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  • 1. Hybrid Cars Drew Tepper
  • 2. What is a hybrid?
    • Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) include both a combustion engine as well as an electric motor.
    • If we had better batteries, we would not need hybrids at all.
    • Hybrids can be implemented in many kinds of vehicles.
  • 3. Global-Warming: Still An Issue.
    • Hybrids are not zero-emission vehicles.
    • Will cut down emissions of global-warming pollutants by a third to a half.
    • Later models may cut these emissions down by even more.
  • 4. Why hybrids?
    • Regenerative braking actually makes city driving more economical than on the highway.
    • Fuel efficiency is greatly increased (twice).
    • Emissions are greatly decreased.
    • Dependency on fossils fuels can be decreased.
    • Hybrids can be run on alternative fuels as well.
    • New materials can be implemented.
  • 5. EPA at work
    • Federal guidelines for emissions:
      • Tier 1 took effect in 1997
      • Tier 2 will phased-in beginning 2004.
    • National LEV (NLEV): builds on the California Emissions Standards until Tier 2 is implemented.
    • LEV II: California Emissions Standards.
  • 6. ULEV/SULEV
    • Tier 1, TLEV, LEV, ULEV, SULEV, ZEV.
    • CARB: California Air Resources Board.
    • CO 2 reductions not called for. Only HC, CO, NO x .
    • Cars can be certified Low Emissions Vehicles but at the same time have high fuel consumption.
  • 7. Reductions
  • 8. Tax Incentives
    • ‘ The IRS has determined that purchasers of a new Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid or Toyota Prius are eligible for a "Clean-Fuel" vehicle tax deduction of $2,000. The current incentive is scheduled to phase out in 2004-06. ‘
    • www.fueleconomy.gov/
  • 9. Some EPA facts
    • Every gallon of gasoline your vehicle burns puts 20 pounds of CO 2 into the atmosphere.
    • A 5 mpg difference in fuel economy equates to about 2,800 pounds of CO 2 a year.
    www.epa.gov/greenvehicles
  • 10. Tons of greenhouse gas
    • NLEV program does not take CO 2 into account but let’s see some numbers:
      • Honda Insight: 3.4 t/yr.
      • Honda Civic Hybrid: 3.9 t/yr.
      • Toyota Prius: 4.0t/yr.
      • Ford Explorer: 11.0 t/yr.
      • Honda Civic: 5.7 t/yr. (calculated)
  • 11. Honda Insight 2003
    • Cost:
    • $19,080/$21,280 (MT/CVT)
    MT: manual transmission CVT: continuously variable transmission
  • 12. Honda Insight 2003
    • IMA: integrated motor assist system
    11.3/11.2 seconds 0 to 60 10.6 gal. Tank Capacity 61/68 or 57/56 mpg Mileage (City/Highway) 1847/(1878) or 1967 lbs. Curb Weight 155.1 inches Length 144V (120 cells @ 1.2V) Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) Battery 13 hp/10 kW @ 3000 rpm Power Output ULEV/SULEV Emissions Rating 67(65)@5700 or 73(71)@5700 (with IMA) Horsepower
  • 13. Honda Civic Hybrid 2003
    • Cost: $19,550/$20,550 (MT/CVT)
  • 14. Honda Civic Hybrid 2003 11 seconds 0 to 60 13.2 gal. Tank Capacity 51/46 or 48/47 mpg Mileage (City/Highway) 2661/2732 lbs. Curb Weight 174.8 inches Length 144V (120 cells @ 1.2V) Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) Battery 13.4 hp @ 4000 rpm Power Output ULEV Emissions Rating 85@5700 or 93@5700 (with IMA) Horsepower 8.4 seconds 13.2 gal 29/38 mpg 2500 lbs. 174.6 inches     ULEV [email_address] $13,010 Civic DX Auto
  • 15. Toyota Prius 2003
    • Cost: $20,480 CVT
  • 16. Toyota Prius 2003 12.7 seconds 0 to 60 11.8 gal. Tank Capacity 52/45 mpg Mileage (City/Highway) 2765 lbs. Curb Weight 169.6 inches Length 273.6V (228 cells @ 1.2V) Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) Battery 44 hp/33 kW @ 1040-5600 rpm Power Output SULEV Emissions Rating 70@4500 (98 HP combined) Horsepower
  • 17. A note about Ford
    • I believe Ford is behind in the Hybrid world.
    • The Hybrid Escape is due at the end of 2003 with 40/29 mpg as compared to 19/25 mpg.
    • The Explorer: 239 HP, 4422 lbs., gets 17/21 mpg, and has a 22.5 gallon tank.
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  • 26. Tepper Fleet Consumption
    • 33.3 t/yr. CO 2
    • Could be reduced to less than half if all cars were hybrids.
    www.fueleconomy.gov
  • 27. Cars to come
    • GM: Chevy Pickup 2004, Chevy Suburban 2004.
    • Daimler-Chrysler: Dodge Ram Pickup 2005, Mercedes S-Class 2006.