The Synergy of Plug-in Vehicles in Micro-grids<br />Peter Lilienthal, Ph.D.<br />CEO, HOMER Energy<br />peter@homerenergy....
What is a Microgrid?<br />Set of loads and generation sources capable of autonomous “islanded” operation<br />Microgrids m...
Background and History<br />Remote and island grids are not new<br />Grid-connected microgrids are coming<br />Dependent o...
3 Disruptive Innovations<br />Electric vehicles<br />Distributed controls<br />Low cost PV<br />Grid Parity<br />2334 Broa...
PV Price Trend<br />http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/ipcc-srren-generic-presentation-1<br />2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304	...
Clean Power Evolution<br />Large utilities have security and regulatory obstacles<br />2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 803...
Microgrids and Plug-in Vehicles<br />Grid benefits of distributed storage<br />Save fuel and $s<br />Stabilize the grid<br...
Economic Benefits<br />Long term storage (hours)<br />Throughput costs ~ $0.40/ kWh in battery wear<br />Only economic now...
A little storage goes a long way</li></ul>2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304					www.homerenergy.com<br />
Grid stability<br />Benefit to both microgrid and central grid<br />Frequency and voltage control<br />Renewable contribut...
Local Reliability Benefits<br />Storage for short outages<br />Hybrid renewables for extended outages<br />2334 Broadway, ...
Types of Vehicles<br />Battery size<br />Pure EV or hybrid<br />V2G or Smart Charging<br />Power transfer capability<br />...
Types of Microgrids<br />Remote microgrids<br />Global experience<br />Alaska and Australia<br />HOMER’s 60,000 users in 1...
Too Many Choices<br />Solar<br />Fuel Cells<br />Wind<br />Micro-turbines<br />Hydro<br />Geothermal<br />Micro-grids<br /...
What is best?<br />Depends on the application<br />Resources<br />Loads<br />Equipment prices<br />Equipment performance<b...
HOMER History<br />1993 Village Power<br />Internal NREL use<br />2001 Public version 2.0<br />Larger grid-connected syste...
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Synergy of Plug-In Vehicles in Microgrids

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Plug-in vehicles can be a means to increase the amount of renewable energy within a microgrid. Properly designed pluggable hybrid vehicles will improve grid reliability and stability. This presentation was a plenary address at the Automotive Research Center annual meeting, and it addresses some of the design components needed to make vehicles and microgrids work together well.

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Transcript of "Synergy of Plug-In Vehicles in Microgrids"

  1. 1. The Synergy of Plug-in Vehicles in Micro-grids<br />Peter Lilienthal, Ph.D.<br />CEO, HOMER Energy<br />peter@homerenergy.com<br />Automotive Research Center Conference<br />May 24th, 2011<br />2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304 www.homerenergy.com<br />
  2. 2. What is a Microgrid?<br />Set of loads and generation sources capable of autonomous “islanded” operation<br />Microgrids make EVs more valuable<br />And vice versa<br />Reliability<br />Renewables<br />Smart grid<br />2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304 www.homerenergy.com<br />
  3. 3. Background and History<br />Remote and island grids are not new<br />Grid-connected microgrids are coming<br />Dependent on liquid fuels from petroleum<br />2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304 www.homerenergy.com<br />
  4. 4. 3 Disruptive Innovations<br />Electric vehicles<br />Distributed controls<br />Low cost PV<br />Grid Parity<br />2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304 www.homerenergy.com<br />
  5. 5. PV Price Trend<br />http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/ipcc-srren-generic-presentation-1<br />2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304 www.homerenergy.com<br />
  6. 6. Clean Power Evolution<br />Large utilities have security and regulatory obstacles<br />2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304 www.homerenergy.com<br />
  7. 7. Microgrids and Plug-in Vehicles<br />Grid benefits of distributed storage<br />Save fuel and $s<br />Stabilize the grid<br />Reliability<br />2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304 www.homerenergy.com<br />
  8. 8. Economic Benefits<br />Long term storage (hours)<br />Throughput costs ~ $0.40/ kWh in battery wear<br />Only economic now for small loads<br /><ul><li>Short term storage (minutes)</li></ul>Variable renewables => more spinning reserve<br />Generators have:<br />Minimum load constraints<br />Ramp rate constraints<br />Low efficiency at low load<br /><ul><li>Storage is a better reserve resource
  9. 9. A little storage goes a long way</li></ul>2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304 www.homerenergy.com<br />
  10. 10. Grid stability<br />Benefit to both microgrid and central grid<br />Frequency and voltage control<br />Renewable contribution<br />Diesel-off operation<br />2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304 www.homerenergy.com<br />
  11. 11. Local Reliability Benefits<br />Storage for short outages<br />Hybrid renewables for extended outages<br />2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304 www.homerenergy.com<br />
  12. 12. Types of Vehicles<br />Battery size<br />Pure EV or hybrid<br />V2G or Smart Charging<br />Power transfer capability<br />110 volt x 30 amps = 3.3 kW = 4hp<br />220 volt x 50 amp = 11 kW = 15 hp<br />2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304 www.homerenergy.com<br />
  13. 13. Types of Microgrids<br />Remote microgrids<br />Global experience<br />Alaska and Australia<br />HOMER’s 60,000 users in 193 countries<br />Grid-connected microgrids<br />Reliability requirements<br />Sustainability mandates<br />2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304 www.homerenergy.com<br />
  14. 14. Too Many Choices<br />Solar<br />Fuel Cells<br />Wind<br />Micro-turbines<br />Hydro<br />Geothermal<br />Micro-grids<br />Biomass<br />Demand Response<br />New Storage Techs.<br />Electric Vehicles<br />Load Management<br />Smart grids<br />2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304 www.homerenergy.com<br />
  15. 15. What is best?<br />Depends on the application<br />Resources<br />Loads<br />Equipment prices<br />Equipment performance<br />A confused mind says “No!”<br />Hybrid optimization with the HOMER® software<br />2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304 www.homerenergy.com<br />
  16. 16. HOMER History<br />1993 Village Power<br />Internal NREL use<br />2001 Public version 2.0<br />Larger grid-connected systems<br /> 2005 Plug-in vehicle<br />Internal NREL use<br />2009 HOMER Energy spun off<br />2011 Version 3.0<br />Ease of customization<br />2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304 www.homerenergy.com<br />
  17. 17. Conclusion<br />EVs & microgrids: a perfect match.<br />Grid integration is important.<br />The HOMER software can help.<br />2334 Broadway, #B, Boulder, Co. 80304 www.homerenergy.com<br />
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