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  • 1. AC17 Inf. 5  (English only/ Solamente en inglés/ Seulement en anglais) List of animal species used in traditional medicine (submitted by IFAW) AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28
  • 2. Family Name Scientific Name Common and CITES IUCN Listing Part (s) Medicinal Alternatives Pharmacopeia Name Appendix Used Use (s) and notes (s) Accipitridae spp.17 Hawks I/II Accipitridae13 Aquila chrysaetos Vulture / Aquilae II Bone kamtschatica Accipitridae13 Circus cyaneus Sparrow Hawk / Circi II/III Head, flesh, Cyanei bone Accipitridae23 Terathopius ecaudatus Bateleur II Unspecified; Protective whole carcass charm and causes storms; great power to the practioners Acipenseridae13 Acipenser sinensis Chinese Sturgeon or II Red List 2000 - Fish, bladder Spleen, liver Psephurus Paddlefish / Acipenser EN gladius Sinensis Acipenseridae13 Huso dauricus Siberian Huso II Red List 2000 - Fish, liver Spleen, liver Sturgeon / Huso EN AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Dauricus Alcedinidae13 Alcedo atthis bengalensis Kingfisher / Alcedo Whole body Atthis Bengalensis Anatidae13 Aix galericulata Mandarin Duck / Red List 1996 - Flesh Aicis Galericulata LR/nt Anatidae13 Anas platyrhynchos Mallard / Anas Flesh, feather Spleen, Platyrhynchos stomach, lung, kidney Anatidae13 Cairina moschata Muscovy Duck / III Flesh Carnis Cairina Moschata Anatidae13 Cygnus cygnus Swan / Cygnus Fat, down Anser cygnoides, A. fabalis serrirostris Ardeidae13 Egretta garzetta Egret / Egretta III Flesh Garzetta
  • 3. Bovidae1 In some parts of China Buffalo, Water Buffalo Red List 2000 - Gall stone Heart, Liver Bubalus bubalis L. (water / Calculus Bovis EN buffalo) is used Bovidae1 Saiga tatarica Saiga Antelope / II Red List 2000 - Horn Heart, Liver Goat horn, Cornu Antelopis LR/nt Cornu Naemorhedis Bovidae13 Bos grunniens Yak / Cornu Bovis Red List 2000 - Horn Bos taurus Grunniens VU domesticus G. Bovidae13 Bubalus bubalis Bull / Testis et Red List 2000 - Testicle and Scrotum Bovis seu EN scrotum Bubali Bovidae13 Capricornis sumatraensis Serows / Os Red List 2000 - Bone Capricornis VU sumatraensis Bovidae13 Nemorhaedus goral Goral Mutton / Adeps Red List 2000 - Fat Goral LR/nt Bovidae13 Nemorhaedus goral Goral Mutton / Carnis Red List 2000 - Flesh Naemorhedi LR/nt AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Bovidae13 Nemorhaedus goral Goral Mutton / Cornu Red List 2000 - Horn Goral LR/nt Bovidae13 Nemorhaedus goral Goral Mutton / Hepar Red List 2000 - liver Goral LR/nt Bovidae13 Nemorhaedus goral Goral Mutton / Red List 2000 - Blood Heart, liver Sanguis Naemorhedi LR/nt Bovidae13 Procapra gutturosa Mongolian Gazelle / Red List 2000 - Mutton, Procapra Gutturosae LR/nt horn, fat Bovidae14 Bubalus bubalis Buffalo / Cornu Red List 2000 - Horn Heart and liver Bubali EN Bovidae16 Bos mutus Wild Yak I Horn Cures tumors and gives warmth to the body Bovidae16 Bos mutus Wild Yak I Blood Prevent
  • 4. diarrhoea Bovidae16 Saiga tatarica Saiga Antelope II Red List 2000 - Horn Assist easy LR/nt birth Bovidae17 Bos javanicus Banteng I Red List 2000 - Horn EN Bovidae17 Bos Sauveli Kouprey I Red List 2000 - Gall bladder CR Bovidae17 Bos sauveli Kouprey I Red List 2000 - Horn CR Bovidae17 Bos taurus Aurochs I Bone, Gall bladder Bovidae17 Bos taurus Aurochs I Horn Bovidae17 Bos taurus Aurochs I Bovidae17 Bubalus arnee Buffalo III Gall bladder Bovidae17 Bubalus arnee Buffalo III Horn Bovidae17 Budorcas taxicolor Takin II Red List 2000 - Horn AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 VU Bovidae17 Nemorhaedus I Red List 2000 - Horn LR/nt Bovidae17 Nemorhaedus Gorals I Blood sumatranensis Bovidae17 Nemorhaedus Gorals I Gall bladder sumatranensis Bovidae17 Nemorhaedus Gorals I Hoof/foot sumatranensis Bovidae17 Nemorhaedus Gorals I Horn sumatranensis Bovidae17 Nemorhaedus Gorals I Intestine sumatranensis Bovidae17 Nemorhaedus Gorals I Oil sumatranensis Bovidae17 Nemorhaedus Gorals I Skin, teelth sumatranensis
  • 5. Bovidae17 Nemorhaedus Gorals I Skull sumatranensis Bovidae17 Saiga tatarica Saiga Antelope II Red List 2000 - Horn LR/nt Bovidae17 Saiga tatarica Saiga Antelope II Red List 2000 - LR/nt Bovidae20,22,23 Cephalophus monticola Blue Duiker II Red List 2000 - LR/lc Bovidae20,22,23 Sylvicapra grimmia Common Duiker Red List 1996 - LR/lc Bovidae20,23 Cephalophus monticola Blue Duiker II Red List 2000 - LR/lc Bovidae20,23 Raphicerus melanotis Cape Grysbok Red List 2000 - LR/cd Bovidae20,23 Tragelaphus scriptus Bushbuck Red List 1996 - LR/lc Bovidae20,23 Tragelaphus strepsiceros Kudu Red List 2000 - Tail bones, Arthritis and LR/cd pelvic girdle rheumatism of AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 the hip Bovidae22 Connochaetes gnou Wildebeest Red List 2000 - Fat LR/cd Bovidae23 Aepyceros melampus Impala Red List 2000 - LR/cd Bovidae23 Cephalophus natalensis Red Duiker Red List 2000 - LR/lc
