SOURCE: ELECTRIC STORAGE ASSOC. ENERGY DENSITY BY WEIGHT AND VOLUME
CARB DEFINITIONS CLEANER PZEV & and include advanced technology components. SULEV & 15 year/150K mile warranty and 0 evaporative emissions. 100% 100% 100% ZEV - Zero-Emission Vehicles ( 98% cleaner than the average new 2003 model year vehicle.) 95% 70% 96% AT PZEV - Advanced Technology PZEV (CNG, hybrid-electric, methanol, fuel cell) 95% 70% 96% PZEV- Partial Zero-Emission-Vehicle 95% 70% 96% SULEV- Super-Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle (90% cleaner than 2003 average) 50% 50% 85% ULEV - Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle ( 50% cleaner than the average new 2003 model year vehicle. ) 50% NR 70% LEV - Low-Emission Vehicle NR NR 50% TLEV - Transitional Low-Emission Vehicle NOx CO HC Passenger car emissions reduction
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-2004 FORD The Ford Focus FCV fuel cell system is efficient, quiet, and produces zero emissions. Ford has announced plans to have a three year demonstration program of 5-10 fleet vehicles in Vancouver, Canada in 2004.
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-2003 Honda Honda is delivering a family of new FCX fuel-cell vehicles to its first customer, the city of Los Angeles. Honda plans to lease approximately 30 fuel-cell cars in California and Japan during the next several years. The fuel-cell itself is propelled by electricity generated by a hydrogen-oxygen chemical reaction—and its only emission, remarkably, is water vapor.
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-2003 TOYOTA Its only exhaust is water vapor. Its secret? A hydrogen fuel cell that harnesses the electricity of separated atoms and molecules as they strive to be electrically balanced. Developed entirely in-house, FCHV-4 shows Toyota on the leading edge of fuel-cell technology. (NOT AVAILABLE)
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-NISSAN X-TRAIL FCV Nissan is actively developing fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) that have low environmental impact and save energy. Commercialization is scheduled for 2003.(?????)
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-GM The Hy-wire has no internal combustion engine, instrument panel, brake or accelerator pedals – but it does have ample power supplied by a GM fuel cell that runs on hydrogen. PROTOTYPE
HYDROGEN FUEL CELL OPERATION SOURCE: Schatz Energy Lab Humboldt State U.
PEM HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS SOURCE: Schatz Energy Lab Humboldt State U. PEM= Proton Exchange Membrane (“Nafion” tm )
SOME SURPRISING FACTS ABOUT HYDROGEN A) HYDROGEN STORES & TRANSPORTS ENERGY. A CARRIER NOT A SOURCE. A) BATTERIES Where does hydrogen come from? Fossil : nat gas, propane, gasoline, methanol Renewable : electric wind, solar, etc. electrolyze water Methane (CH4), methanol(CH3OH), ammonia(NH3?) Q1) IS HYDROGEN A revolutionary NEW ENERGY SOURCE? Q2) WHICH IS MORE EFFICIENT, FUEL CELL OR BATTERIES?
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE oil (gasoline) -> IC engine 15% H2 Fuel Cell Efficiency BATTERY POWERED ELECTRIC VEHICLE Oil-> power plant -> electricity ~=45% transmission~=80% battery charging ~=80% electric drive system ~=80% .45 x .8 x .8 x .8 = 23% FUEL CELL POWERED ELECTRIC VEHICLE Oil-> power plant-> electricity~=45% electricity transmission ~=80% H2 electrolyzer max efficiency ~=70% H2 fuel cell max efficiency ~=50% Electric drive system ~=80% .45 x .8 x .7 x .5 x .8 = 10%
SOLAR FUEL CELLS ? SOURCE: Schatz Energy Lab Humboldt State U. last