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- 1. Engine Performance Some Basics
- 2. Torque and Power Torque is measured off the output shaft using a dynamometer. The torque exerted by the engine is T : The power delivered by the engine turning at a speed N and absorbed by the dynamometer is: Note: is the shaft angular velocity in units rad/s Load cell Force F Stator Rotor b N
- 3. Torque is a measure of an engine’s ability to do work and power is the rate at which work is done Note torque is independent of crank speed. The term brake power , , is used to specify that the power is measured at the output shaft, this is the usable power delivered by the engine to the load. The brake power is less than the power generated by the gas in the cylinders due to mechanical friction and parasitic loads (oil pump, air conditioner compressor, supercharger, etc…) The power produced in the cylinder is termed the indicated power , . Brake Power
- 4. Indicated Work per Cycle Given the cylinder pressure data over the operating cycle of the engine one can calculate the work done by the gas on the piston. This data is typically given as P vs V The indicated work per cycle is given by Compression W<0 Power W>0 Intake W>0 Exhaust W<0
- 5. Indicated Work per Cycle Given the cylinder pressure data over the operating cycle of the engine one can calculate the work done by the gas on the piston. This data is typically given as P vs V The indicated work per cycle is given by Compression W<0 Power W>0 Intake W>0 Exhaust W<0 W A > 0 W B < 0 A C
- 6. <ul><li>Indicated power: </li></ul><ul><li>where N – crankshaft speed in rev/s </li></ul><ul><li>n R – number of crank revolutions per cycle </li></ul><ul><li>= 2 for 4-stroke </li></ul><ul><li>= 1 for 2-stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Power can be increased by increasing : </li></ul><ul><li>the engine size , V d </li></ul><ul><li>compression ratio, r c </li></ul><ul><li>engine speed , N </li></ul>Indicated Power
- 7. Mechanical Efficiency Some of the power generated in the cylinder is used to overcome engine friction and to pump gas into and out of the engine. The term friction power , , is used to describe collectively these power losses, such that: Friction power can be measured by motoring the engine. The mechanical efficiency is defined as:
- 8. <ul><li>Mechanical efficiency depends on pumping losses (throttle position) and </li></ul><ul><li>frictional losses (engine design and engine speed). </li></ul><ul><li>Typical values for automobile engines at WOT are: </li></ul><ul><li>90% @2000 RPM and 75% @ max speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Throttling increases pumping power and thus the mechanical efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>decreases, at idle the mechanical efficiency approaches zero. </li></ul>Mechanical Efficiency, cont’d
- 9. There is a maximum in the brake power versus engine speed called the rated brake power (RBP). At higher speeds brake power decreases as friction power becomes significant compared to the indicated power <ul><li>There is a maximum in the torque versus </li></ul><ul><li>speed called max imum brake torque (MBT). </li></ul><ul><li>Brake torque drops off: </li></ul><ul><li>at lower speeds do to heat losses </li></ul><ul><li>at higher speeds it becomes more difficult to </li></ul><ul><li>ingest a full charge of air. </li></ul>Max brake torque 1 kW = 1.341 hp Rated brake power Power and Torque versus Engine Speed at WOT
- 10. Indicated Mean Effective Pressure ( I MEP) imep is a fictitious constant pressure that would produce the same work per cycle if it acted on the piston during the power stroke. imep is a better parameter than torque to compare engines for design and output because it is independent of engine size , V d . Brake mean effective pressure (bmep) is defined as:
- 11. The maximum bmep of a good engine designs is well established: Four stroke engines : SI engines: bmep= 850-1050 kPa* CI engines: bmep= 700 -900 kPa Turbocharged SI engines: bmep= 1250 -1700 kPa Turbocharged CI engines: bmep= 1000 - 1200 kPa Two stroke engines : Standard CI engines comparable bmep to four stroke Large slow CI engines: 1600 kPa *Values are at maximum brake torque and WOT Note, at the rated (maximum) brake power the bmep is 10 - 15% less Can use above maximum bmep in design calculations to estimate engine displacement required to provide a given torque or power at a specified speed.
- 12. Maximum BMEP <ul><li>The maximum bmep is obtained at WOT at a particular engine speed </li></ul><ul><li>Closing the throttle decreases the bmep </li></ul><ul><li>For a given displacement, a higher maximum bmep means more torque </li></ul><ul><li>For a given torque, a higher maximum bmep means smaller engine </li></ul><ul><li>Higher maximum bmep means higher stresses and temperatures in the </li></ul><ul><li>engine hence shorter engine life, or bulkier engine. </li></ul><ul><li>For the same bmep 2-strokes have almost twice the power of 4-stroke </li></ul>
- 13. Typical 1998 Passenger Car Engine Characteristics 11.0 12.7 [email_address] [email_address] 5.71 V12 Lamborghini Diablo VT 11.4 12.4 [email_address] [email_address] 5.47 V12 Ferrari 456 GT 11.6 13.1 [email_address] [email_address] 3.50 V8 Ferrari F355 GTS 11.5 12.6 [email_address] [email_address] 2.80 L6 BMW 328i 15.7 15.9 [email_address] [email_address] 2.26 L4 Turbo Mazda Millenia S 10.4 11.4 [email_address] [email_address] 2.25 L4 Honda Accord EX 9.9 10.8 [email_address] [email_address] 1.84 L4 Mazda Protégé LX BMEP at Rated BP (bar) BMEP at Max BT (bar) Max Torque (lb-ft@rpm) Max Power (hp@rpm) Displ. (L) Engine type Vehicle

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