How Hybrids Work

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  • See http://www.autofieldguide.com/columns/gary/1202oncar2.html for stats from GM regarding people who drive cars off-road; http://www.specialsectiononline.com/SUV.html (fewer than 10% go off-roading in their SUVs); see http://www.lehigh.edu/~inegs/luksenberg.html for article regarding status symbols of cars Because most people who own SUVs do not use them for “off-roading” assume its for other reasons – everyone else is doing it, so I should, too; Cars to be released soon: http://www.ott.doe.gov/hev/concept.html, http://www.123review.com/content/preview/Dodge_Durango_Hybrid_Concept.html
  • http://www.sierraclub.org/globalwarming/cleancars/cafe/BiggestSingleStep.pdf
  • Gas prices accurate as of 3/26/03
  • http://durbin.senate.gov/~durbin/new2001/press/2003/04/2003407743.html
  • http://envstudies.brown.edu/Thesis/2002/Dyer/Transportation%20Vehicle%20Efficiency.htm ; average efficiency of the national vehicle fleet for both cars and light-trucks as documented in the September 1999 EPA report, " Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends Through 1999 ." The average fuel efficiency for cars increased from 16 MPG in 1980 to 21.2 MPG in 1991, a 33% increase. Efficiency for light-trucks increased 42% from 12.2 MPG in 1980 to 17.3 in 1992. Efficiencies have remained relatively unchanged for cars from 1991 to 1997, as well as light-trucks (1992 to 1997).
  • CBO report
  • CBO Study, Reducing Gasoline Consumption: Three Policy Options (Nov. 2002).
  • http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/nrd-30/NCSA/TSFAnn/TSF2000.pdf
  • Fuel efficiencies for “average car” and “average SUV” are based on requirements under CAFE (even though the average SUV is below this rate). Honda Civic is based on Honda’s calculations. Ford Escape is based on projected fuel efficiency. T.C. = Total Cost (maybe turn this into a bar graph to make it easier to see?)
  • Honda Civic EX (closest equivalent to the body and style of the Honda Civic (except the EX has a moon roof)) stickers at $2240 less than the sticker price of the Civic Hybrid
  • Picture from www.sierraclub.org; factoids from: http://www.californiasolarcenter.org/solareclips/2002.06/20020611-1.html
  • http://feinstein.senate.gov/03Releases/r-cafe03.htm (proposed 1/31/03)
  • http://durbin.senate.gov/~durbin/new2001/press/2003/04/2003407743.html
  • Proposed 4/7.03
  • Obviously, some SUVs will not meet the 40 mpg standard, but putting them in the same category as cars will require auto manufacturers to make and sell cars to offset the poor efficiency of SUVs
  • http://www.ott.doe.gov/hev/background.html
  • How stuff works
  • Tech Talk
  • http://world.honda.com/news/2002/c020515.html; http://www.cars-used-new.com/holders/engine_of_the_year/
  • http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_vehicles/advanced_vehicles/page.cfm?pageID=204; check on where SULEV is available – Honda’s website lists the SULEV specs, but doesn’t specify where you can get it, assuming California
  • How Hybrids Work

    1. 1. Reducing the Need for Oil in the Transportation Sector Improving the Fuel Efficiency of Cars: The New Hybrid Cars
    2. 2. Current Issues Regarding Fuel Consumption by Transportation (1) <ul><li>Transportation Sector Consumes Over 2/3 of Petroleum in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Public Transportation is Not Widely Used by the General Public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s “uncool” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s unavailable </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Issues (2) <ul><li>Decrease in Oil Supplies will Increase Cost of Gasoline. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase of Gasoline Costs Will Directly Affect the Consumer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Passenger Cars do not Currently Meet Fuel Efficiency Standards Set by Congress; SUVs Have a Lower Standard which Lowers Overall Fuel Efficiency Even More </li></ul>
    4. 4. Easier to Change the Car Than to Change the Person!! <ul><li>Sport Utility Vehicles are a Status Symbol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 10-30% of people who own SUVs actually use them for off-road activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>38% of the cars on the road are SUVs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With Hybrid technology, people can keep their “big” cars while using less fuel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ford Escape, 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dodge Durango SUV, uncertain release date </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Top 5 Contributors to Greenhouse Gases Around the World <ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>United States’ Automobiles </li></ul>
