Alternative Fuel Workshop


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Alternative Fuel Workshop

  1. 1. Alternative Fuel Workshop Sponsored by the State Energy Conservation Office (SECO)
  2. 2. <ul><li>Lead automotive instructor for the Alternative Fuels Research and Education Division (AFRED) of the Railroad Commission of Texas </li></ul><ul><li>39 years in transportation education, research, and fleet management </li></ul>Franz Hofmann
  3. 3. <ul><li>To quote Ray Benson of Asleep at the Wheel, from the Bob Wills memorial album: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>“ You’ve got to dance with who brung you; </li></ul><ul><li>Swing with who swung you; </li></ul><ul><li>Life ain’t no 40 yard dash! “ </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>You have to choose your dance partner carefully because you will be dancing with them for a long time. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t do the 40 yard dash only to discover later that you chose the wrong dance partner. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing a fuel is much like choosing a dance partner. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Gasoline </li></ul><ul><li>Propane (LPG) </li></ul><ul><li>Compressed natural gas (CNG) </li></ul><ul><li>Liquefied natural gas (LNG) </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel / diesel blends </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>Methanol </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrids </li></ul>What fuel options do we have?
  6. 6. <ul><li>No one single fuel fits every application . . . </li></ul><ul><li>. . . but certain fuels are more suitable than others for specific applications. </li></ul>NO! My fuel is! My fuel is the best! The perfect fuel?
  7. 7. <ul><li>The most critical factor is availability. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All other things being equal, any fuel that is not available when and where you need it is not a viable option. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What about cost? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel at $5.00 per gallon is not a workable solution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A more critical factor is the total cost of ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A fleet needs to calculate the true fuel cost per mile </li></ul></ul>How do we select the “best” fuel for our needs?
  8. 8. <ul><li>Gasoline-ethanol blends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-20 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-85 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where does ethanol come from? Future supplies? </li></ul><ul><li>Drop-in? </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle modifications </li></ul><ul><li>Problems associated with gasoline/ethanol blends </li></ul><ul><li>Connections to other countries with possible political instabilities; potential effects on price and availability of fuels </li></ul>Gasoline and Gasoline Blends
  9. 9. <ul><li>Propane fuel options </li></ul><ul><li>Where does it come from? What is the future supply? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the cost of LPG versus gasoline? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison of LPG to gasoline, energy content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What about vehicle conversions? </li></ul><ul><li>What about OEM options? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems have been encountered with LPG vehicles? </li></ul>Propane (LPG)
  10. 10. <ul><li>CNG fuel options </li></ul><ul><li>Where does it come from? What is the future supply? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the cost of CNG vs gasoline? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison of CNG to gasoline. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What about vehicle conversions? </li></ul><ul><li>What about OEM options? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems have been encountered with CNG vehicles? </li></ul>Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
  11. 11. <ul><li>LNG fuel options </li></ul><ul><li>Where does it come from? What is the future supply? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the cost of LNG versus gasoline? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison of LNG to gasoline, energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What about vehicle conversions? </li></ul><ul><li>What about OEM options? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems have been encountered </li></ul><ul><li>with LNG vehicles? </li></ul>Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
  12. 12. <ul><li>Diesel fuel options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diesel blends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the future for diesel? </li></ul><ul><li>What about diesel emissions? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the diesel engine ever be available for a sedan and/or a light truck? </li></ul>Diesel and Diesel Blends
  13. 13. <ul><li>What is ethanol? </li></ul><ul><li>Where does it come from? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the future of ethanol? </li></ul><ul><li>Well then, what is E-85? </li></ul><ul><li>The Brazilian connection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What has been Brazil’s success when mandating the use of ethanol? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial availability </li></ul>Ethanol
  14. 14. <ul><li>What is methanol? </li></ul><ul><li>How is it made (where does it come from)? </li></ul><ul><li>Methanol and natural gas </li></ul><ul><li>What is the future for methanol? </li></ul><ul><li>Methanol toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Methanol/gasoline blends </li></ul>Methanol