  • 6. Bovidae23 Neotragus moschatus Suni Red List 2000 - LR/cd Bovidae23 Oreotragus oreatragus Klipspringer Red List 2000 - To treat babies LR/cd Bovidae23 Raphicerus melatonis Cape Grysbok Red List 2000 - Whole body Decoration LR/cd Bovidae23 Tragelaphus oryx Common Eland Red List 2000 - Fat; oil Charm for LR/cd cattle; deter evil spirits; chest/ear problems; hunting dog charm Bovidae7 Bubalus bubalis Water Buffalo / Seal Red List 2000 - Penis Water buffalo penis EN penis, labelled as seal penis Bovidae8 Bubalus bubalis Water Buffalo Red List 2000 - Horn Heart, Liver, Rhinoceros AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 EN Stomach horn was the herb of choice for such conditions; but considering its scarcity and expense, this is the best substitute Bovidae8 Naemorhedis and spp. Antelope Red List 2000 - Horn Liver, heart LR/nt
  • 7. AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28
  • 8. Bovidae9 Saiga tatarica Saiga Antelope / II Red List 2000 - Horn Liver, heart Horn of Cornu Saigae Tataricae LR/nt Mongolian gazelle or long-tailed Mongolian gazelle Bufonidae22,23 Bufo amatolicus Amatola Toad Red List 2000 - VU Camelidae13 Camelus bactrianus Camel / Cameli Red List 2000 - Hairs, flesh, EN fat, gallbladder stone Camelidae13 Camelus bactrianus Camel / Lac Cameli Red List 2000 - Milk EN Canidae13 Canis lupus Wolf / Canitis Lupi Red List 1996 - Flesh, fat, Canis familiaris LR/lc thyroid L Canidae13 Cuon alpinus Jackal / Cuon Alpini Red List 2000 - Skin, flesh VU AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Canidae13 Nyctereutes procyonoides Racoon Dog / Red List 1996 - Flesh Nyctereutes LR/lc Procyonodes Canidae13 Vulpes vulpes Fox / Vulpes Red List 1996 - Heart, head, Other relative LR/lc meat, liver, species in the intestine, same genus gallbladder, feet Canidae20,23 Vulpes chama Cape Fox Red List 1996 - LR/lc Canidae22,23 Lycaon pictus African Hunting Dog, Red List 2000 - Fat Wild Dog EN Canidae5 Canis lupus Wolf Red List 1996 - Bone Personal LR/lc problems and general medicinal
  • 9. Canidae6 Canis lupus Gray Wolf / Seal penis Red List 1996 - Penis Gray wolf LR/lc labelled as seal penis Cercopithaecidae12 Colobus badius Colobus Monkey II Red list 2000 - Skin Spiritual Africa rufomitratis C.B. EN tephhrosceles Cercopithecidae spp.17 I/II Blood, bone, brain, excrement, gall bladder, skull Cercopithecidae1 Macaca mulatta Rhesus Macaque / II Red List 2000 - n/a Gallbladder, Calculus Macacae LR/nt Heart, Liver, Mulattae Lung Cercopithecidae13 Macaca mulatta Rhesus Macaque / II Red List 2000 - Flesh, bone Heart, liver Macaca Mulatta LR/nt Cercopithecidae13 Rhinopithecus roxellana Sichuan Golden I Red List 2000 - Fat and flesh Monkey / Adeps seu VU AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Carnis Rhinopithecus Cercopithecidae14 Macaca mulatta Rhesus macaque / II Red List 2000 - Stone in Heart, lung, Calculus Macacae LR/nt gallbladder liver, Mulattae gallbladder Cercopithecidae17 Macaca mulatta Rhesus Macaque II Red List 2000 - LR/nt Cercopithecidae17 Macaca spp. Macaques II Red List 2000 - Skull VU Ceropithecidae20,22,2 Papio ursinus Chacma Baboon Red List 1996 - Bones and Treatment of 3 LR/lc skin arthritis, protective charm, court case charm, stickfight charm and headache
  • 10. Cervidae13 Elaphuras davidianus Père David's Deer / Red List 2000 - Flesh, horn, Spleen Other relative Elaphuri Davidiani CR-D pilose antler, species bone, fat Cervidae17 Cervus eldii Thamin I Red List 2000 - Antler VU Cervidae17 Cervus eldii Thamin I Red List 2000 - VU Chamaeleonidae10 various species Chameleon II Whole body Opportunistic Phytotherapy infections in and AIDS minerals / Kamba, Mbeere, Rabai and Duruma Chamaeleonidae22,23 Bradypodion Drakensberg Dwarf II Whole body Preventative dracamontanum Chameleon charm Chamaeleonidae22,23 Bradypodion nemorale Zululand Dwarf II Red List 2000 - Whole body Preventative Charmeleon LR/nt charm AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Chamaeleonidae22,23 Bradypodion setaroi Setaro's Dwarf II Red List 2000 - Whole body Preventative Chameleon EN charm Chamaeleonidae22,23 Bradypodion thamnobates Natal Midland Dwarf II Red List 2000 - Whole body Preventative Chameleon LR/nt charm Chelonidae spp.17 I Cheloniidae13 Caretta caretta Turtle / Caretta I Red List 2000 - Blood, scale One species EN and shell of turtle Cheloniidae14 Eretmochelys imbricata Hawksbill Turtle / I Red List 2000 - Carapace Heart, liver Carapax CR Eretmochelydis Cheloniidae17 Chelonia mydas Green Turtle I Red List 2000 - Egg, flesh EN Cheloniidae17 Chelonia mydas Green Turtle I Red List 2000 - Oil EN Cheloniidae17 Chelonia mydas Green Turtle I Red List 2000 - EN Cheloniidae17 Eretmochelys imbricata Hawksbill Turtle / I Red List 2000 - Shell Shell turtle CR
