An Overview of Hybrid Vehicle Technologies Robert P. Larsen, Director Center for Transportation Research Washington Day 2004
Hybrid Vehicle Technologies Hold Great Potential but Face Barriers <ul><li>Great Potential </li></ul><ul><li>HEVs have dem...
Hybrid Powertrain Topology Conventional Electric Motor Engine Battery Electric  Motor Battery Micro Hybrid Full Hybrid Ele...
Key Features of Hybrids, or  How Do They Do It? <ul><li>Hybrids achieve improved efficiencies using several approaches: </...
Hybrids Can Have Multiple Configurations Graphics: Toyota Motor Corporation Starter-Alternator Series (fuel cell) Power Sp...
What Are Key Characteristics of  HEV Configurations? <ul><li>2- and 4-Wheel Drive </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical complexity ...
Current and Future Light Duty HEVs with Battery Voltage and Chemistry Battery Voltage (V) 2006 2004 2002 2000 36V 216V 273...
WTW Efficiencies of Hybrids Impressive 14% 21 % 24% 29% 29% Based on US-market fuels and US combined fuel economy Source: ...
Selecting the Right Application is Critical for HD Hybrid Success <ul><li>Understanding a vehicle’s duty cycle is essentia...
Transit Bus Applications Are A Good Fit for Hybrids <ul><li>Bus duty-cycle ideal for maximum regenerative braking effectiv...
Heavy-Duty Truck Hybrid  Applications Can Be Very Attractive <ul><li>Suitability is application-specific! </li></ul><ul><l...
FedEx/Eaton HEV Demonstrator a Good Example of What Can Be Done <ul><li>“ Next Generation” delivery truck </li></ul><ul><l...
Hybrid Vehicles Are Here To Stay <ul><li>Higher production volumes are bringing costs down </li></ul><ul><li>Improved comp...
There is Much More to Know about Hybrids: Some Resources <ul><li>SAE papers, books ( www.sae.org ) </li></ul><ul><li>DOE t...
Thank You for Your Attention Questions and Discussion?
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  • The Honda Insight uses a parallel system. The engine normally drives the car, with the electric motor cutting in when extra power is needed, such as during acceleration.
  • 35334.ppt

    1. 1. An Overview of Hybrid Vehicle Technologies Robert P. Larsen, Director Center for Transportation Research Washington Day 2004
    2. 2. Hybrid Vehicle Technologies Hold Great Potential but Face Barriers <ul><li>Great Potential </li></ul><ul><li>HEVs have demonstrated significant potential to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in battery, power electronics technologies have made commercialization possible </li></ul><ul><li>Performance is generally as good as or better than CVs </li></ul><ul><li>Real Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Extra complexity adds significant cost </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel efficiency improvements will vary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By hybrid vehicle type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By driving cycle </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Hybrid Powertrain Topology Conventional Electric Motor Engine Battery Electric Motor Battery Micro Hybrid Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle Range extender Series Hybrid Parallel Fuel Cell Series Mild Hybrid Generator Engine Fuel Cell
    4. 4. Key Features of Hybrids, or How Do They Do It? <ul><li>Hybrids achieve improved efficiencies using several approaches: </li></ul><ul><li>Employ regenerative braking to recover energy that is thrown away </li></ul><ul><li>Downsize or “right-size” the engine or primary power source </li></ul><ul><li>Control the engine or primary power source to operate more efficiently and/or work more often in a more efficient range </li></ul><ul><li>Other vehicle modifications applied to hybrids like aerodynamic improvements, low rolling resistance tires can be applied to CVs too </li></ul>
    5. 5. Hybrids Can Have Multiple Configurations Graphics: Toyota Motor Corporation Starter-Alternator Series (fuel cell) Power Split Parallel
    6. 6. What Are Key Characteristics of HEV Configurations? <ul><li>2- and 4-Wheel Drive </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Range of system voltages, battery chemistries, electric complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated control strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple driving modes </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple prime movers (engines, fuel cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple fuels (including hydrogen) </li></ul>Series Parallel