  15. 15. <ul><li>What is hydrogen? </li></ul><ul><li>The “hydrogen economy” </li></ul><ul><li>What can hydrogen do for me? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any hydrogen vehicle options? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the future for hydrogen? </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen and the fuel cell </li></ul><ul><li>Will hydrogen ever be a “drop-in fuel”? </li></ul><ul><li>Problems associated with hydrogen and storage </li></ul>Hydrogen (H2)
  16. 16. <ul><li>Electric vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Battery </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle options </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle range (extension cords?) </li></ul><ul><li>Power usage </li></ul><ul><li>The future for electric vehicles </li></ul>Electric Vehicles
  17. 17. <ul><li>Hybrid vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>What is in store for hybrids in the future? </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid vehicle availability </li></ul><ul><li>OEM options </li></ul><ul><li>Wider selections of hybrids </li></ul><ul><li>Technology and future developments </li></ul><ul><li>Dual-path hybrids (kinetic energy) </li></ul>Hybrids
  18. 18. <ul><li>We have seen: </li></ul><ul><li>Vortex Generators, to induce air turbulence which aids in air and fuel mixing; </li></ul><ul><li>Airflow straighteners, to allow the air to enter the engine smoother; </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel polarizers, to “re-arrange” the fuel molecules, thusly allowing them to enter the engine without clumping; </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel catalysts, devices which re-arrange the atomic structure of the fuel to aid in more complete burning; </li></ul>&quot;Miracle&quot; Cures
  19. 19. <ul><li>Platinum plated stainless steel screens placed in the airflow to generate positive ionic atomic transfer (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Magnets on fuel lines, reportedly to align the fuel molecules; </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel additive pellets (Naptha, or better known as “Moth Balls”) </li></ul><ul><li>Adding acetone or lacquer thinner in an attempt to enhance the octane and enhance combustion; </li></ul><ul><li>Ectoplasm Trap (!) </li></ul><ul><li>Spark generators inside the air cleaner housing to promote negative ions; </li></ul><ul><li>Air Bleeds, Fuel Bleeds, wiring in resistors, Oxygen Sensor Bias Shift, etc. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>The EPA and the FTC have tested hundreds of these devices, very few of which work (total gain, under .010% mpg), and also others that made the fuel mileage worse. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Also, Popular Mechanics has tested similar products, with similar results. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Tested Fuel Saving Products
  21. 21. <ul><li>Be VERY wary of any claim that states “Approved by the EPA”! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The EPA does NOT approve any device. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also, be wary of any claim “Patented” or “EPA or ARB Certified”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All a patent means is that no one has done it already (not in the public domain for 7 years). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certification only means that it did NOT degrade the emissions, not that it improved the emissions, and NOBODY certifies a system that claims better economy! </li></ul></ul>Snake Oil
  22. 22. <ul><li>When its all said and done, if it was so great, it would be in every automobile already. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, and contrary to popular mythology, there is NO truth to “missing scientists”, “oil company conspiracy to suppress new technology”, “magic carburetors bought out by the “Big 3”. The closest we can get is between 1936 and 1953, a consortium of companies, General Motors, Firestone Tire, Standard Oil, and Phillips Petroleum did in fact buy out and close street car companies in order to stimulate new bus sales. (Still debatable, but is called the “The Great American Streetcar Scandal”) </li></ul>Snake Oil
  23. 23. <ul><li>Also, be wary of any testing results; </li></ul><ul><li>All testing should be performed by a recognized testing laboratory; </li></ul><ul><li>Anecdotal, non repeatable, third party claims have no legal credibility; </li></ul>Prove It!
  24. 24. So, what is my total cost of ownership?
  25. 25. <ul><li>Total Cost of Ownership: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not start or end with the vehicle purchase, and retirement: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outright cost of the vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of energy required to produce the vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of energy required to transport the vehicle (plus the costs of employee’s transportation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of the disposal, repairs, total life cycle cost analysis </li></ul></ul>TCO
  26. 26. <ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>The most “Energy Expensive” vehicle sold in the U.S. in calendar year 2005: Maybach at $11.58 per mile. The least expensive: Scion xB at $0.48 cents. </li></ul><ul><li>The Honda Accord Hybrid has an Energy Cost per Mile of $3.29 while the conventional Honda Accord is $2.18. Put simply, over the lifetime of the Accord Hybrid, it will require about 50 percent more energy than the non-hybrid version. </li></ul>TCO
  27. 27. <ul><li>The industry average of all vehicles sold in the U.S. in 2005 was $2.28 cents per mile, the Hummer H3 (among most SUVs) was only $1.949 cents per mile. That figure is also lower than all currently offered hybrids and Honda Civic at $2.42 per mile. </li></ul><ul><li>(Remember, we are looking at the total life cycle cost, including the amount of recyclables). </li></ul>Other Surprising Facts!