  • 11. Cheloniidae17 Eretmochelys imbricata Hawksbill Turtle / I Red List 2000 - Shell turtle CR Ciconiidae13 Ciconia ciconia boyciana Stork / Ciconia I Red List 2000 - Flesh, bone EN Cnidaria spp17 II Dead animals Colubridae1 Elaphe taeniurus, Exuviae Serpentis Skin slough Liver E. carinata, or Zaocys dhumnades Colubridae1 Zaocys dhumnades Black-Striped Snake / Liver, spleen Zaocys Dhumnades Colubridae13 Enhydris chinensis Chinese Water Snake / Skin Dermis Enhydris Colubridae13 Enhydris chinensis Chinese Water Snake / Whole body Enhydris Chinensis Colubridae13 Ptyas korros Indo-Chinese Rat Whole body Snake / Ptyas Korros AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Colubridae13 Zaocys dhumnades Garter Snake / Adeps Fat Elaphe Zaocys taeniura, E. carinata, Nartix annuleris, Dinodon rufozonatum and Bungarus multicinctus Colubridae13 Zaocys dhumnades Garter Snake / Dermis Skin Elaphe Zaocys taeniura, E. carinata, Nartix annuleris, Dinodon rufozonatum and Bungarus multicinctus
  • 12. Colubridae13 Zaocys dhumnades Garter Snake / Fel Gall bladder Elaphe Zaocys taeniura, E. carinata, Nartix annuleris, Dinodon rufozonatum and Bungarus multicinctus Colubridae13 Zaocys dhumnades Garter Snake / Ovum Egg Elaphe Zaocys taeniura, E. carinata, Nartix annuleris, Dinodon rufozonatum and Bungarus multicinctus AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Colubridae14 Elaphe taeniura, Periostracum Serpentis Slough Liver Slough of E. carinata or Elaphe Zaocys dhumnades moellendorffi Colubridae14 Zaocys dhumnades Garter Snake / Zaocys Whole body Liver, heart Elaphe with bowels taeniura, E. off carinata, Nartix annuleris, Dinodon rufozonatum and Bungarus multicinctus Columbidae13 Columba livia Pigeon / Columba III Flesh, egg Liver, kidney Columba livia Livia domestica, Columba rupestris
  • 13. Cordylidae22,23 Cordylus giganteus Giant Girdled Lizard II Red List 2000 - Protective VU charm and love charm Cordylidae22,23 Cordylus tropidosternum Tropical Girdled II jonesii Lizard Cordylidae22,23 Cordylus warreni Warren's Girdled II Maintain love Lizard of mate Corvidae13 Corvus monedula Jackdaw / Corvus Flesh, dauuricus Monedula gallbladder Corvidae13 Pica pica sericea Magpie / Pica Flesh Liver, kidney, yangming Crocodylidae10 Crocodilus niloticus Crocodile I/II Gall bladder Bewitching Phytotherapy C. osteolaemus / Pokomo, Mbeere, Kamba Crocodylidae13 Alligator siamensis Chinese Alligator / I Red List 2000 - Scale, flesh Alligator CR Crocodylidae17 Crocodylus niloticus Nile Crocodile I/II Fat, skin AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Crocodylidae17 Crocodylus niloticus Nile Crocodile I/II Oil Crocodylidae17 Crocodylus niloticus Nile Crocodile I/II Crocodylidae17 Crocodylus siamensis Siamese Crocodile I Red List 2000 - Dried penis CR Crocodylidae3 Crocodylus niloticus Crocodile or Timsah I/II Feces Infusion of feces dropped into eyes to improve vision Crocodylus spp.17 I/II "Lumpy" bone on top of head Crocodylus spp.17 I/II Bile Crocodylus spp.17 I/II Gall bladder Crocodylus spp.17 I/II Teeth Crocodylus spp.17 I/II
  • 14. Delphinidae13 Delphinus delphis Dolphin / Carnis seu II Red List 1996 - Flesh, fat Adeps Delphini LR/lc Delphis Delphinidae22,23 Delphinus dephis Common Dolphin II Red List 2000 - Witchcraft; LR/lc charm for cattle; charm for crops; chest/ear treatment Dugongidae17 Dugong dugon Dugong I/II Red List 2000 - Teeth VU Elapidae13 Naja naja Cobra / Naja II Whole body Liver, kidney Elapidae17 Naja naja Indian Cobra II Body Elapidae17 Naja naja Indian Cobra II Venom Elapidae17 Naja spp. Indian Cobra II Red List 2000 - Bile DD Elapidae17 Naja spp. Indian Cobra II Red List 2000 - AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 DD Elapidae17 Ophiophagus hannah King Cobra II Bone Elapidae17 Ophiophagus hannah King Cobra II Elephantidae spp.17 I/II Red List 2000 - Skin EN Elephantidae spp.17 I/II Red List 2000 - EN Elephantidae10 Loxodonta africana Elephant I/II Red List 2000 - Tusk Spiritual Hard wood / EN Maasai, Laibons Elephantidae13 Elephas maximus Indian Elephant / I Red List 2000 - Tusk, hide, Heart, kidney, Elephas Elephatis EN flesh, bone, urinary africanus gallbladder bladder, liver, spleen Elephantidae17 Elephas maximus Indian Elephant I Red List 2000 - Bone EN
  • 15. Elephantidae17 Elephas maximus Indian Elephant I Red List 2000 - Muscle, EN penis, teeth, tusk, urine Elephantidae17 Elephas maximus Indian Elephant I Red List 2000 - Skin EN Elephantidae17 Loxodonta africana African Elephant I/II Red List 2000 - Excrement, EN fat, skin Elephantidae17 Loxodonta africana African Elephant I/II Red List 2000 - EN Elephantidae20,21,22,2 Laxodanta africana Elephant I/II Red List 2000 - Fat and skin Building 3 EN strength in weak and deficient patients Elephantidae20,21,22,2 Loxodonta africana Elephant I/II Red List 2000 - Skin, jawbone Strengthen 3 EN and gallstones asthetic patients, attract luck and treat AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 barren women, love charm, charm for cattle Elephantidae3 Loxodonta africana Elephant or Fil I/II Red List 2000 - Ivory Ivory powder EN is applied to treat whitlow. Emydidae17 Kachuga tecta Indian Roofel Turtle I Shell Emydidae2 Malaclemys terrapin Terrapin Red List 2000 - Flesh Spiritual S. Africa LR/nt Equidae10 Equus burchelli Burchell's Zebra Red List 2000 - Fat Pneumonia, Phytotherapy EX asthma and / Pokot and cold Turkana Equidae10 Equus grevyi Grevy Zebra I Red List 2000 - Fat Pneumonia, Phytotherapy EN asthma and / Pokot and cold Turkana Equidae13 Equus przewalskii Wild Horse / Carnis I Red List 2000 - Flesh
