Yangtze River
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    Yangtze River Yangtze River Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • The Changing Yangtze Adam Nichols & Iain Pal ô t GA Study tour 2007 University of Surrey 29 th March 2008
    • A sense of scale Origin Tanggula Mts. , Qinghai / Tibet border Mouth East China Sea Length 6,300 km (3,915 miles) Source elevation 5,042 m (16,542 ft) Basin area 1,800,000 km² (695,000 miles²) Avg. Discharge 34,000 m³/s (1,200,000 ft³/s)
    • The Yangtze Basin
      • Less than 1/5 of the nation’s territory
      • Feeds 1/3 of the nation’s population
      • 1/3 of the nation’s GDP.
      • 37% of China’s “freshwater” resources
      • 48% of China’s HEP potential
      • 53% of the country’s navigable waterway: the “Golden Waterway” connecting East, Central, and West China.
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    • Average annual precipitation
      • Mean annual precipitation ranges from 23mm in the Northwest to 4000mm in the South.
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    • Yangtze basin land use
    • Section From To % of length Area (mil Km 2 ) Local Name Tributaries Upper Source (Mt. Galadandong in the Tanggula range) Yichang 71% 1.0 Dam Qu Tuotuo Tongtian Jinsha jiang (Golden Sand River) Yalong River Minjiang River Tuojiang River Jialing River Wujiang Middle Yichang Hukou 15% 0.68 Chang Jiang Qingjiang River, Hanjiang River, etc. and large lakes (Poyang Lake, Dongting Lake) Lower Hukou Estuary 896 14% 0.12 Yangtze River Huangpu River
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    • Tuotuo truck stop
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    • The Chang Jiang’s “furnace cities”
      • Chongqing
      • Yichang
      • Wuhan
      • Nanjing
      • Shanghai
    • Furnace 1: Chongqing
      • The largest urban industrial city in the south western part of China
      • A major focus of Western Development Policy investment
      • “ The megalopolis you’ve never heard of”
      The Changjiang River
    • Chongqing Municipality
      • Chongqing’s population grows by “one Luxembourg” annually: approx 500,000
      • The confluence of the Chang Jiang (left) and the Jialing (right) at Chongqing
      • Chongqing’s first McDonald’s 2000
      • 2008: there are 8
      • (Beijing has c100)
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    • Changing Chongqing
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    • Chongqing’s 3G museum 2000 and 2007
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    • Changing Chongqing 1: Heavy industry/ engineering contributed >65% of the city’s GDP in 2006 (The“Chicago of China”)
      • Transport Equipment 35.1
      • Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous Metals 7.0
      • Electric & Hot Power Production & Supply  6.8
      • Raw Chemicals and Chemical Products 5.9
      • Smelting /Pressing of Non-Ferrous Metals 5.5
      • Electric Equipment and Machinery 4.9
      • Nonmetal Mineral Products 4.1
      • Ordinary Equipment 4.1
    • State Owned Enterprises
      • Massive historical dependence on SOEs, especially military (PLA owned / run) in Chongqing
      • By 2006, 80% of its SOEs had ‘restructured’ to adapt to new market conditions (or close)
      • ‘ Restructuring’ = running the enterprises on a profit / loss commercial basis and hence, more market orientated. It does not equate with ‘privatisation’. Most enterprises remain in state ownership and governance, even if listed on the stock exchange.
      • So many people are dependent on SOEs that profits from one enterprise can be used to support loss-makers.
    • Joint ventures: egs. in Chongqing
      • Ford / Mazda
      • Nokia (7 factories)
      • Iveco / Fiat
      • JL French aluminium diecastings
      • BP acetic acid plant
      • Cathay Pacific Pigment Hldgs (HK) – pesticides + chemicals
      • Hong Kong is the greatest source of inward investment
    • In 2006 alone: car manufacturing grew by 76.5 % motorcycle output increased by 33.7 %
      • Chongqing’s automotive driver
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    • Productivity in Chinese Metropolitan regions:
        • Even if Shanghai was excluded from consideration as an exceptional case, Chongqing still would look below what could be expected
      Population and GDP in Chinese Metropolitan Regions Source : OECD with data from Chreod, Ltd. China Metropolitan Region Database
    • A Chongqing “bang bang man” in the “bamboo army”
      • Rural registration
      • Rudimentary education
      • One of 100,000+ pole-carriers
      • Married. Shares 3 bedroom flat with 3 other couples
      • Former farmer. 2 children left with relatives
      • 5.30am start at veg. market
      • £1.50 for 12 hours work
      • Loads are often heavier than himself
      • Saves enough to clothe and pay for children’s schooling in his village.
