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  1. 1. The EV1: Electric Car of the 90s Figure 1
  2. 2. Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5
  3. 3. World Solar Challenge <ul><li>First solar vehicle competition </li></ul><ul><li>Held in Australia in November 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Major US car manufacturers like Ford and GM participated </li></ul><ul><li>Results stimulated interest in </li></ul><ul><li>electric cars in the automobile </li></ul><ul><li>industry </li></ul>Figure 6
  4. 4. California and the EV1 <ul><li>During the 1990s California had a tremendous smog and pollution problem that needed to be addressed. </li></ul><ul><li>California Air and Resources Board (CARB) passed a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate </li></ul><ul><li>Required car manufacturers to sell ZEVs if they wanted to sell cars in California </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to the development of EV cars </li></ul>
  5. 5. Design and Technology <ul><li>Two seat cabin </li></ul>
  6. 6. Figure 7
  7. 7. Design and Technology <ul><li>Two seat cabin </li></ul><ul><li>No key required </li></ul>
  8. 8. Figure 8 Figure 9
  9. 9. Design and Technology <ul><li>Two seat cabin </li></ul><ul><li>No key required </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerates from 0-60 in 8 seconds </li></ul>
  10. 10. Design and Technology <ul><li>Two seat cabin </li></ul><ul><li>No Key required </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerates from 0-60 in 8 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Top average speed = 80 mph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest clocked speed = 183 mph </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Figure 10
  12. 12. Figure 11
  13. 13. Battery Specs <ul><li>1 st generation EV1 carried a 26 lead-acid cell battery </li></ul><ul><li>Average range: 60-80 miles per charge </li></ul><ul><li>Complete charge takes approx. 3 hrs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>220 volt 6kW charger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charger plugs into the front of the car </li></ul></ul>Figure 13
  14. 14. Charging Unit Figure 14
  15. 15. Battery Specs <ul><li>2 nd generation EV1 carried a NiMH battery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by Stan Ovshinsky </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Range: 100-120 miles </li></ul><ul><li>Complete charge in approx. 5 hrs </li></ul><ul><li>Used the same charger as 1 st gen. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Figure 15 Figure 16
  17. 17. Cost of the EV1 <ul><li>Sold at ~$33,995, or leased for about $399 a month </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of operating an EV1 = Cost of operating a gasoline car EXCEPT gas costs 0.60 cents a gallon! </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance is minimal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed every 5000 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No extra products </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. What happened to the EV1? <ul><li>Approximately 4,000 leased </li></ul><ul><li>GM recalled and took back every car in less than 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Crushed, shredded and destroyed </li></ul>Before Figure 18 After Figure 17
  19. 19. Who Killed the EV1? <ul><li>Consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Oil Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Automotive Industry </li></ul>
  20. 20. General Motors <ul><li>Poor marketing </li></ul><ul><li>http://noolmusic.com/myspace_videos/general_motors_ev-1_tv_commercial_4.php </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WGdNTOdemBw </li></ul>
  21. 21. GM Claims <ul><li>Claim: Wasn’t enough demand </li></ul><ul><li>Truth: EV1 had a waiting list of thousands of buyers. </li></ul><ul><li>Claim: Cars and batteries were too expensive to make. </li></ul><ul><li>Truth: Mass production could have helped streamline costs. </li></ul>