  • 16. Equi EW Equidae23 Equus burchelli Burchell's Zebra Red List 2000 - Protective EX charm and mental disorders Equidae23 Equus zebra zebra Cape Mountain Zebra I Red List 2000 - Fat Protective EN charm, mental disorders Erinaceidae11 Erinaceus europaeus Hedgehog Red List 1997 - LR/lc Erinaceidae14 Erinaceus europaeus, Hedgehog / Corium Red List 1997 - Skin Stomach, large Hemiechianus dauricus or Erimacei Seu LR/lc intestine, H. auritus Hemiechianus (Erinaceus kidney europaeus) Erinaceidae14 Erinaceus europaeus, Hedgehog / Fel Red List 1997 - Dried Liver Hemiechianus dauricus or Hemiechianus LR/lc gallbladder H. auritus (Erinaceus europaeus) AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Erinaceidae19 Erinaceus europaeus Hedgehog or Kirpi Red List 1997 - Meat Used to treat LR/lc tuberculosis and hemorrhoids. Erinaceidae20,23 Atelerix frontalis Hedgehog Red List 1996 - Keep evil LR/lc spirits away Falconidae18 Falco tinnunculus Falcon II Eggs Sorcery Kikuyu Felidae spp.17 I/II Bone Felidae spp.17 I/II Oil Felidae spp.17 I/II Felidae1 Panthera tigris Tiger / Os Tigris I Red List 2000 - Bone Liver, kidney Leopard - Os EN Leopardis dog bone - Os Canis
  • 17. Felidae10 Ancinonyx jubatus Cheetah I Red List 2000 - Skin Spiritual Other VU carnivores / Most witch doctors in E. Africa Felidae10 Panthera leo Lion II Red List 2000 - Feces Preventive Other VU carnivores / Kamba, Mbeere Felidae10 Panthera leo Lion II Red List 2000 - Skin Spiritual Other VU carnivores / Most witch doctors in E. Africa Felidae10 Panthera pardus Leopard I Red List 1996 - Skin Spiritual Other LR/lc carnivores / Most witch doctors in E. AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Africa Felidae13 Panthera pardus Leopard / Pardi I Red List 1996 - Flesh, bone Liver, kidney Panthera uncia, LR/lc Neofelis nebulosa Felidae13 Panthera tigris Tiger / Tigris I Red List 2000 - Teeth, tripe, Liver, kidney Panthera EN dried bones, pardus kidney, gallbladder, fat, eye, sinew, nail, meat Felidae17 Panthera leo Lion II Red List 2000 - Bone VU Felidae17 Panthera leo Lion II Red List 2000 - Fat VU Felidae17 Panthera leo Lion II Red List 2000 - VU
  • 18. Felidae17 Panthera pardus Leopard I Red List 1996 - Bone LR/lc Felidae17 Panthera pardus Leopard I Red List 1996 - Fat LR/lc Felidae17 Panthera pardus Leopard I Red List 1996 - Heart LR/lc Felidae17 Panthera pardus Leopard I Red List 1996 - Skin LR/lc Felidae17 Panthera pardus Leopard I Red List 1996 - LR/lc Felidae17 Panthera tigris Tiger I Red List 2000 - Bone EN Felidae17 Panthera tigris Tiger I Red List 2000 - Bone paste EN Felidae17 Panthera tigris Tiger I Red List 2000 - Bone powder EN Felidae17 Panthera tigris Tiger I Red List 2000 - Gall bladder AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 EN Felidae17 Panthera tigris Tiger I Red List 2000 - Penis EN Felidae17 Panthera tigris Tiger I Red List 2000 - Teeth EN Felidae17 Panthera tigris Tiger I Red List 2000 - EN Felidae20,21,23 Panthera pardus Leopard I Red List 1996 - Stick fight LR/lc charm; court case charm snd protective charm Felidae21,22,23 Panthera leo Lion II Red List 2000 - Fat Terrorising VU people Felidae23 Acinonyx jubatus Cheetah I Red List 2000 - Fat Hunting dog VU charm Felidae23 Leptailurus serval Serval II Red List LR/lc Skin
  • 19. Felidae3 Panthera leo Lion or Assad II Red List 2000 - Fat Fat is smeared VU on the chest to relieve pain. Felidae3 Panthera pardus Tiger or Nimr I Red List 1996 - Fat Fat is applied LR/lc externally to treat paralysis. Felidae9 Panthera tigris Tiger / Os Tigris I Red List 2000 - Dried bones Liver, kidney Dried bones EN of Panthera pardus Galagonidae23 Galago moholi Mohol Galago II Red List 1996 - Charm for love LR/lc and athletes, fits, stop babies crying Giraffidae10 Giraffa camelopardalis Reticulated Giraffe Red List 2000 - Tail Headache Phytotherapy LR/cd / Mbeere Giraffidae22 Girraffa camelopardalis Giraffe Red List 2000 - Fat; Mixed with LR/cd unspecified herbs and AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 cures different diseases; love and protective charm Gruidae13 Grus japonensis Red-crowned Crane / I Red List 2000 - Flesh, bone, Grus Japonensis EN brain Hippopotamidae17 Hippopotamus amphibius Hippopotomus II Red List 1996 - Fat LR/lc Hippopotamidae17 Hippopotamus amphibius Hippopotomus II Red List 1996 - LR/lc Hippopotamidae22 Hippopotamus amphibius Hippopotamus II Red List 1996 - Fat, Confers LR/lc unspecified strength and power; love charm and cattle charm