    • 11 th 5 Year development plan 2006 – 10 priorities:
      • infrastructure construction (ctd.)
      • innovation to make municipal and local enterprises more competitive
      • To improve the balance of urban and rural development
      • To develop an environmentally friendly and energy efficient municipality
      • More “opening up”
    • Changing Chongqing 2
      • Chongqing High-Tech Industrial Development Zone started 1991. By 2007, c13,500 enterprises employed c 200,000
      • $8 billion of government investment in Xiyong Micro-electronic Park ; 30 km2
      • 17 universities and 1000 research institutes (2006)
    • Growing urban-rural income gaps: need for improvements in rural development and urban-rural linkages Average rural and urban income in Chongqing Municipality Source: Chongqing Statistic Yearbook (2006)
    • diaagonally
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    • As the water rises, what’s gone?
      • A public park there is ''not so much a park as a lull in the city. There are stunned bushes and exhausted flowers and brokenhearted patches of grass. But all of it is well cared for …The problem is the air, the coal dust that blankets the city. . . . Few things are more pathetic than a tree in Fuling, its leaves gray and dull as if it were just taken out of the attic.'‘
      • Peter Hessler,
      • River Town
      • Two Years on
      • the Yangtse
      • Pub. John Murray, 2001
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    • Fengdu in 2000
    • Fengdu “ghost city”
    • Former site of Fengdu in 2007
    • New Fengdu
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    • In February 2005, Huang Faxiang, director of the land resources administration of Fengdu county, was sentenced to death for skimming off $1.8 million in land sales revenues. More than a dozen other Fengdu officials have been convicted of lesser charges.
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    • Lesser 3G rainwear
    • The Three Gorges
      • The satellite image of Three Gorges Dam
      May, 2006 July,2000
    • Chexi Folk Museum our guide remembered using this sort of technology
    • Cultural Revolution Spice Girls? Commune Buildings with quotes and instructions All singing and dancing package for the tourist and yet it remains generally an unspoken subject in China!
    • Terraces at Nan Wan resettlement village for farmers from Zigui, near the dam
    • Crops grown Sesame Aubergines Oranges & Corn Peanuts
    • Technology Biogas production Old style briquette stove Corn niblets Ready for the Games !
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    • A farmer outside his new house, fitted with the doorway brought from his old home.
    • China’s one child policy ?
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    • Every child matters!!!!
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    • And after a weary day’s fieldwork, what better way to unwind than with a communal foot massage. These are not smut-houses but as socially acceptable for relaxation as a drink and chat in a pub. Our Yichang hosts from the CPAFFC are in the background.
    • The Wuhan Furnace
      • A city of 4m /7m in 3 parts: Wuchan, Hankow & Hanyang
      • Divided by Yangtze and its biggest tributary, the Han shui,
      • Hottest average temperature: 37.2C July
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      • Wuhan flood records
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    • La Chine francaise!
