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Alternative Liquid Fuels Brian G. Lefebvre

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  • 1. Alternative Liquid Fuels Brian G. Lefebvre November 12, 2007
  • 2.
    • U.S. Total Energy Usage
      • how much, what for, from what?
    • Petroleum Demand
      • how much liquid fuel is used in the U.S.?
      • why so much?
    • Petroleum Supply
      • where does the U.S. get their liquid fuel?
    • Alternatives
      • current usage
      • future prospects
    Outline
  • 3. U.S. Total Energy Usage
    • Total US consumption 1
      • world = 380 quads in 1998 2
      • 1 = http://wilcoxen.cp.maxwell.syr.edu/pages/804.html
      • 2 = http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/energy/stats_ctry/Stat1.html
  • 4. U.S. Total Energy Usage by Sector
    • Total US consumption by sector 1
    • 1 = http://wilcoxen.cp.maxwell.syr.edu/pages/804.html
  • 5. U.S. Total Energy Usage by Source
    • Data from 1998 1
    3.6% Other (biomass,geotherm,solar,wind) 3.8% Hydro power 7.6% Nuclear 22.9% Coal 23.2% Natural Gas 38.8% Petroleum Percentage of total Energy Source
  • 6. Petroleum Demand
    • 2005 – U.S. demand 20.8 million barrels/day 3,4
        • 1 barrel = 42 gallons
        • 1 barrel -> 19.5 gallons of gasoline
        • ~ 50% of US oil for passenger-related transportation
          • 67% of US oil consumption is for transportation
          • 71% of transportation fuel is passenger-related
            • cars, motorcycles, light-duty trucks
        • ~ 140 billion gallons/year!
        • Nov 2005: $24 billion in oil imports (33% of trade deficit)
    • 2005 – world demand 83.8 million barrels/day 4
    • 3 = http:// www.gravmag.com/oil.html
        • 4 = http:// www.eia.doe.gov/neic/quickfacts/quickoil.html
  • 7. America is Addicted to Oil
    • Bush State of the Union address – Jan 2006
    • Keeping America competitive requires affordable energy. And here we have a serious problem: America is addicted to oil, which is often imported from unstable parts of the world . The best way to break this addiction is through technology. Since 2001, we have spent nearly $10 billion to develop cleaner, cheaper, and more reliable alternative energy sources -- and we are on the threshold of incredible advances.
    • So tonight, I announce the Advanced Energy Initiative -- a 22-percent increase in clean-energy research -- at the Department of Energy, to push for breakthroughs in two vital areas. To change how we power our homes and offices, we will invest more in zero-emission coal-fired plants, revolutionary solar and wind technologies, and clean, safe nuclear energy . (Applause.)
    • We must also change how we power our automobiles. We will increase our research in better batteries for hybrid and electric cars, and in pollution-free cars that run on hydrogen. We'll also fund additional research in cutting-edge methods of producing ethanol, not just from corn, but from wood chips and stalks, or switch grass. Our goal is to make this new kind of ethanol practical and competitive within six years. (Applause.)
    • Breakthroughs on this and other new technologies will help us reach another great goal: to replace more than 75 percent of our oil imports from the Middle East by 2025 . (Applause.) By applying the talent and technology of America, this country can dramatically improve our environment, move beyond a petroleum-based economy, and make our dependence on Middle Eastern oil a thing of the past. (Applause.)
  • 8. Vehicle MPG 5 = http://www.epa.gov/fueleconomy/overall-high.htm 49/52 1991 Honda Civic CRX HF (manual) *** 32/29 32/29 Ford Escape Hybrid 4WD Mercury Mariner Hybrid 4WD 10 32/35 32/35 Hyundai Accent (manual)          Kia Rio (manual) 9 32/41 Toyota Corolla (manual) 8 33/38 Honda Fit (manual) 7 34/39 Toyota Yaris (automatic) 6 34/40 Toyota Yaris (manual) 5 36/31 Ford Escape Hybrid FWD 4 40/38 Toyota Camry Hybrid   3 49/51 Honda Civic Hybrid 2 60/51 Toyota Prius (hybrid-electric)    1 MPG city/hwy Manufacturer/Model Rank Fuel Economy Leaders: 2007 Model Year 5
  • 9. Conservation is Important!