  • 20. Hyaenidae18 Crocuta crocuta Hyena Spotted Red List 2000 - Blood Pneumonia Phytotherapy LR/cd / Venda of S. Africa and Zimbabwe Hyaenidae18 Hyaena hyaena Hyena Striped Red List 2000 - Blood Pneumonia Phytotherapy LR/nt / Venda of S. Africa and Zimbabwe Hyaenidae20,23 Proteles cristatus Aardwolf III Red List 1996 - LR/lc Hyaenidae22 Crocuta crocuta Spotted Hyaena Red List 2000 - Fat, eyebrow; Induce sleep; LR/cd hair/skin; emetic; sorcery gland paste Hydrophiidae13 Laticauda semifasciata Laticauda Semifasciata Whole body Erabu-unagi Hystricidae spp.17 Old-world Porcupines III Intestine, stomach, tail Hystricidae spp.17 Old-world Porcupines III Quill AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Hystricidae10 Hystrix cristata Porcupine Red List 2000 - Quill Spiritual Rabai, LR/nt Duruma Hystricidae17 Hystrix brachyura B. Malayan Porcupine II Red List 2000 - Quill VU Hystricidae2 Hystrix cristata Porcupine Red List 2000 - Quill Spiritual LR/nt Hystricidae20,22,23 Hystrix africaeaustralis South African Crested Red List 1996 - Quills; Prick the knees Porcupine LR/lc unspecified and feet of lazy children; Lutrinae spp.17 I/II Bladder Lutrinae spp.17 I/II Liver Lutrinae spp.17 I/II Sexual organs Lutrinae spp.17 I/II Teelth Manidae spp.17 Pangolin II Red List 2000 - Scales LR/nt
  • 21. Manidae1 Manis pentadactyla Pangolin / Squama II Red List 2000 - Scales Liver, stomach Manitis Pentadactylae LR/nt Manidae17 Manis javanica Malayan Pangolin II Red List 2000 - LR/nt Manidae17 Manis javanica Malayan Pangolin II Red List 2000 - Scales LR/nt Manidae17 Manis pentadactyla Chinese Pangolin II Red List 2000 - Scales LR/nt Manidae17 Manis pentadactyla Chinese Pangolin II Red List 2000 - LR/nt Manidae17 Manis temminckii Temminck's Ground II Red List 2000 - Scales Pangolin LR/nt Manidae23 Manis temminckii Cape Pangolin II Red List 2000 - Scales and Cure for heart LR/nt blood problems, good luck charm, AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 rainmaking and to protect against bad omens and bullets Manidae23 Manis temminckii Cape Pangolin II Red List 2000 - Scales Nosebleeds; LR/nt rheumatism; love portion; provides strength to the healer Manidae9 Manis pentadactyla Pangolin / Squama II Red List 2000 - Scales Liver, stomach Manitis LR/nt Manis spp.17 II Manis spp.17 II Scales Monodontidae17 Monodon monoceros Narwhal II Red List 2000 - Teeth DD
  • 22. Moschidae1 Moschus moschiferus or Musk Deer / Secretio I/II Red List 2000 - Navel gland Heart, Spleen, M. berezovskii Moschus VU secretions Liver Moschidae17 Moschus berezovskii Dwarf Musk Deer II Red List 2000 - Pod/gland LR/nt Moschidae17 Moschus berezovskii Dwarf Musk Deer II Red List 2000 - LR/nt Moschidae17 Moschus moschiferus Siberian Musk Deer II Red List 2000 - Musk VU Moschidae17 Moschus moschiferus Siberian Musk Deer II Red List 2000 - Pod/gland VU Moschidae17 Moschus moschiferus Siberian Musk Deer II Red List 2000 - Pod/gland VU Moschidae17 Moschus moschiferus Siberian Musk Deer II Red List 2000 - VU Moschidae3 Moschus moschiferus Musk Deer or Al-ail II Red List 2000 - Musk Musk is used VU extensively in the AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 manufacturing of Sudanese perfume. Musk is spread on the body to relieve pain and to moisturize skin. Moschidae5 Moschus moschiferus Musk Deer II Red List 2000 - Musk Used to treat VU headaches, blood/sugar disfunctions Moschidae9 Moschus berezovskii, Musk Deer / Moschus I/II Red List 2000 - Dried Heart and M. chrysogaster, VU secretion spleen M. moschiferus or obtained M. sifanicus from male musk gland
  • 23. Moschus spp.17 I/II Mush pod Moschus spp.17 I/II Musk gland Moschus spp.17 I/II Pod/gland Moschus spp.17 I/II Pod/gland Moschus spp.17 I/II Muridae13 Rattus norvegicus Brown Rat / Oletum Red List 2000 - Feces Liver, kidney, Ratti Norvegici LR/lc large intestine Muridae13 Rattus norvegicus Mouse / Mus Red List 2000 - Flesh or Liver Rattus rattus, LR/lc whole body, Rattus skin, liver, flavipectus gallbladder, kidney, fat Muridae13 Rhizomys sinensis Bamboo Rat / Red List 1996 - Flesh, teeth, Rhizomys Sinensis LR/lc fat Muscicapidae13 Turdus merula Blackbird / Turdus Flesh Ouzel mandarinus merula mandarinus AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Mustelidae13 Lutra lutra Otter / Lutrae I Red List 2000 - Flesh, liver, Liver, kidney Aonyx cinerea VU bone, gallbladder, feet, skin and fur Mustelidae13 Martes zibellina Sable / Cauda Martes Red List 2000 - Tail or fur Zibellina DD Mustelidae13 Meles meles Badger / Meles Red List 2000 - Flesh, fat Spleen LR/lc Mustelidae13 Mustela sibirica Yellow Weasel / III Flesh Carnis Mustela Mustelidae17 Lutra lutra European Otter I Red List 2000 - VU Mustelidae22 Mellivora capensis Honey Badger III Fat Mustelidae23 Mellivora capensis Honey Badger III Hunting dog and protective charm
  • 24. Nycticebus spp.17 II Red List 2000 - Bone DD Otaridae20,22,23 Arctocephalus pusillus Cape Fur Seal II Red List 1996 - Fat and head Chest and ear LR/lc infections and protective charm Otariidae1 Callorhinus ursinus Northern Fur Seal / Red List 2000 - Penis Kidney, Liver Testes et Penis Otariae VU Otariidae13 Callorhinus ursinus Northern Fur Seal / Red List 2000 - Testis , penis Liver, kidney Phoca vitulina Testis et Penis VU Callorhini Otariidae17 Arctocephalus pusillus Cape Fur Seal II Red List 1996 - Fat LR/lc Otariidae17 Arctocephalus pusillus Cape Fur Seal II Red List 1996 - Genitalia LR/lc Otariidae17 Arctocephalus pusillus Cape Fur Seal II Red List 1996 - Penis LR/lc AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Otariidae20,23 Arctocephalus pusillus Cape Fur Seal II Red List 1996 - Fat LR/lc Otariidae7 Arctocephalus australus Southern Fur Seal / II Red List 1996 - Penis Seal penis LR/lc Otariidae7 Arctocephalus pusillus Southern Fur Seal / II Red List 1996 - Penis Seal penis LR/lc Otariidae7 Callorhinus ursinus Northern fur seal / Red List 2000 - Penis Seal penis VU Otariidae9 Callorhinus ursinus Penis et Testes Red List 2000 - Dried penis Liver, kidney Callorhini VU and testes Otididae13 Otis tarda Great Bustard, Carnis II Red List 2000 - Flesh Otis Tarda Dybowskii VU Phasianidae13 Chrysolophus pictus Golden Pheasant / Red List 1996 - Flesh Chrysolophus Pictus LR/nt