    6. 6. Law Of Supply and Demand <ul><li>A decrease in oil supply will cause an increase in gas prices </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Prices are currently (in Chicago) $1.72 / gallon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average U.S. price = $1.67 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imagine Fuel Costs if Gas Prices Continued to Rise </li></ul>
    7. 7. Electric Cars Are Not the Answer <ul><li>While electric vehicles qualify as Zero Emission Vehicles, they are impractical </li></ul><ul><li>Electric vehicles are ideal for short trips around town, but not so good for cross-country trips </li></ul><ul><li>This is where Hybrid technology becomes key. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Improving the Fuel Efficiency of Cars Is the Answer 43% of U.S. petroleum use and 11% of world petroleum use is due to consumption of gasoline
    9. 9. Improving Fuel Efficiency to 40 mpg would save 2 million barrels of oil per day
    10. 10. CAFE Standards <ul><li>Currently set at 20.7 for light trucks </li></ul><ul><li>27.5 for cars </li></ul><ul><li>Standards were set in 1978 </li></ul><ul><li>Current standards have not changed since 1990, despite various attempts to change them legislatively </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1997 and 2001, average fuel efficiency dropped from 22.1 (peaking) to 20.4 (lowest in 20 years) </li></ul>
    11. 12. Factors Behind Setting CAFE <ul><li>When CAFE standards were designed, light trucks were predominantly work and cargo vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Comprised less than 20% of new car market </li></ul><ul><li>Today, light trucks comprise nearly 50% of new car market and are mostly used for personal transport </li></ul>
    12. 13. Limits on CAFE <ul><li>Vehicles that weigh over 8500 pounds are exempt from CAFE requirements </li></ul><ul><li>This Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ford Excursion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hummer H2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chevrolet Suburban 2500 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Automakers can change the car to make it look like a truck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. PT Cruiser can’t tow anything and can only transport 4 passengers is a light truck because it has a removable backseat </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Credits for Fuel Efficiency <ul><li>Credits for producing alternative fuel vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Credits for exceeding CAFE standards in a given year </li></ul><ul><li>Credits may be carried backward or forward three years </li></ul>
    14. 15. CAFE Fines <ul><li>Producers must pay a penalty if the average fuel efficiency of their individual fleets is below CAFE standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic Car Fleet (at 75% of car manufactured in U.S.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imported Car Fleet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light Trucks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>$5.50 for every 0.1 MPG that average falls below relevant standard </li></ul>
    15. 16. Concerns with Relying on CAFE to Reduce Oil Consumption <ul><li>Possibly encourage more driving instead of changing personal driving habits </li></ul><ul><li>Will automakers really respond? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree to pay fines? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce cars that fall into the light truck category so as to avoid complying with the more stringent car CAFE requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduction in Safety with Lighter Cars </li></ul>
    16. 17. Will Hybrid Cars “Fix” These Problems? <ul><li>Hybrid Cars are One of the Best Short Term Solutions to the Overuse of Petroleum by the Transportation Sector </li></ul><ul><li>Without a widespread belief that public transportation is the “Cool” thing to do, fuel efficient cars will allow people to drive just as much as they do now, while significantly decreasing use of oil by autos. </li></ul>
    17. 18. Will Hybrid Cars Actually Encourage More Driving? <ul><li>Hard to say </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. is already a mobile society </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to determine that the car is “clean” and therefore justify driving more </li></ul><ul><li>People who buy hybrid cars are those who are interested in conservation, and likely, that would stay the same for a large percentage of hybrid buyers </li></ul><ul><li>Regardless, Hybrid cars are just a part of the solution—maybe the biggest part of the solution, but nevertheless, just one part </li></ul>