    • Doubling the mpg of all passenger cars would reduce total oil demand 25%
        • From 140 to 105 billion gallons of gasoline/year
        • From 7.6 to 5.7 billion barrels of oil/year
    • Current renewable fuels
        • Ethanol from corn: 6 billion gallons/year
        • Biodiesel from soybean oil: 0.25 billion gallons/year
  • 10. Petroleum Supply
    • Crude oil supply 5
      • from U.S.: 5.18 million barrels/day
        • Texas: 1.06 million barrels/day
      • foreign sources: 10.13 million barrels/day
        • OPEC: 5.59 million barrels/day
        • OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
        • Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Nigeria, Iraq, Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Indonesia, United Arab Emirates (Iran, Qatar)
        • 5 = http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_impcus_a2_nus_epc0_im0_mbblpd_a.htm
  • 11. History of U.S. Crude Oil Supply
  • 12. Top 5 U.S. Crude Oil Suppliers
    • Brainstorm
      • list of possible countries
    • Survey Says?
      • vote from list of possible countries
  • 13. Top 5 U.S. Crude Oil Suppliers
  • 14. Alternatives to Traditional Internal Combustion Engines
    • Other fuels
      • ethanol (current, flex-fuel, or dedicated vehicles) 6
      • mixed alcohols
      • biodiesel (in standard diesel engine) 7
      • compressed natural gas 8
    • Gasoline-battery hybrids 9
      • plug-in hybrids (aftermarket now, production later?) 10
    • Electric-only vehicles
      • cars 11
      • scooters
      • bicycles 12
        • 6 = http://www.e85fuel.com/index.php
    • 7 = http://www.biodiesel.org/
    • 8 = http://automobiles.honda.com/models/civic_gx_phill.asp?ModelName=Civic+GX
    • 9 = http:// autos.msn.com/advice/article.aspx?contentid =4022560
    • 10 = http:// www.calcars.org/vehicles.html
        • 11 = http://www.evworld.com/
        • 12 = http:// www.ebikes.ca/hubmotors.shtml
  • 15. Alternatives to Traditional Internal Combustion Engines
    • Nov 2006 PRISM
    • Can engineers serve up enough cellulosic ethanol to quench our thirst for foreign oil?
  • 16. Alternatives to Traditional Internal Combustion Engines
    • Oct 2007 National Geographic
    • Ethanol from corn not a complete solution to liquid fuels needs 13
    • Ethanol from biomass could replace half of current liquid fuels
    • 13= http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/200710/biofuels/biofuels.html
  • 17. Alternative Liquid Fuels Facts #1
    • Gasoline additives to boost octane rating
      • MTBE
        • good: octane, volatility, pipeline shipping, energy
        • bad: groundwater damage
      • ethanol
        • good: octane, groundwater damage
        • bad: volatility, pipeline shipping
      • mixed alcohols
        • good: everything
    • Biodiesel
      • good: reduced emissions (except NO x )
      • bad: cold-temperature gelling, vehicle fuel pumping
  • 18. Alternative Liquid Fuels Facts #2
    • U.S. gasoline consumption: 140 billion gallons/yr
      • ethanol: 4.9 billion gallons in 2006 14
        • produced from corn
        • now at 6.9 billion gallons of capacity
        • 6.6 billion gallons of capacity in construction 14
      • biodiesel: 250 million gallons 15
        • 10x increase in 2 years
    • Net energy debate
      • 1 unit of fossil fuel produces:
        • 3.2 units of biodiesel
        • 1.3 units of bioethanol
        • 0.81 units of gasoline
    • 14 = http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/locations/
    • 15 = http://www.biodiesel.org/resources/fuelfactsheets/
  • 19. U.S. Ethanol Production Facilities
  • 20. U.S. Biodiesel Production Facilities
  • 21. Expanding Production of Alternative Liquid Fuels
    • Currently use ~ 140 billion gallons of gasoline/year
    • Can we make more using CURRENT methods?
      • ethanol: 5 billion gallons using 14% of corn crop to ethanol 16
        • 1.575 billion bushels (out of 11 billion bushels)
        • 300 gallons of ethanol/(acre*yr)
      • biodiesel: 0.25 billion gallons using 5% of vegetable oil
        • 5 billion gallons of vegetable oil TOTAL 17
        • 300 million gallons as waste cooking oil
        • 0.25 billion gallons by 60 gallons of biodiesel/(acre*yr)
    • 16 = http:// www.ethanolproducer.com/article.jsp?article_id =1804
    • 17 = http:// en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Biodiesel
  • 22. Expanding Production of Alternative Liquid Fuels
    • Currently use ~ 140 billion gallons of gasoline/year
    • Can we make more with NEAR-TERM methods?