    • Dongfeng Citroen, Wuhan
    • Planned launches April 07 - 09
      • Beijing-Benz: Chrysler Sebring = 2007
      • Beijing-Hyundai: Chinese developed car = 2009
      • Beiqi Futian (Beijing): passenger vehicle = 2009
      • BYD (Shenzhen): mini = 2008
      • BYD (Shenzhen): F3 station wagon = 2008
      • BYD (Shenzhen): F8 coupe = 2008
      • Chang’an (Chongqing): CV 8 2.0-lt = 2008
      • Chang’an (Chongqing): CV 10 = 2009
      • Chang’an-Ford (Chongqing): Ford New Fiesta = 2008
      • Chang’an-Mazda (Nanjing): Mazda 2 = 2007
      • Chang’an-Suzuki (Chongqing); Escudo = 2008
      • Changcheng (Baoding): 2.0lt passenger vehicle = 2009
      • Changcheng (Baoding): GWPeri = 2007
      • Changcheng (Baoding): Peri 4x4 = 2008
      • Changcheng (Baoding): Florid = 2008
      • Changcheng (Baoding): i7 (CH031) = 2008
      • Changcheng (Baoding): Coolbear = 2008
      • Changcheng (Baoding): Cowry = 2008
      • Changfeng Liebao (Yongzhou): CS 7 = concept
      • Changfeng Liebao (Yongzhou): M1A = 2008
      • Changfeng Liebao (Yongzhou): UU CT3 = concept
      • Dongfeng-Honda (Wuhan): New CR-V = 2007
      • Dongfeng-Citroën (Wuhan): Peugeot 307 hatchback = 2008
      • Dongfeng-Citroen (Wuhan): C2-CV = 2009
      • Dongfeng Yueda-KIA (Yangcheng): KIA SUV = 2008
      • Dongnan (Fuzhou): Mercedes Benz Vito, Vaneo en Sprinter = 2007
      • Dongnan (Fuzhou): Chrysler Grand Voyager= 2007
      • Dongnan (Fuzhou): Mitsubishi Zinger = 2007
      • Dongnan (Fuzhou): economy car = 2009
      • FAW Car (Changchun): Hongqi C601 (3rd type) = 2009
      • FAW Car (Changchun): Hongqi A502 = 2009
      • FAW Car (Changchun): Hongqi HQE = 2009
      • FAW VW (Changchun): Volkswagen Golf GTI = 2008
      • Guangzhou Auto: sedan = 2009
      • Guangzhou-Toyota: Yaris = 2008
      • Hafei (Haerbin) HF 3 = 2009
      • Huachen Zhonghua (Shenyang): M3 Coupe = 2007
      • Ji’ao (Gonow) (Taizhou): GA 6420 SUV = 2008
      • Ji’ao (Gonow) (Taizhou): GA 6350 Mini Van  = 2007
      • Jianghuai (Hefei): hatchback (A-class) = 2009
      • Jianghuai (Hefei): A4-size = 2009
      • Jiangling Landwind (Nanchang): X 8 (suv): 2008
      • Jiangling Landwind (Nanchang): new suv: 2009/2010
      • Jiangnan JN-X1 (Changsha): Fiat model: 2008
      • Jili (Ningbo): LG-2 MPV = 2009
      • Jili (Ningbo): CG-1 = 2008
      • Jiili (Ningbo): FG-2 = 2009
      • Jili (Ningbo): GH-1 = 2009
      • Jili (Ningbo): LC-1 = 2008
      • Jili (Ningbo): LG-3 = 2008
      • Jili (Ningbo): CD-1= 2008
      • Jili (Ningbo): LK-1 = 2008
      • Jili (Ningbo): KingKong II = 2008
      • Jili (Ningbo): Vision II = 2008
      • Jili (Ningbo): Beauty Leopard II = 2008
      • Jinhua Youngman (Jinan) saloon = 2009
      • Lifan (Chongqing): Mini = 2009
      • Lifan (Chongqing): 2-litre sedan = 2009
      • Lifan (Chongqing); MPV = 2009
      • Nanjing-Fiat: Linea = 2008
      • Nanjing-Fiat: Palio II = 2008
      • Nanqi Soyat (Wuxi): sedan = 2007
      • Nanqi MG (Nanjing): MG 5 = 2008
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) S16 QQ5 = 2007
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) S23 QQ SUV = 2009
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) S24 QQ Coupe = 2009
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) A13 sedan/ hatchback = 2009
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) A13 D stationwagon = 2009
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) A13C Lei Fulwin2 = concept
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) A13 A2 Shooting Sport = concept
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) F11 A8 sedan = 2009
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) B12 A7 sedan= 2008
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) B22 Tiggo 6 suv = concept
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) B23 A6CC = concept
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) P11 SUV = 2009
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) P12 pickup = 2009
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) Q11 mini = 2008
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) Q21 = 2009
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) Tiggo5 Lui = concept
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) Pickup = 2008
      • Rongwei (Roewe) (Yizheng): W2 = 2008
      • Rongwei (Roewe) (Yizheng): S161 = 2010
      • Rongwei (Roewe) (Yizheng): Ssanyong W200 = 2009
      • Shanghai-GM Wuling (Liuzhou): Chevrolet M3X = 2008
      • Shanghai Huapu: ME C-1 = 2009
      • Shanghai Huapu: London LTI Taxi = 2008