    18. 19. Will Automakers Respond Appropriately? <ul><li>Eliminating differences in CAFE between light trucks and passenger cars will prevent automakers from shifting production </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the fine, or adding incentives for improving fuel efficiency will help prevent the willing paying of fines </li></ul>
    19. 20. What about Safety Concerns? <ul><li>The Honda Civic Hybrid actually weighs 100 pounds more than the Honda Civic EX </li></ul><ul><li>Effectively, by using Hybrid technology, fuel efficiency can be increased without sacrificing the weight of the car </li></ul><ul><li>Other equipment has been added to cars to improve safety such as air bags; fatality rates have declined significantly since enacting CAFE in 1978 </li></ul>
    20. 21. Saving Money at the Pump (Using Current Gas Price of $1.67 and driving 12,000 miles / year) <ul><li>Average Car </li></ul><ul><li>27.5 mpg = 436 gallons of gas per year </li></ul><ul><li>T.C. = $728 / year </li></ul><ul><li>Average SUV </li></ul><ul><li>20.7 mpg = 579 gallons of gas per year </li></ul><ul><li>T.C. = $967 / year </li></ul><ul><li>Honda Civic Hybrid </li></ul><ul><li>48 mpg = 250 gallons of gas per year </li></ul><ul><li>T.C. = $417 / year </li></ul><ul><li>Ford Escape Hybrid </li></ul><ul><li>30 mpg = 400 gallons of gas per year </li></ul><ul><li>T.C. = $668 / year </li></ul>
    21. 22. Are the Differences Enough to Re-Coup the Cost of the Car? <ul><li>At current gas prices, an owner would have to keep a car for 8 years to recoup the difference in price between a hybrid and a “normal” car. </li></ul><ul><li>But, if gas prices increase (as expected would happen if current oil suppliers decreased oil supply by 25%), recoup in price would be noticed earlier. </li></ul>
    22. 23. Eight Years With One Car? <ul><li>Concern that the battery-operated engine would not last 8 years and batteries cost $2000-$3000 to replace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honda & Toyota both offer 10 year warranties on the electric motor. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additionally, tax incentive for buying a hybrid vehicle. (Currently $2000 adjustment to gross income) </li></ul>
    23. 24. Hybrid Cars Are Cool <ul><li>Cameron Diaz Drove a Toyota Prius to the Oscars </li></ul><ul><li>Ed Begley, Jr. drove a Prius across the country </li></ul><ul><li>Leonardo DiCaprio’s family owns 4 Priuses </li></ul><ul><li>Carole King, Billy Joel, David Duchovny, & Bill Maher also own a Prius </li></ul>
    24. 25. Incentives <ul><li>CAFE not effective in that automakers have chosen to pay fines in many cases </li></ul><ul><li>Loophole that allows SUVs to be treated differently by CAFE, even though most of the car-buying public buys them to use as passenger cars </li></ul><ul><li>Congress should act to fix these problems </li></ul>
    25. 26. Proposed Legislation #1 Senators Diane Feinstein & Olympia Snowe
    26. 27. Components of the Feinstein Proposal <ul><li>Require SUVs to meet the same standards as passenger cars by 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed at bringing SUVs to the same requirements as currently required by CAFE for passenger cars (27.5 mpg). </li></ul><ul><li>No Change for passenger cars </li></ul>
    27. 28. Critique of Feinstein’s Proposal <ul><li>Doesn’t improve fuel efficiency of passenger cars </li></ul><ul><li>While SUVs are gaining market share and it’s important to close the loophole, we need to continue to increase fuel efficiency standards for our passenger cars, especially considering the technology exists. </li></ul><ul><li>However, does prevent automakers from shifting production to light trucks to avoid fuel efficiency standards </li></ul>
    28. 29. Proposed Legislation #2 Senator Durbin’s Proposed New Efficiency Legislation
    29. 30. Components of Durbin’s Legislation <ul><li>Light Truck exception would only include true trucks and vans—not SUVs or minivans </li></ul><ul><li>Raise the fuel economy of passenger automobiles to 40 miles per gallon by 2015 with the first increase required in model year 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Update civil penalties for violating CAFE laws to account for inflation </li></ul>
    30. 31. Advantages of Durbin’s Leg. <ul><li>Increasing CAFE to 40 mpg would realize a cumulative savings of 123 billion gallons of gasoline by 2015 – a number 10 times the amount projected to be realized from drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge </li></ul>
    31. 32. Durbin’s Other Legislation <ul><li>Fuel Efficient Vehicles Tax Incentives Act </li></ul><ul><li>Would Create a tax break for purchasers of cars that exceed CAFE standards by more than 5 mpg </li></ul>