    7. 7. Current and Future Light Duty HEVs with Battery Voltage and Chemistry Battery Voltage (V) 2006 2004 2002 2000 36V 216V 273.6V 201.6V 346V 300V Li-ion Pb Pb Pb NiMH 2007 GM 800 Utilities GMC Sierra Dodge Ram Toyota Crown Toyota Alphard Nissan Tino Lexus RX400h Toyota Prius Honda Insight Honda Civic Ford Escape Saturn Vue Toyota Prius Honda Accord
    8. 8. WTW Efficiencies of Hybrids Impressive 14% 21 % 24% 29% 29% Based on US-market fuels and US combined fuel economy Source: Toyota 50% 58% Natural gas-H 2 Commercial FCHV 37% 79% 2004 Prius with HSD 31% 79% 2003 Prius 27% 79% 1999 Prius 18% 79% Average 2003 Car Overall Well-to-Wheel Efficiency (%) Tank-To-Wheel Well-To-Tank 0 10 20 30 40
    9. 9. Selecting the Right Application is Critical for HD Hybrid Success <ul><li>Understanding a vehicle’s duty cycle is essential to know if a hybrid makes sense </li></ul><ul><li>Rules of Thumb: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-speed, stop-and-go duty cycle highly favorable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed urban driving is modestly favorable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highway driving is unfavorable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improvements in efficiency and emissions are directly related to driving cycle and configuration </li></ul>
    10. 10. Transit Bus Applications Are A Good Fit for Hybrids <ul><li>Bus duty-cycle ideal for maximum regenerative braking effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions reduction benefits highly valued </li></ul><ul><li>Can have limited EV operation </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced operating costs can pay back cost premium over time </li></ul><ul><li>BUT: </li></ul><ul><li>Cost premiums now 80% - 100% </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiencies 10% - 25% (up to 60% claimed); some emissions benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Without UMTA grants, adoption unlikely </li></ul>
    11. 11. Heavy-Duty Truck Hybrid Applications Can Be Very Attractive <ul><li>Suitability is application-specific! </li></ul><ul><li>Garbage haulers a natural </li></ul><ul><li>City or urban delivery vehicles are attractive </li></ul><ul><li>In general, the heavier the load and the longer the drive, the less hybrids make sense </li></ul>
    12. 12. FedEx/Eaton HEV Demonstrator a Good Example of What Can Be Done <ul><li>“ Next Generation” delivery truck </li></ul><ul><li>Downsized diesel engine from 5.9 L to 4.3 L </li></ul><ul><li>Added 44 kW motor, Li-Ion batteries, autoshift transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>45% increase in fuel economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>54% reduction in NOx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>93% reduction in PM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16% improvement in 0-60 accel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However: incremental cost $30,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Unfavorable economics cut initial test fleet size </li></ul>
    13. 13. Hybrid Vehicles Are Here To Stay <ul><li>Higher production volumes are bringing costs down </li></ul><ul><li>Improved component performances – especially batteries – will make more applications attractive </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptations of engines to HEV applications will increase the attractiveness of HEVs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable displacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HCCI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 ICE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in fuel economy regulations may drive hybrid adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Hybridization will play a key role in future fuel cell vehicle design </li></ul>
    14. 14. There is Much More to Know about Hybrids: Some Resources <ul><li>SAE papers, books ( www.sae.org ) </li></ul><ul><li>DOE technical reports ( www.eere.energy.gov ) </li></ul><ul><li>National Laboratories ( www.transportation.anl.gov ; www.ctts.nrel.gov ; www.-cta.ornl.gov ; www.ca.sandia.gov ; aet.llnl.gov/trans.html ) </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle manufactures web sites </li></ul><ul><li>EPA, DOT, CARB, CEC, CFCP web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Trade magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Automotive and truck magazines </li></ul>
    15. 15. Thank You for Your Attention Questions and Discussion?
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