      • Shanghai-Volkswagen: VW China Mini = 2009
      • Shanghai-Volkswagen Olympia = 2008
      • Shuanghuan (Shijiazhuang) S7 MPV = 2008
      • Shuanghuan (Shijiazhuang) S8 = 2009
      • Tianjin-Toyota: RAV4 = 2007
      • Xinkai (Gaobeidian) Tianjiao sedan = 2009
      • Zhongshun (Shenyang) MPV-A = 2008
      • Zhongshun (Shenyang) MPV-B = 2009
      • Zhongshun (Shenyang) MPV = 2008
      • Zhongshun (Shenyang) SUV = 2008
      • Zhongxing (Baoding) sedan = 2008/2009
      • Jili (Ningbo): LG-2 MPV = 2009
      • Jili (Ningbo): CG-1 = 2008
      • Jiili (Ningbo): FG-2 = 2009
      • Jili (Ningbo): GH-1 = 2009
      • Jili (Ningbo): LC-1 = 2008
      • Jili (Ningbo): LG-3 = 2008
      • Jili (Ningbo): CD-1= 2008
      • Jili (Ningbo): LK-1 = 2008
      • Jili (Ningbo): KingKong II = 2008
      • Jili (Ningbo): Vision II = 2008
      • Jili (Ningbo): Beauty Leopard II = 2008
      • Jinhua Youngman (Jinan) saloon = 2009
      • Lifan (Chongqing): Mini = 2009
      • Lifan (Chongqing): 2-litre sedan = 2009
      • Lifan (Chongqing); MPV = 2009
      • Nanjing-Fiat: Linea = 2008
      • Nanjing-Fiat: Palio II = 2008
      • Nanqi Soyat (Wuxi): sedan = 2007
      • Nanqi MG (Nanjing): MG 5 = 2008
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) S16 QQ5 = 2007
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) S23 QQ SUV = 2009
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) S24 QQ Coupe = 2009
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) A13 sedan/ hatchback = 2009
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) A13 D stationwagon = 2009
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) A13C Lei Fulwin2 = concept
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) A13 A2 Shooting Sport = concept
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) F11 A8 sedan = 2009
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) B12 A7 sedan= 2008
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) B22 Tiggo 6 suv = concept
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) B23 A6CC = concept
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) P11 SUV = 2009
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) P12 pickup = 2009
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) Q11 mini = 2008
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) Q21 = 2009
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) Tiggo5 Lui = concept
      • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) Pickup = 2008
      • Rongwei (Roewe) (Yizheng): W2 = 2008
      • Rongwei (Roewe) (Yizheng): S161 = 2010
      • Rongwei (Roewe) (Yizheng): Ssanyong W200 = 2009
      • Shanghai-GM Wuling (Liuzhou): Chevrolet M3X = 2008
      • Shanghai Huapu: ME C-1 = 2009
      • Shanghai Huapu: London LTI Taxi = 2008
      • Shanghai-Volkswagen: VW China Mini = 2009
      • Shanghai-Volkswagen Olympia = 2008
      • Shuanghuan (Shijiazhuang) S7 MPV = 2008
      • Shuanghuan (Shijiazhuang) S8 = 2009
      • Tianjin-Toyota: RAV4 = 2007
      • Xinkai (Gaobeidian) Tianjiao sedan = 2009
      • Zhongshun (Shenyang) MPV-A = 2008
      • Zhongshun (Shenyang) MPV-B = 2009
      • Zhongshun (Shenyang) MPV = 2008
      • Zhongshun (Shenyang) SUV = 2008
      • Zhongxing (Baoding) sedan = 2008/2009
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    • Infrastructure, well bridges and boats really! which spans the Yangtze River in Chongqing, is double-decked, and has six car lanes running along the uppermost level. Chaotianmen Bridge 2002 July 2007 Jan 2008
    • Bridge at Zhongxian Bridges at Wanxian This is what a new one over the Little Three Gorges will look like Work underway
    • The need has been to speed up transport and cross the river Collier upstream Ship locks at the 3GD Waste paper being unloaded Ro-ro downstream Ro-ro unloading
    • New road to…… Deepwater port Maglev goes very fast! Phone lines in Shanghai Newspapers are us
    • Changing Wuhan
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    • The reasons for prosperity in village was having the resources and the location to allow development Pylon parts Coal Manhandling freshly galvanised parts Main street
    • New Rural Reconstruction Project Village at Xingguang near Wuhan Final planned layout Second phase underway but marked lack of ANY western style building technology
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    • Flooding June / July 2007
      • El Nino caused severe typhoons which penetrated as far as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, resulting in accelerated snow-melt.