    32. 33. Advantages of Durbin’s Other” Legislation <ul><li>Encourages the Customer to buy a fuel efficient car—but it doesn’t necessarily apply to hybrid cars as there is already a tax deduction available for hybrid car purchasers </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages Automakers to produce cars that customers will buy </li></ul>
    33. 34. Proposed Changes ala Patti <ul><li>Close Loophole for SUVs and Light Trucks that are used as passenger vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage Automakers to produce more fuel efficient cars beyond CAFE requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Improve CAFE requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage Consumers to purchase Fuel Efficient Cars </li></ul>
    34. 35. Closing the Loophole <ul><li>Single Standard for all Passenger Vehicles requires defining “passenger vehicle” </li></ul><ul><li>Phasing the new standard in over time </li></ul>
    35. 36. Light Truck <ul><li>Sold primarily to commercial entities (and not to soccer moms) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require dealers to keep track of sales </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Has the ability to tow other vehicles or trailers beyond the smallest U-Haul-type trailers </li></ul><ul><li>Seats more than 4 people </li></ul><ul><li>Other Requirements? </li></ul>
    36. 37. Passenger Car <ul><li>Seats 4 people or less </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t tow most trailers or other cars </li></ul><ul><li>Bought primarily by families and private individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Other requirements </li></ul>
    37. 38. New Unified Standard <ul><li>Adopt portions of Senators Feinstein’s and Durbin’s proposals to eliminate the differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Give manufacturers 3-5 years to bring SUVs and minivans to the current 27.5 </li></ul>
    38. 39. Also Apply to Passenger Cars that Exceed 8500 pounds <ul><li>Require large passenger cars (such as the Ford Excursion) to meet fuel efficiency standards; otherwise, auto manufacturers may just switch to making super large cars to avoid compliance </li></ul>
    39. 40. Improving CAFE <ul><li>While bringing SUVs and minivans into compliance with current CAFE standards, also gradually increase CAFE standards </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually, over 7-9 years to 40 mpg </li></ul><ul><li>Effectively, in 9 years, fleet averages for all automobile makes used primarily for personal transportation should meet 40 mpg standard </li></ul>
    40. 41. Encourage Manufacturers to Produce <ul><li>Increase Fines for failure to meet standards to a more “harmful” level </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, many fines are merely built into the price of an SUV rather than the manufacturer paying for them out of pocket </li></ul><ul><li>Make fines high enough such that if incorporated into sales price, will discourage average joe from buying or if not incorporated, will significantly punish the manufacturer </li></ul>
    41. 42. Remove Credit System <ul><li>Allowing manufacturers to incorporate credits both forward and backward three years makes for difficult enforcement—can’t enforce a fine until 3 years after the failure to meet the goal, by which point, manufacturers may have made enough money on the inefficient vehicle to more than cover the fine </li></ul>
    42. 43. Or Leave Credit System In With Modifications <ul><li>Allow manufacturers to trade credits amongst selves in same year—in other words, Ford can sell emissions credits to GM. If Ford’s average fuel efficiency is 44, and GM’s average fuel efficiency is 38, then Ford can sell to GM (under regulated conditions) 2 mpg. </li></ul>
    43. 44. Encourage Consumers to Buy <ul><li>Continue Tax Break for Fuel Efficient Cars </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t phase out the HEV tax credit until Hybrid cars are more established. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate tax credits for consumers who trade in an older, less efficient car, for a more efficient vehicle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages people who can’t afford new cars to buy a new car </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many less efficient cars stay on the road because consumers can’t afford a new, more efficient one </li></ul></ul>
    44. 45. How Should Manufacturers Comply? <ul><li>Hybrid Cars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates risk of lighter cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology is already available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lighter, GEO Metro type cars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not popular with people who buy cars as a status symbol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Risk </li></ul></ul>
    45. 46. Hybrid Cars: How do we get there from here?
