental planLand-use: Just start to solve the problem in existing industry park by adding housing around it, but to continue themonofunctional structure in new industrial development, leaving more problem for future. living/service green belt sea highway living/service green belt sea highway industry park railway industry park railway planned highway port/airport river/lake train station port/airport river/lake train station 0 4 16 0 8 8 20 40 40km 80km 0 4 16 0 8 8 20 40 40km 80km 0 24 10 20kmfig31. Existing situation of the corridor and centre of Binhai fig32. Planned the corridor and centre of Binhai for 2020Sources: (Tianjin Master Plan, 2005, by the author, 2011) Sources: (Tianjin Master Plan, 2005, by the author, 2011)
Problem fieldEvaluate the governmental planLand-use in projects:Similar massive projects were set together. There is no strategy hierarchy in plan. The areas in city compete forinvestment and internal market with each other, without collaboration and correlation. Airport Logistic Industry Park Eco-city Hi-tech Industry Park Binhai Station Modern Metallurgy Industry Park Yujiabu Station & CBD Port Industrial Park University City 0 4 16 0 8 8 20 40 40km 80km fig33. New projects the corridor and centre of Binhai for 2020 Sources: (Tianjin Master Plan, 2005, by the author, 2011) 0 24 10 20km
Problem fieldEvaluate the governmental planInfrastructure:Road system-Still mainly focus on goods delivery at regional level. living/service green belt railway main road train station living/service green belt railway main road train station industry river/lake highway metro line metro industry river/lake highway metro line metro park sea park sea planned planned highway metro line 0 24 10 20km 0 4 16 0 8 8 20 40 40km 80km 0 4 16 0 8 8 20 40 40km 80kmfig34. Existing infrastructure of the corridor and centre of Binhai fig35. Planned infrastructure of the corridor and centre of Binhai for 2020Sources: (Tianjin Master Plan, 2005, by the author, 2011) Sources: (Tianjin Master Plan, 2005, by the author, 2011)
Problem fieldEvaluate the governmental planInfrastructure:Metro system-Several regional important nodes are overlapped by public transportation.Conclusion:Transportation facilities focus on the accessibility of the regional driving force. Eco-city ? Binhai Station Binhai Centre Yujiabu Station & CBD Port Industrial Park 0 4 16 0 8 8 20 40 40km 80km fig36. Overlap of infrastructure and regional driving force Sources: (Tianjin Master Plan, 2005, by the author, 2011) 0 24 10 20km
Problem fieldEvaluate the governmental planLandscape:Without considering existing and planned land-use and infrastructure.Be combined with infrastructure, low integration with surrounding area in function, more like boundaries. ? Eco-city ? Binhai Station ? Binhai Centre Yujiabu Station & CBD Port Industrial Park 0 4 16 0 8 8 20 40 40km 80km fig37. Planned landscape of the corridor and centre of Binhai for 2020 Sources: (Tianjin Master Plan, 2005, by the author, 2011) 0 24 10 20km
Problem StatementThere are two main problems on the government plan.On one hand, the governmental plan does not solve the existing segregation in the in-between corridor.-It only enlarges the monofunctional industry area.-It does not consider the functional and social segregation in the in-between corridor.-It does not consider the hierarchy between projects and areas.On the other hand, the governmental plan does not recognise the impact and opportunity from the regional high-speed train station.-It could be an opportunity to restructure the in-between corridor and landscape for its strategic location.-It could be an opportunity to give a hierarchy to solve functional and social segregation by its priority as a regionalinfrastructure.
Problem StatementProblem framework Beijing Tianjin Binhai Regional Driving force Traditional role Core in all Industry city Port Port Restructure Industry Manufactory core Industry Park Sub-service coreRole in network Service core R&D core Specific service core CBD Central node Joint node Joint node HST StationRole on mobility Main Airport Associated Airport Airport Integrated Plan Local influence Local Challenge Labour Housing Service Public transportationfig38. Problem frameworkSources: (by the author, 2011)
Research QuestionMain research question:How to use the regional high-speed train station as a new centrality to improve the spatial and social integration inthe surrounding industry area?Sub-research question:-What are the potential functions in high-speed station node relate to the industry area?-What is the possible mix-functional land use mode in labour intensive industry development area?-What is the potential network for commuters to participate into social activities?-What is the possible strategy to offer the accessible housing to workers near their working place in the market orient-ed content?-What is the potential role for the greenbelt as the linkage of urbanization and the regional park instead of a bound-ary?
Methodology Empirical study Research tool Beijin-Tianjin-Hebei mega region Data research Beijing-Tianjin Corridor Policy reflection Regional Infrastructure Mapping Polycentric development Governmental regional strategy Governmental local plan Evaluation Criteria Land use HST station plan Infrastructure Existing local problem LandscapeP1 & P2 Gap Gap Problem statement Research question Research tool Empirical Study Theory Study Data research Amsterdam central station New city-Region Mapping Rotterdam central station Regional development Globalization Polycentric urban region Splintering urbanism Planning into fragmented society The Regeneration power of train station development Guide principleP3 Polycentric region Local development Station development Suggestion for Output improvementP4 New Strategy HST station Surrounding areaP5 Testing design fig39. Phasing and time-schedule Sources: (by the author, 2011)
Theory related Theory Author/Expert New city-region Network theory Dupuy, G. Regional development Globalization Splintering urbanism Graham, S. & Marvin, S. The Regeneration power of train station development Bertolini, L. Polycentric urban region Zonneveld, W. Planning into fragmented society Healey, P.
Case studyRotterdam Central Station area and Amsterdam Central Station areaThe survey will explore:How do key station projects function to structuring the development of surrounding area?How do they integrate the regional investment into local interests?How do they react to the existing and potential social-spatial segregation?fig40. Rotterdam central station project fig41. Amsterdam central station projectSources: (West 8,http://www.west8.nl/projects/rotterdam_centraal_station/, 2011) Sources: (Benthem Crouwel, http://www.stationseiland.amsterdam.nl/, 2011)
RelevanceSocial relevanceThe paper gives an emphatic attention to a special group during the process of industry restructuring and relocation -commuters. They are the harmed agency in the polycentric developing process. They have to leave their home earlyand get back late. They are isolated during the daytime in their factory and journey in shuttle bus. This high time costmakes them separated from their society and their family.Because commuters still have a job and basic housing, they are still less discussed in China. However, the group isextremely huge for the labour – intensive industry developing level of China. High pressure, increasing divorce rate,more and more dink families and increasing Juvenile rate are common among them. They need to be concerned andaddressed by planners.Scientific relevanceThere are a certain amount of previous research and practice tried to find a suitable pattern for the suburban sprawllike T.O.D. (Transit Oriented Development). However, most of them have been proved not suitable to Chinese cities forthe differences in city size, economic level and decision making system. The supported service, facilities will only ap-pear if there is sufficient market and volumes of demand (Marcuse, 2008), especially under the neo-liberal economicpolicy system. The similar situation also happened in implementation of social housing policy.On the other land, the national government own absolute controlling force on large national and regional projects. In-vestments and resource can be mustered in short time. Whether there is a way for planners to integrate some facili-ties offering development with these large projects to achieve more than economic return, will be explore in the pa-per.