  28. 28. <ul><li>1. Scion xB ($0.48 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ford Escort (0.57 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Jeep Wrangler ($0.60 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Chevrolet Tracker ($0.69 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Toyota Echo ($0.70 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Saturn Ion ($0.71 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Hyundai Elantra ($0.72 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>8. Dodge Neon ($0.73 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>9. Toyota Corolla ($0.73 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>10. Scion xA ($0.74 per mile) </li></ul>Top 10 energy efficient
  29. 29. <ul><li>1. Mercedes Benz produced Maybach ($11.58 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Volkswagen Phaeton ($11.21 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Rolls-Royce (full line average: $10.66 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Bentley (full line average: $10.56 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Audi allroad Quattro ($5.59 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Audi A8 ($4.96 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Audi A6 ($4.96 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>8. Lexus LS430 ($4.73 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>9. Porsche Carrera GT ($4.53 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>10. Acura NSX ($4.45 per mile) </li></ul>Bottom 10 energy efficient
  30. 30. <ul><li>1. Honda Insight ($2.94 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ford Escape Hybrid ($3.18 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Honda Civic Hybrid ($3.24 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Toyota Prius ($3.25 per mile) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Honda Accord Hybrid ($3.30 per mile) </li></ul>Hybrid total energy efficiency
  31. 31. <ul><li>Studies have shown that the initial vehicle purchaser does not pay for the full cost of the vehicle, it is transferred down the ownership chain. </li></ul>So, who pays for it?
  32. 32. <ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid vehicles carry an expected battery life of 100,000 miles before calculated battery life deterioration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These vehicles are being sold to their second (and third) owners by this time (to avoid the battery replacement costs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the hybrid vehicle reaches the end of this period, the engine carries more of the load and the relative fuel economy gains begin to diminish. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also with hybrids, additional items including low resistance tires are very expensive and have a short life. </li></ul></ul>Explain, please?
  33. 33. <ul><li>Once a hybrid vehicle battery package deteriorates beyond the effective usefulness, the engine has to work harder with a resulting decrease in fuel economy. </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting vehicle is an underpowered and not terribly economical. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies have shown that the second or third user of a hybrid vehicle will not replace the battery pack (estimated $8,000 replacement for an auto worth approximately $8,000). </li></ul>Yet more:
  34. 34. <ul><li>The batteries in hybrid vehicles are not recyclable at the rates needed for an effective return (less than 15% of the material in a Lithium Ion battery is recyclable, compared to 80%+ in a Lead Zinc battery). </li></ul><ul><li>The electronic controls will be outdated by the time the vehicle is recycled; </li></ul><ul><li>The engine can be cost-recovered as any engine could; </li></ul><ul><li>Information provided by: CNW Marketing Research Inc </li></ul>Cost to Recycle
  35. 35. <ul><li>A fur trapper in the old Yukon was asked what his favorite utensil was; </li></ul><ul><li>“ Well, I guess my hatchet. I have had it over 40 years and it has never failed me yet. I’ve only had to replace the handle 7 times and the head 3 times!” </li></ul>In Closing:
  36. 36. <ul><li>This demonstrates commitment to a tool, much the same as a fleet manager is committed to a fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>Political climates change, but the fuel stays the same. </li></ul>In Closing:
  37. 37. <ul><li>“ You’ve got to dance with who brung you; </li></ul><ul><li>Swing with who swung you; </li></ul><ul><li>Life ain’t no 40 yard dash! “ </li></ul><ul><li>Make your choice of fuels carefully, you will be with your choice for a very long time. </li></ul>. . .and remember: