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Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction?
 

Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction?

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    Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction? Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction? Presentation Transcript

    • Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction? Aron Geelan Adam Kirkpatrick
    • Introduction
      • Definitions
      • Electric vs. Internal Combustion
      • Timeline for Hybrid technology development
      • The Batteries
      • Study: Insight vs. Prius
      • The Future
    • Definitions
      • Combustion vs. Electric ( http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car1.htm )
      • Parallel vs. Series Hybrid ( http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car2.htm )
        • Honda Insight
        • Toyota Prius
      • Full Hybrid
      • Mild Hybrid
        • Stop/Start Hybrid
        • Integrated Starter Alternator with Damping (ISAD)
        • Integrated Motor Assist (IMA)
      • Plug-in Hybrid
    • Electric Motor
      • Lots of torque
      • Zero emissions
      • Tax breaks
      • No transmission needed
      • Starts more efficiently
        • Can turn off motor when you stop
    • Gasoline
      • Higher energy density than batteries
        • 1,000 pounds of batteries = 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gas
      • Cheaper initial cost for car
        • Hybrids are $3500-5000 more
      • Reliable, more history
    • Cost Per Mile Electric vs. Gas
    • Timeline
      • 1839: First electric vehicle
      • 1886: Electric powered taxicab in England
      • 1890-1910: Significant improvements in battery technology (lead-acid, nickel-iron)
      • 1898: Ferdinand Porsche built a hybrid
    • Timeline
      • 1900: Pieper introduced hybrid
      • 1905: Gas-Electric car
      • 1970’s: Arab oil embargo; hybrid VW Taxi
      • 1979: hybrid car built with lawnmower engine
      • 1991: US Advanced Battery Consortium launched major program to produce “super” battery
    • Timeline
      • 1997: Toyota Prius available in Japan
      • 1999: Honda Insight released in US (70 mpg)
      • 2000: Toyota Prius available in US
      • 2002: Honda Civic Hybrid introduced
      • 2004: Toyota Prius II introduced; Ford Escape Hybrid introduced
    • The Batteries Behind It All
      • Early Prius and Insight NiMH D Cells
        • Stick Arrangement
      • ( http:// www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_maru.html )
    • Prismatic Ni-MH
      • 15% pack volume reduction
      • 25% pack weight reduction
      • Less battery module per pack number
      http:// www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_kaku.html
    • Metal Case Prismatic Ni-MH
      • Improvement
        • 14% less volume
        • 40% higher cooling
      ( http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_kinnzoku.html )
    • ECU
      • Electronic Control Unit
      • Regulates temperature and state of charge
      • Ensures safe and reliable driving
      http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_bms.html
    • Study: Battery Usage and Thermal Performance of Prius and Insight
      • Honda Insight vs. Toyota Prius
    • Charge, Discharge and SOC
      • http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy02osti/31306.pdf
    • Battery Energy and Battery Temperatures
    • Hybrid Cars Today
      • Table 1. Light-Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles
      • OEM Model Body Style Power Type Fuel Date Introduced/Announced Production Date
      • Currently in Production
      • DaimlerChrysler Ram Pickup Contractor Special Truck Mild Hybrid Diesel Nov-00 2004 (Limited)
      • Ford Escape SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-01 2004
      • General Motors Silverado/Sierra Truck Mild Hybrid Gasoline Jan-01 2004 (Limited)
      • Honda Accord Sedan IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-04 2005
      • Honda Insight Coupe IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Dec-99 2000
      • Honda Civic Sedan IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-00 2002
      • Lexus RX400h SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2005
      • Toyota Prius Sedan Parallel Hybrid Gasoline Jun-00 2000
      • Toyota Highlander SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-04 2005
      • Suzuki Twin Mini Hybrid Gasoline Nov-02 2003 (Japan)
      • Toyota Estima Minivan Parallel Hybrid Gasoline Jun-01 In Japan Only
      • Toyota Crown Sedan Mild Hybrid Gasoline Aug-01 In Japan Only
      • Toyota Alphard Minivan Hybrid Gasoline Jul-03 In Japan Only
      • Planned for Production
      • Ford Fusion Sedan Full Hybrid Gasoline Apr-03 2006
      • General Motors Silverado/Sierra & Tahoe/Yukon Truck & SUV Strong Hybrid Gasoline Nov-03 2007
      • General Motors Equinox SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2006
      • General Motors Malibu Sedan BAS2 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2007
      • General Motors Graphyte SUV Full Hybrid Gasoline Jan-05 2006
      • Hyundai Click Sedan Hybrid Gasoline Nov-03 2005/06 (Korea)
      • Mercury Mariner SUV Full Hybrid Gasoline Apr-04 2005 (limited)
      • 2006 (full)
      • Nissan Altima Sedan Hybrid Gasoline Jun-04 2006
      • Saturn Vue SUV BAS2 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2006
      • Toyota Camry Sedan Unknown Gasoline Unknown Unknown
      • Toyota Sienna Minivan Hybrid Gasoline 2003 2007
      • Recent Concepts - Production Plans Unknown
      • Honda ASM Minivan IMA1 hybrid Gasoline Oct-03 Unknown
      • Ford Focus C-MAX Sedan Hydrogen ICE Hydrogen Jul-04 Unknown
      • Daewoo S3X SUV Unknown Unknown Oct-04 Unknown
      • Opal Astra Sedan Unknown Diesel Jan-04 Unknown
      • Mercury Meta One Unknown Hybrid Diesel Jan-04 Unknown
      • Mercury Milan Unknown Unknown Unknown Jan-04 Unknown
      • 1 Integrated motor assist.
      • 2 Belt alternator starter.
      • (Source: Collected by Robb Barnitt and Leslie Eudy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, from various sources)
      • Table from http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy05osti/37777.pdf
    • Future of Hybrid
      • Hybrid buses
        • ~1,000 in use
        • Seattle
        • California
      • Tax Break Increase
    • Future of Hybrid Cars Toyota Volta 3.3 liter V6 gas engine Toyota Hybrid Sports Car 408 horsepower 30 miles per gallon
    • Summary
      • Definitions
      • Electric vs. Internal Combustion
      • Timeline for Hybrid technology development
      • The Batteries
      • Study: Insight vs. Prius
      • The Future