  • 25. Phasianidae13 Phasianus colchicus Common Pheasant / Flesh or Heart, stomach Phasiana whole body, liver, tail feathers, brain Phasianidae13 Syrmaticus reevesii Reeve's Pheasant / Red list 2000 - Flesh Syrmaticus Reevesii VU Phasianidae17 Pavo muticus Green Peafowl II Red list 2000 - "End" VU feather, gall bladder, stock of tail feather Phocidae13 Phoca vitulina Common Seal / Adeps Red List 1996 - Fat Phocae Vitulinae LR/lc Physeteridae13 Physeter catodon Sperm Whale / Ambra I Red list 2000 - Ambergris Grisea VU Physeteridae17 Physeter catodon Sperm Whale I Red list 2000 - Ambergris VU Physeteridae17 Physeter catodon Sperm Whale I Red list 2000 - AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 VU Physeteridae3 Physeter catodon Sperm Whale or El- I Red list 2000 - Ambergris Blood tonic Hoot VU Physeteridae5 Physeter catodon Sperm Whale I Red list 2000 - Ambergris Used to VU reinforce potency, kidneys and for general health Picidae13 Picus canus Gray Headed Flesh or Dendrocopos Woodpecker / Picus whole body major Canus Platysterninae13 Platysternon Big-Headed Turtle / Red List 2000 - Whole body megacephalum Platysternon EN Megacephalum Primates spp.17 Primates I/II Bone Primates spp.17 Primates I/II Gall stone
  • 26. Primates spp.17 Primates I/II Skull Primates spp.17 Primates I/II Procaviidae23 Dendrohyrax arboreus Tree Hyrax Red List 2000 - Whole body Witchcraft; VU charm for cattle; charm for crops; chest/ear treatment Psittacidae13 Psittacula alexandri Red-breasted Parrot / II Flesh Other relative fasciata Psittacula Alexandri species in the Fasciata same genus Pteroclididae17 Pteropus spp. Flying Foxes I/II Excrement Pteroclididae17 Pteropus spp. Flying Foxes I/II Heart Pteroclididae17 Pteropus spp. Flying Foxes I/II Liver Pythonidae10 Pythoinae regius Python II Oil Dermatitis Phytotherapy chase evil spirit / Rabai of Kenya AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Pythonidae13 Python molurus bivittatus Boa snake / Python I/II Gallbladder, Liver, spleen fat, flesh Pythonidae17 Python molurus Indian Python I/II Pythonidae17 Python reticulatus Regal Python II Blood Pythonidae17 Python reticulatus Regal Python II Pythonidae17 Python sebae African Python II Backbone Pythonidae17 Python sebae African Python II Bone Pythonidae17 Python sebae African Python II Fat Pythonidae17 Python sebae African Python II Skin Pythonidae17 Python sebae African Python II Pythonidae17 Python spp. Pythons I/II Bone Pythonidae17 Python spp. Pythons I/II Gall bladder Pythonidae17 Python spp. Pythons I/II Oil Pythonidae17 Python spp. Pythons I/II
  • 27. Pythonidae20,21,22,23 Python sebae Python II Skin Sexually transmitted diseases and backache Rallidae13 Rallus aquaticus Water Rail / Rallus Flesh Corncrake Aquaticus Rhinocerotidae1 most commonly the Asian Rhinoceros / Cornu I Horn Heart, Liver, Water buffalo species Rhinoceros Rhinoceri Stomach (horn) - unicornis, R. sondaicus, or Cornu Bubali R. sumatrensis are used; sometimes the African species R. simus or R. bicornis are used Rhinocerotidae10 Ceratotherium simum White Rhinoceros I Red List 2000 - Horn Male virility Phytotherapy LR/cd / Somalis, Bajunis, Arabs Rhinocerotidae10 Diceros bicornis Black Rhinoceros I Red List 2000 - Horn Male virility Phytotherapy AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 CR / Somalis, Bajunis, Arabs Rhinocerotidae15 Rhinoceros spp. Rhinoceros / Cornu I Horn Heart, Liver, Rhinocerotis Stomach Rhinocerotidae16 Rhinoceros I Horn Dries pus and purifies blood Rhinocerotidae16 Rhinoceros I Skin Smallpox Rhinocerotidae17 Ceratotherium simum White Rhinoceros I Red List 2000 - Horn cottoni CR Rhinocerotidae17 Diceros bicornis Black Rhinoceros I Red List 2000 - CR Rhinocerotidae17 Rhinoceros unicornis Indian Rhinoceros I Horn Rhinocerotidae17 Rhinocerotidae spp. I/II Blood Rhinocerotidae17 Rhinocerotidae spp. I/II Horn
  • 28. Rhinocerotidae17 Rhinocerotidae spp. I/II Muscle, skin, teeth, toe Rhinocerotidae17 Rhinocerotidae spp. I/II Rhinocerotidae22,23 Diceros bicornis Black Rhinoceros I Red List 2000 - Hair, horn Sustain CR wounds during the battle Sciuridae1 Trogopterus xanthipes Flying Squirrel / Red List 2000 - Feces Liver, spleen In parts of Milne-Edwards or Excrementum EN southern Pteromys xanthotis Milne- Trogopteri seu China the Edwards Pteromi feces of Petaurista xanthotis are used locally as a substitute Sciuridae13 Sciurus vulgaris Red Squirrel / Sciurus Red List 2000 - Whole body Vulgaris LR/nt Sciuridae14 Trogopterus xanthipes Excrementum Red List 2000 - Feces Liver feces of AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Trogopterori EN Petaurista xanthotis, P. petaurista, P. elegans, P. yunnanensis, P. alborutus, Belomys pearsoni, Hylopetes alboniger, Pteromys volans and Aeretes melanopterus / Trogopterus dung Scolopacidae13 Tringa totanus Redshank / Tringa Flesh Other relative species in the same genus /