  22. 22. GM Motive <ul><li>Why would GM want to get rid of the EV1? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profit Loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No need for servicing parts like oil filters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil company connection? </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Oil Companies <ul><li>Funded opposition to the EV1 </li></ul><ul><li>Profit loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trillions of dollars of profits still left in oil reserves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13.5 million barrels a day in 2004 </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Government <ul><li>Bush’s 2004 Economic Incentive Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax credit for EVs: $4,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax credit for luxury SUVs: $100,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joined Automotive Companies in suing CARB over the ZEV Mandate </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on Hydrogen Fuel Cell Development </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel economy standards have not improved since CAFÉ standards were adopted in 1975s </li></ul><ul><li>OPEC dropped oil prices </li></ul>
  25. 25. Consumers <ul><li>Consumers were cautious to accepting the electric car </li></ul><ul><li>Many were ignorant to that it even existed </li></ul><ul><li>Many couldn’t see the difference between gas cars and EV cars </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers will buy what you market to them that they need to buy </li></ul>
  26. 26. Conclusion <ul><li>Although the EV1 did have limitations, it possessed the potential to be a viable vehicle alternative. </li></ul><ul><li>Had the EV1 remained on the market, significant progress in the development of electric vehicles could have been made. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Figures Work Cited <ul><li>&quot;EV1.&quot; Photograph. Carfree World.9 Nov. 2008 <http://www.carsareevil.com/images/gm_ev1.jpg>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;1998 Electric Ford Ranger.&quot; Photographs. How Stuff Works.9 Nov. 2008 <http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/1990-1999-ford-trucks-40.jpg>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ford Think.&quot; Photograph. 21stcentury.co.uk. 9 Nov. 2008 <http://www.21stcentury.co.uk/images/cars/ford_th!nk.jpg>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Honda EV Plus.&quot; Photograph. AutoWorld.9 Nov. 2008 <http://www.autoworld.com/news/Honda/ev_plus.jpg>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Nissan Altra.&quot; Photograph. The Auto Channel.9 Nov. 2008 <http://www.theautochannel.com/cybercast/laautoshow98/images/nissan_altra_ev.jpg>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;World Solar Challenge.&quot; Photograph. 1990 World Solar Challenge.9 Nov. 2008 <http://www-personal.umich.edu/~sdbest/solarcar/Wsc1990.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>7-9, 12, 14. &quot;Miscellaneous EV1.&quot; Photograph. EV1 FAQ.9 Nov. 2008 <http://www.ev1.pair.com/charge_across_america/charge_html/faqs.html#anchor2778139. >. </li></ul><ul><li>10-11. &quot;Inside the EV1.&quot; Diagram. EV1 Club.6 Nov. 2008 <http://ev1-club.power.net/evpics.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>13. &quot;EV1 Engine.&quot; Photograph. Motortrend Blog.9 Nov. 2008 <http://image.motortrend.com/f/editorial/no-one-killed-the-electric-car-it-was-dead-on-arrival/9814174+cr1+re0+ar1/gm-ev1-engine.jpg>. </li></ul><ul><li>16. &quot;EV1 Battery.&quot; Photograph. JCWinni-Photobucket.9 Nov. 2008 <http://i160.photobucket.com/albums/t175/jcwinni/gmphev5.png>. </li></ul><ul><li>17. &quot;EV1 Graveyard - December, 2003- Before.&quot; Digital Photograph. EV1 Club.5 Nov. 2008 <http://ev1-club.power.net/archive/031219/jpg/before1.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>18. &quot;EV1 Graveyard - December, 2003- After.&quot; Digital Photograph. EV1 Club.5 Nov. 2008 <http://ev1-club.power.net/archive/031219/jpg/after2.htm>. </li></ul>
  28. 28. References <ul><li>&quot;History of Electric Vehicles from 1990 to 1998.&quot; EV History. 1 About.com. 5 Nov. 2008 <http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarselectric2a.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>Trexlar, Kris. Charge Across America . 1 Jan. 9 Nov. 2008 <http://www.ev1.pair.com/charge_across_america/charge_html/faqs.html#anchor2843536>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;United States.&quot; The World Factbook. 1 CIA. 9 Nov. 2008 <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/us.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Who Killed the Electric Car . Dir. Chris Paine: DVD. Sony Pictures, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Who Killed the Electric Car.&quot; NOW. 9 June 2006. PBS. 5 Nov. 2008 <http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/223/>. </li></ul><ul><li>Who Killed the Electric Car. Sony Pictures Classics. 5 Nov. 2008 <http://www.sonyclassics.com/whokilledtheelectriccar/electric.html>. </li></ul>
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