Hybrid Cars

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Hybrid Cars

  1. 1. Hybrid Cars Drew Tepper
  2. 2. What is a hybrid? <ul><li>Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) include both a combustion engine as well as an electric motor. </li></ul><ul><li>If we had better batteries, we would not need hybrids at all. </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrids can be implemented in many kinds of vehicles. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Global-Warming: Still An Issue. <ul><li>Hybrids are not zero-emission vehicles. </li></ul><ul><li>Will cut down emissions of global-warming pollutants by a third to a half. </li></ul><ul><li>Later models may cut these emissions down by even more. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why hybrids? <ul><li>Regenerative braking actually makes city driving more economical than on the highway. </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel efficiency is greatly increased (twice). </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions are greatly decreased. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency on fossils fuels can be decreased. </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrids can be run on alternative fuels as well. </li></ul><ul><li>New materials can be implemented. </li></ul>
  5. 5. EPA at work <ul><li>Federal guidelines for emissions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tier 1 took effect in 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tier 2 will phased-in beginning 2004. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National LEV (NLEV): builds on the California Emissions Standards until Tier 2 is implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>LEV II: California Emissions Standards. </li></ul>
  6. 6. ULEV/SULEV <ul><li>Tier 1, TLEV, LEV, ULEV, SULEV, ZEV. </li></ul><ul><li>CARB: California Air Resources Board. </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 reductions not called for. Only HC, CO, NO x . </li></ul><ul><li>Cars can be certified Low Emissions Vehicles but at the same time have high fuel consumption. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Reductions
  8. 8. Tax Incentives <ul><li>‘ The IRS has determined that purchasers of a new Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid or Toyota Prius are eligible for a &quot;Clean-Fuel&quot; vehicle tax deduction of $2,000. The current incentive is scheduled to phase out in 2004-06. ‘ </li></ul><ul><li>www.fueleconomy.gov/ </li></ul>
  9. 9. Some EPA facts <ul><li>Every gallon of gasoline your vehicle burns puts 20 pounds of CO 2 into the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>A 5 mpg difference in fuel economy equates to about 2,800 pounds of CO 2 a year. </li></ul>www.epa.gov/greenvehicles
  10. 10. Tons of greenhouse gas <ul><li>NLEV program does not take CO 2 into account but let’s see some numbers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honda Insight: 3.4 t/yr. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honda Civic Hybrid: 3.9 t/yr. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toyota Prius: 4.0t/yr. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ford Explorer: 11.0 t/yr. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honda Civic: 5.7 t/yr. (calculated) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Honda Insight 2003 <ul><li>Cost: </li></ul><ul><li>$19,080/$21,280 (MT/CVT) </li></ul>MT: manual transmission CVT: continuously variable transmission
  12. 12. Honda Insight 2003 <ul><li>IMA: integrated motor assist system </li></ul>11.3/11.2 seconds 0 to 60 10.6 gal. Tank Capacity 61/68 or 57/56 mpg Mileage (City/Highway) 1847/(1878) or 1967 lbs. Curb Weight 155.1 inches Length 144V (120 cells @ 1.2V) Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) Battery 13 hp/10 kW @ 3000 rpm Power Output ULEV/SULEV Emissions Rating 67(65)@5700 or 73(71)@5700 (with IMA) Horsepower
  13. 13. Honda Civic Hybrid 2003 <ul><li>Cost: $19,550/$20,550 (MT/CVT) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Honda Civic Hybrid 2003 11 seconds 0 to 60 13.2 gal. Tank Capacity 51/46 or 48/47 mpg Mileage (City/Highway) 2661/2732 lbs. Curb Weight 174.8 inches Length 144V (120 cells @ 1.2V) Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) Battery 13.4 hp @ 4000 rpm Power Output ULEV Emissions Rating 85@5700 or 93@5700 (with IMA) Horsepower 8.4 seconds 13.2 gal 29/38 mpg 2500 lbs. 174.6 inches     ULEV [email_address] $13,010 Civic DX Auto
  15. 15. Toyota Prius 2003 <ul><li>Cost: $20,480 CVT </li></ul>
  16. 16. Toyota Prius 2003 12.7 seconds 0 to 60 11.8 gal. Tank Capacity 52/45 mpg Mileage (City/Highway) 2765 lbs. Curb Weight 169.6 inches Length 273.6V (228 cells @ 1.2V) Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) Battery 44 hp/33 kW @ 1040-5600 rpm Power Output SULEV Emissions Rating 70@4500 (98 HP combined) Horsepower
  17. 17. A note about Ford <ul><li>I believe Ford is behind in the Hybrid world. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hybrid Escape is due at the end of 2003 with 40/29 mpg as compared to 19/25 mpg. </li></ul><ul><li>The Explorer: 239 HP, 4422 lbs., gets 17/21 mpg, and has a 22.5 gallon tank. </li></ul>
  18. 26. Tepper Fleet Consumption <ul><li>33.3 t/yr. CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Could be reduced to less than half if all cars were hybrids. </li></ul>www.fueleconomy.gov
  19. 27. Cars to come <ul><li>GM: Chevy Pickup 2004, Chevy Suburban 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Daimler-Chrysler: Dodge Ram Pickup 2005, Mercedes S-Class 2006. </li></ul>

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