  • 29. snipe Spheniscidae23 Spheniscus demersus African Penguin II Red List 2000 - VU Spheniscidae23 Tauraco corythaix Helmeted Turaco II Strigidae13 Glaucidium cuculoides Cuckoo Owlet / II Flesh Carnis Glaucidii Cuculoidis Struthionidae23 Struthio camelus Ostrich I Suidae20,23 Phacochoerus aethiopicus Cape Warthog Red List 2000 - EX Syngnathidae1 Hippocampus histrix Seahorse / Red List 2000 - Whole body Kindney, Liver Hippocampus VU Syngnathidae1 Hippocampus kelloggi Seahorse / Whole body Kindney, Liver Hippocampus Syngnathidae1 Hippocampus Seahorse / Red List 2000 - Whole body Kindney, Liver AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 trimaculatus Hippocampus VU Syngnathidae14 Hippocampus histrix Seahorse / Red List 2000 - Whole body Kidney Whole body Hippocampus VU of H. coronatus Syngnathidae14 Hippocampus japonicus Seahorse / Red List 2000 - Whole body Kidney Whole body Hippocampus VU of H. coronatus Syngnathidae14 Hippocampus kelloggi Seahorse / Whole body Kidney Whole body Hippocampus of H. coronatus Syngnathidae14 Hippocampus kuda Seahorse / Red List 2000 - Whole body Kidney Whole body Hippocampus VU of H. coronatus Syngnathidae14 Hippocampus Seahorse / Red List 2000 - Whole body Kidney Whole body trimaculatus Hippocampus VU of H. coronatus
  • 30. Testudinidae1 Chinemys reevesii Reeve's Turtle / Red List 2000 - Turtle shell Heart, Kidney, Plastrum Testudinis EN Liver Testudinidae13 Chinemys reevesii Reeve's Turtle / Red List 2000 - Flesh, blood, Cuora Testudinis EN glue of amboinensis, tortoise Testudo plastron, bile elongata, Mauremys mutica, Testudo impressa, Clemmys bealei Testudinidae17 Geochelone elegans Star Tortoise II Shell Testudinidae17 Geochelone pardalis Leopard Tortoise II Shell Testudinidae9 Chinemys reevesii Reeve's Turtle / Red List 2000 - Dried Liver, kidney Plastrons of Carapax et Plastrum EN plastron and heart Cuora Testudinis amboinensis, Testudo elongata, AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Mauremys mutica, Testudo impressa, Clemmys bealei Thryonomyidae23 Thryonomys swinderianus Cane Rat Red List 1996 - Love charm; LR/lc good luck charm and pregnancy treatment Tridacnidae13 Tridacna squamosa Fluted Clam / Concha II Red list 2000 Shell Tridacna Tridacna Squamosa LR/cd cookiana and other relative species in the same genus Trionychidae13 Pelochelys bibroni Giant Soft-shelled Red List 2000 - Shell, flesh, Turtle / Pelochelys VU fat,
  • 31. gallbladder Ursidae spp. (excluding I/II Gall bladder Aliuropoda melanoleuca)17 Ursidae spp.17 I/II Bile Ursidae spp.17 I/II Bone Ursidae spp.17 I/II Bones of the hand Ursidae spp.17 I/II Gall bladder Ursidae spp.17 I/II Hair Ursidae spp.17 I/II Teeth Ursidae1 Ursus arctos Brown Bear / Vesica I Red List 2000 - Gall bladder Gallbladder, Cow Fellea Ursi VU Heart, Liver gallbladder - Vesica Fellea AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Bovus Ursidae1 Ursus thibetanus Brown Bear / Vesica I Red List 2000 - Gall bladder Gallbladder, Cow Fellea Ursi VU Heart, Liver gallbladder - Vesica Fellea Bovus Ursidae17 Helarctos malayanus Sun Bear I Red List 2000 - Gall bladder DD Ursidae17 Helarctos malayanus Sun Bear I Red List 2000 - DD Ursidae17 Melursus ursinus Sloth Bear I Red List 2000 - Gall VU Ursidae17 Ursus americanus American Black Bear II Gall bladder Ursidae17 Ursus americanus American Black Bear II Ursidae17 Ursus arctos Brown Bear I/II Red List 2000 - Gall bladder VU Ursidae17 Ursus arctos Brown Bear I/II Red List 2000 - VU
  • 32. Ursidae17 Ursus thibetanus Asiatic Black Bear I Red List 2000 - Gall VU Ursidae17 Ursus thibetanus Asiatic Black Bear I Red List 2000 - Gall bladder VU Ursidae17 Ursus thibetanus Asiatic Black Bear I Red List 2000 - VU Ursidae4 Ursus arctos Brown Bear I Red List 2000 - Bear gall Abdominal VU tumors; abdominal pain due to obstruction or bad food intake; cramps in neck and back; chest pains; unsuccesful urge to vomit; AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 irritability; insanity; intermittent fever (malaria- like state); diarrhea. Kills parasite insects, stops vomiting, diffuses smallpox. Also used to treat children's nervous breakdowns, convulsions, stomach ache during pregnancy,