      • ethanol: 10 billion gallons from other sugars
        • “ waste biomass” like corn stover
        • 210 gallons of ethanol/(acre*yr)
        • corn stover: 70 gallons/ton, 250 million tons/yr
        • sustainably remove 50-66%
      • ??biodiesel: algaculture
        • Algaeculture: 5000 gallons of biodiesel/(acre*yr)
    • 15 = http:// www.ethanolproducer.com/article.jsp?article_id =1804
    • 16 = http:// en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Biodiesel
  • 23. Expanding Production of Alternative Liquid Fuels
    • Currently use ~ 140 billion gallons of gasoline/year
    • Can we make more with MID-TERM methods? 13
      • ethanol: 90 billion gallons/year from more biomass
        • 1.3 billion tons of biomass at 70 gallons ethanol/ton
          • Plant 50 million acres of fallow land with grasses and trees
          • Improve farm productivity
      • biodiesel: 6 billion gallons/year from algaculture
        • 10 million gallons/year at 600+ coal power plants
        • 5000 gallons/(acre*yr) * 2000 acres/plant
  • 24. Current Ethanol Production Methods
    • Dry mill process is most popular in the U.S. 18
      • similar to beer production
      • Freshman Clinic 2 with Farrell
      • 18 = http:// www.ethanolrfa.org /resource/made/
  • 25. Future Fuel Production Methods
    • Mixed Alcohol (MixAlco) method
      • presentation at:
      • http://engineering.tamu.edu/research/lectures/holtzapple_v3.html
      • slides at:
      • http://engineering.tamu.edu/research/lectures/docs/holtzappleppt/lecture.htm
      • make fuel from anything!
        • biomass, sewage sludge, garbage
        • pretreat with lim
        • ferment with “natural” organisms to acids
        • collect acid salts (e.g calcium acetate)
        • thermally convert to ketone
        • hydrogenate to alcohol (e.g. Raney nickel catalyst)
  • 26. Future Ethanol Production Methods
    • Ethanol from lignocellulose 19
      • similar to current method
      • additional pretreatment to liberate sugars from complex polymers of 5- and 6- carbon sugars
      • 19 = http:// www.ethanolrfa.org /resource/made/
  • 27. Ethanol from Lignocellulose
    • Renewable fuels standard
      • 250 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol by 2012
      • cheaper feedstock
        • renewable supply of 1.3 billion tons / yr 20
        • corn stover: 250 million tons, 50-66% usable 21
        • 68 gallons of ethanol / ton of corn stover, 3 tons / acre
        • move to higher yield biomass could boost supply
      • More expensive processing
        • chemical pretreatment
        • enzymatic pretreatment
        • fermentation of 5- and 6-carbon sugars in the presence of inhibitors formed during pretreatments
      • 20 = Perlack, R.B., Wright, L.L., Turhollow, A., Graham, R.L., Stokes, B., and Erbach, D.C., “Biomass as a feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: the technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply,” U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Department of Agriculture (2005). Available at http:// feedstockreview.ornl.gov/pdf/billion_ton_vision.pdf
      • 21 = Morris, D. (2001). Biomass: which road to take. Institute for Local Self-Reliance. Available at: http:// www.newrules.org/de/biomassstrategy.pdf
  • 28. Sources of Lignocellulose
    • Switchgrass 22
      • 3.4 tons / (acre * yr)
      • 1150 gallons ethanol / acre
      • 22 = http:// bioenergy.ornl.gov/papers/misc/switgrs.html
  • 29. Sources of Lignocellulose
    • Energy Cane 23
      • 30 dry tons / (acre*yr)
      • 23 = http://engineering.tamu.edu/research/lectures/docs/holtzappleppt/lecture.htm
  • 30. Sources of Lignocellulose
    • Energy Cane 23
      • 30 dry tons / (acre*yr)
      • 23 = http://engineering.tamu.edu/research/lectures/docs/holtzappleppt/lecture.htm
  • 31. Sources of Lignocellulose
    • Water hyacinth 23
      • 70 dry tons / (acre*yr)
      • 23 = http://engineering.tamu.edu/research/lectures/docs/holtzappleppt/lecture.htm
  • 32. In Practice
    • Iogen Corp. in Ottowa, Canada 24
      • 40 tons / day wheat straw to ethanol plant
    • Abengoa Bioenergy add-on to Spain plant
      • wheat straw
    • DuPont and Broin 25
      • partnership to build plant in Iowa?
      • Zymomonas mobilis as fermenting organism
        • high ethanol tolerance (250 g/L sugar->120 g/L ethanol)
        • “ low” tolerance to common inhibitors
    • MixAlco pilot plant in Texas
      • 24 = http://www.iogen.ca
      • 25 = http://www.agriculture.com/ag/story.jhtml?storyid=/templatedata/ag/story/data/1160057829655.xml&catref=ag1001
  • 33. Conclusions
    • Engineers create and distribute life-enhancing technologies
    • 21 st century challenge is to continue this work in growing “global” market
    • Energy independence is an important aspect
      • conservation
      • renewable production methods
    • Engineers are making progress on renewable energy independence