    46. 47. Project description <ul><li>Hybrid Emission Vehicle (HEV) Program commenced in 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership between the US DOE and “Big Three” automakers (5 year plan) </li></ul>http://www.ta.doc.gov/PNGV-Archive/AboutPNGV/intro.htm
    47. 48. GOALS of Program <ul><li>Decrease emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Improve mileage (twice the fuel economy) </li></ul><ul><li>Comparable performance, costs, and safety </li></ul>
    48. 49. PNGV and DOE <ul><li>Goals of program began to mesh with that of PNGV (Partnership for a new generation of vehicles) </li></ul><ul><li>To develop technologies for a new generation of vehicles </li></ul>
    49. 50. FreedomCAR <ul><li>FY 2003: Re-focusing of PGNV into FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) Program within DOE) </li></ul>
    50. 51. Goals (1) <ul><li>“transforming the transportation sector to run on renewable resources…” </li></ul><ul><li>Main focus on hydrogen fuel cell cars </li></ul>
    51. 52. (2) <ul><li>Freedom from/to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>petroleum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>choosing vehicle we want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drive where we want, when we want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>obtain affordable fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://www.cartech.doe.gov/freedomcar/technical-goals.html </li></ul>
    52. 53. PNGV Success <ul><li>Decrease foreign oil dependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>need to become less vulnerable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower pollutants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autos = major CO contributor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>194 million autos (1993) ==> 270 million (2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>promotes “global competitiveness” </li></ul></ul>
    53. 55. NREL <ul><li>National Renewable Energy Laboratory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project’s technical manager </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical work of “Big 3” ended in 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>NREL continuing to help auto industry with HEV development by providing technical expertise (battery management, load reduction, and vehicle simulation) </li></ul>
    54. 56. http://www.ctts.nrel.gov/analysis/hev_test/data.shtml
    55. 57. How Hybrids Work <ul><li>Electric portion of the motor gets power from nickel-metal hydride battery (next to fuel tank) </li></ul><ul><li>NO PLUGGING IN NEEDED! (battery maintained by regenerative braking- kinetic energy captured by forward momentum) </li></ul><ul><li>Gasoline engine made from plastic materials </li></ul>
    56. 58. How It Works (2) <ul><li>Two or more sources of power combined </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mo-ped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mining trucks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submarines </li></ul></ul>
    57. 59. Components <ul><li>Gas engine </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel tank </li></ul><ul><li>Electric motor </li></ul><ul><li>Generator </li></ul><ul><li>Batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission </li></ul>
    58. 61. Electric Motor Components <ul><li>Armature or rotor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin wire coiled around two or more poles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commutator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plate pair attached to axle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brushes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides “flipping” action with the commutator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Axle </li></ul><ul><li>Field magnet </li></ul><ul><li>DC power supply </li></ul>
    59. 63. Poles <ul><li>Car motors usually have 3 poles… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better dynamics in the car (magnet cannot get “stuck” b/w the poles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoids wasting energy and wasting the battery </li></ul></ul>
    60. 64. Generator <ul><li>Similar to electric motor, but only produces electrical power </li></ul><ul><li>Used in series hybrids </li></ul><ul><li>Electric motor acts like a generator when it slows car down to charge the batteries </li></ul>
    61. 65. Batteries <ul><li>Higher voltages  serial </li></ul><ul><li>Higher currents  parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Energy storage device for electric motor </li></ul><ul><li>Electric motor: puts energy into batteries and draws from them </li></ul><ul><li>Gives that extra “help” </li></ul>
    62. 66. The upper arrangement is called a parallel arrangement. If you assume that each cell produces 1.5 volts, then four batteries in parallel will also produce 1.5 volts, but the current supplied will be four times that of a single cell. The lower arrangement is called a serial arrangement. The four voltages add together to produce 6 volts.