  • 33. abdominal pain after childbirth, produce labor pains. Clears blurred eyes, stops pain of hemorrhoids. Restores vitality and rids impurities from body. Ursidae9 Ursus arctos Brown Bear / Fel Ursi I Red List 2000 - Dried Liver, VU gallbladder gallbladder and heart Ursidae9 Ursus thibetanus Bear / Fel Ursi I Red List 2000 - Dried Liver, VU gallbladder gallbladder and heart Varanidae17 Varanus spp. II Oil AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 Varanidae17 Varanus spp. II Veranidae22,23 Varanus niloticus Nile Monitor II Fat; Cure earache in unspecified children; witchcraft and skin problems Veranidae23 Varanus niloticus Nile Monitor II Vespertilionidae1 Vespertilio murinus Parti-colored Bat / Red List 1996 - Feces Liver Excrementum LR/lc Vespertilionis Murini Vespertilionidae13 Vespertilio superans Parti-colored Bat / Red List 1996 - Whole body Liver Pipistrellus Vespertilio LR/lc abramus, Plecotus auritus, Rhinolophus ferrum equinum and other relative species
  • 34. Vespertilionidae14 Vespertilio superans Parti-colored Bat / Red List 1996 - Feces Liver Feces of most Excrementum LR/lc species in Vespertilionis Vespertilio Viperidae17 Crotalus durissus Neo-tropical III Fresh/dried Rattlesnake venom Viperidae17 Crotalus durissus Neo-tropical III Rattlesnake Viverridae13 Viverra zibetha Civet / Carnis Viverra III Meat Viverricula seu Viverricula indica Viverridae13 Viverra zibetha Civet / Secretium III Secretion Viverricula Viverra seu Viverricula indica Viverridae20,23 Genetta genetta Small Spotted Genet Red List 2000 - VU Viverridae23 Genetta genetta Small Spotted Genet Red List 2000 - Skin Protection VU against sorcery, TMP clinic ornament Cercopithecus II AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 albogularis17 Heloderma horridum17 Beaded Lizard II Dried venom Hirudo medicinalis17 II Body Hirudo medicinalis17 II Indotestudo elongata17 II Shell Manouria impressa17 II Shell Morenia ocellata17 I Shell Pangasianodon gigas17 I Gall bladder, pectoal spine Testudinidae spp.17 I/II Testudinidae spp.17 I/II Shell Uromastyx aegypitus17 II Extract from live animals
  • 35. References 1. Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica Revised Edition, Dan Bensky and Andrew Gamble with Ted Kaptchuk, Eastland Press, 1993, Seattle 2 Edinburg, T.L. (1998) Traditional Medicines of South Africa, The Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 261, No. 7007, Pages 242-244 3. El-Kamali, H.H., 2000. Folk medicine use of some animal products in Central Sudan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 72, 279-282. 4. KAMPO, How the Japanese Updated Traditional Herbal Medicine, Akira Tsumura , Japan Publications, Inc., 1991, Tokyo and New York, Page  166-167 5. Lev, E., Amar Z., 2000. Ethnopharmacological survey of traditional drugs sold in Israel at the end of the 20th century. Journal of  Ethnopharmacology 72, 191-205. 6. Pinniped penises in the marketplace: a progress report.  D. Lavigne, P.J. Wilson, R.J. Smith, B.N. White, Working Paper 3.3, Molecular  Identification of Cetaceans workshop, 14-16 June 1999.  La Jolla, California. 7. Pinniped penises in trade: a molecular-genetic investigation, S. Malik, P.J. Wilson, R.J. Smith, D.M. Lavigne, B.N. White, Conservation Biology  11(6), Pages 1365-1374. AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28 8. Planetary Herbology, An Integration of Western Herbs Into The Traditional Chines And Ayurvedic Systems, Dr. Michael Tierra, C.A., N.D., O.M.D.,  Lotus Press, 1988, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin 9. Rare Chinese Materia Medica, Zhang Enqin et al., 1991, Shanghai 10. S.J. Muchina Munyua, 2001 11. Sesik, E., Yesilada, E., Honda, G., Takaishi, Y., Takeda, Y., Tanaka, T. 2001. Traditional Medicine in Turkey. Folk medicine in Central Anatolia.  Journal of Ethnopharmacology 75, 95-115. 12. Swantz, L (1990). The Medicine Man: Among the Zaramo of Dar-es-salaam, Scandanavia Institute of African Studies and Dar-es-salaam  University Press, Pages 34 and 134 13. The Chinese Materia Medica Dictionary, Jiangsu New Medical College, 2000, Shanghai 14. The Chinese Materia Medica, Xu Guojun, He Hongxian, Xu Luoshan & Jing Rongluan, 1996, Beijing 15. The Chinese Materia Medica, Zhang Enqin et al., 1996, Shanghai 16. Tibetan Medicine, the Ven. Rechung Rinpoche Jampal Kunzang, University of California Press, 1973, Berkeley and Los Angeles, Page 71 -72
  • 36. 17. TRAFFIC, Doc. AC.15.11, February 1999 18. Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M. G. (1962), The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa, 2nd Edition, Publisher E and  Livingstone LTD, Edinburg and London, UK 19. Yesilada, E., Sezik E., Honda, G., Takaishi, Y., Takeda, Y., Tanaka, T. 1999. Traditional Medicine in Turkey IX: Folk medicine in north-west  Anatolia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 64, 195-210. 20. Simelane, T.S.and Kerley G.I.H., 1998, Conservation implications of the use of vertebrates by Xhosa traditional healers in South Africa in South  African Wildlife  21. Mzimela T., 1995. The muthi business.Indicator South Africa.12(2) 22. Pujol, J. 1993. NaturAfrica. The Herbalist Handbook. African Flora, Medicinal Plants. Pp 25-28. Jean Pujol Natural Healers Foundation.Durban 23. TRAFFIC International, Searching for a Cure, Conservation of Medicinal Wildlife Resources in East and Southern Africa, Marshall, Nina T., 1998 AC17 Inf. 5 – p. 28

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