      • 70% of the basin’s annual rainfall falls in the 4 summer months anyway. The Typhoons brought extra intensity to the rainfall (300mm in 24 hours in some parts)
      • Meteorological and hydrological conditions similar to those for the 1998 floods.
      • 250,000+ homes affected
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      • Rats evacuated their lakeside dwellings and moved onto adjacent farmland, devouring crops.
      • Rats were caught in their millions and sent in refrigerated containers down to Guandong province (near Hong Kong) for the restaurant trade: Rat soup.
      • It is reported to taste very similar to chicken.
      • It was not on any of our menus, so we cannot vouch for that.
    • Flood management in the middle and lower Yangtze Storage & retardation basins : 40 Area: 11,866 km2 Cultivated land: 5,490 km2 Population: 5,686,000 Capacity: 63,700,000,000 m3 Reservoirs (Excl. 3G) 117 Capacity: 104,000,000,000 m3 Levees : 45,000 km Return period pre-3G: 20 yrs Return period post-3G 100 yrs
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    • Wuhan January 2008
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    • Landslide as a result of road building and summer rainfall
    • Accelerating erosion River Average Sediment Load (m.tons) 1956-1979 1980-2000 Chang Jiang 623,760 678,000 Jialing Jiang 220,720 356,000 Han Jiang 79,920 148,000
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    • Water quality
      • Water pollution has worsened over the last ten years
      • 1998 <20% of water quality along the Yangtze and tributaries was untreatable + undrinkable.
      • 2005: 27.5% of water quality along the Yangtze and tributaries was untreatable + undrinkable.
      • 2006: 30 billion tons of polluted water was dumped in the river; 50 percent more than in 1998.
      • Fertilizer runoff +
      • industrial runoff +
      • untreated sewage +
      • high temperatures=
      • algal bloom
    • Water quality
      • Government principles:
      • Water saving before water transfer
      • Pollution control before water delivery
      • Environmental protection before water consumption
    • Baiji or Yangtze River Dolphin declared extinct, last seen in the wild 2004
    • The Nanjing Furnace
      • Nanjing
      • “ Southern Capital” Ancient capital of six dynasties
      • Nanjing Chang Jiang Bridge, the first bridge to cross Chang Jiang to be built entirely by the Chinese in 1968. (but engineered by Russians before relations “broke down” in the 1960s as Chinese communism ploughed its own furrow)
      Nanjing Changjiang Bridge
    • Nanjing
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    • The newest Furnace city
      • Shanghai
      • The gateway to the Yangzte, straddling the Huangpu tributary just south of the Changjiang river’s mouth
      • China’s largest metropolis
      • “ The mouth of the dragon”, whereas Chongqing……
      The Bund and Huangpu River
    •  
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      • On
      • Shanghai’s
      • Maglev
    • The Bund
    • Developing Pudong
    • Re - developing Pudong
    • Familiar?
      • Welcome to
      • Thames Town
    • Not a vicar in sight
    •  
    • Greening Shanghai
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    • Environmental awareness & improvement
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    • Pudong 2005 & 2007
    • China’s wealthiest city Shanghai Municipality 2006
      • Ave. urban per capita income: 22,808RMB
      • (Chongqing: 12,548RMB)
      • Ave rural income: 9,817 RMB
      • (Chongqing: 3,814 RMB)
    • And yet there is still poverty … ..
    •  
    • 2010: The “Business Olympics”
    • Expo 2010
    • 谢谢 ( Thank you) 再见 (Goodbye)
      • Study Tour 2008
      • Mexico 27 th July – 10 th August
      • + Guatemala extension option
      • Go to GA website and scroll down What’s new