    63. 67. Types of Hybrids <ul><li>Parallel hybrid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel tank provides gasoline to engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batteries supply power to electric motor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engine and electric motor work together to turn transmission simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission turns the wheels </li></ul></ul>
    64. 68. Parallel Hybrid <ul><li>Fuel tank and gas engine connect to transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Batteries and electric motor connect to transmission independently </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, electric motor and gas engine propel auto </li></ul>
    65. 69. <ul><li>PICTURE- PARALLEL HYBRID </li></ul>
    66. 70. <ul><li>Series hybrid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas engine turns the generator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generator charges batteries or powers electric motor, which rives transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas engine does not directly power auto </li></ul></ul>
    67. 71. Series Hybrid <ul><li>Components are linear, connecting with transmission </li></ul><ul><li>PICTURE </li></ul>
    68. 72. Fuel Efficiency <ul><li>Regenerative Braking </li></ul><ul><li>Engine shut-off </li></ul><ul><li>Aerodynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Low resistance tires </li></ul><ul><li>Lightweight materials </li></ul>
    69. 73. Why own a hybrid? <ul><li>Combination of technology of electric cars and economical advantages of conventional cars </li></ul><ul><li>Low-emissions, fuel efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of batteries for electric vehicles still too exorbitant for consumers </li></ul>
    70. 74. The result… <ul><li>Electric vehicle advantages that apply to hybrids… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Regenerative breaking” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Torque-on-demand” </li></ul></ul>
    71. 75. Ford Escape SUV Goals: Improve fuel efficiency 25% by 2008
    72. 76. Advantages of Escape <ul><li>40 mpg city/ 29 mpg highway </li></ul><ul><li>500 miles per tank of gasoline </li></ul><ul><li>Powered by 300 volt battery, along with 2-liter 4-cylinder engine </li></ul><ul><li>Performs like V6 Escape (4x4 capability) </li></ul><ul><li>2001 Escape: 18 mpg city/24 mpg highway </li></ul>
    73. 77. Honda Insight <ul><li>1 st gas-electric car in North America </li></ul><ul><li>61 mpg city/70 mpg highway (Civic comparison) </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel hybrid </li></ul><ul><li>Lightweight body </li></ul><ul><li>Small engine </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced aerodynamics </li></ul><ul><li>2-Seater </li></ul>
    74. 79. Stats <ul><li>Runs by Integrated Motor Assist power train (IMA) </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic electric motor and 5-speed manual transmission </li></ul><ul><li>1 liter VTEC gasoline engine, 67 hps </li></ul><ul><li>Unique torque features </li></ul>
    75. 80. Honda Civic Hybrid <ul><li>5-star frontal crash protection rating (NHTSA) </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased gas mileage, lower emissions </li></ul><ul><li>VTEC, i-DSI (Dual Point Sequential Ignition), and friction-reducing materials = excellent performance </li></ul><ul><li>Available in both Manual Transmission and CVT </li></ul>
    76. 82. Civic Hybrid Stats <ul><li>48 mpg city/47 mpg highway (ULEV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual: 43 mpg city / 52 mpg highway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City fuel efficiency decreases in winter when temps are below freezing; closer to 35 mpg in city; highway stays the same </li></ul></ul><ul><li>47 mpg city/48 mpg highway (SULEV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/03: SULEV marketed in California </li></ul></ul><ul><li>650 miles per tank of gasoline </li></ul><ul><li>IMA technology; 1.3 L VTEC 4-cylinder engine </li></ul><ul><li>10 year battery life </li></ul>
    77. 83. Honors/Awards <ul><li>2002: Best fuel economy award </li></ul><ul><li>2002: Runner-up to Insight in Best Fuel Economy Class </li></ul><ul><li>Best in Category: 1-1.4 Liter </li></ul>
    78. 84. Toyota Prius <ul><li>Parallel hybrid </li></ul><ul><li>Electric motor starts the car </li></ul><ul><li>Power Split Device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Series hybrid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only Available in a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) </li></ul>
    79. 86. Prius vs. Civic <ul><li>Prius: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SULEV rating (emissions 90% cleaner than current average) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates in electric-only mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>44 hp/274 volt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THS switches from all-electric to all-engine (efficient mixes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ULEV rating (SULEV available in California) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always driven by gas portion with assistance from electric motor as necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gas engine turns off whenever temps are above freezing and car is stopped or slowing to below 20 mph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13 hp/144 volt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feels more like a “normal” car when accelerating </li></ul></ul>
    80. 87. Advantages & Stats <ul><li>$2000 tax deduction starting July 2002 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2004, the deduction decreases to $1500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2005 to $1000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2006 to $500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are talks of Congress extending the phase-out, but nothing concrete, yet. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both Honda and Toyota offer extended warranties (8-10 years) on the electric engine. </li></ul>
    81. 88. Toyota’s Future <ul><li>Late 2002: marketing began on 20 fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHVs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlander SUV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Featuring nickel-metal hydride battery similar to Prius </li></ul></ul>
    82. 89. How to make the most of your hybrid <ul><li>Don’t speed </li></ul><ul><li>Keep speed constant </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t stop abruptly </li></ul><ul><li>Manual transmissions: let the regenerative braking work before putting in the clutch </li></ul>

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