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HOMER Energy: Perspectives on Advanced Energy Storage

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HOMER Energy CEO Peter Lilienthal gave two invited presentations on storage recently – at Battery Power 2010 and at the Utility Wind Integration Group’s Annual Meeting. A variety of new storage ...

HOMER Energy CEO Peter Lilienthal gave two invited presentations on storage recently – at Battery Power 2010 and at the Utility Wind Integration Group’s Annual Meeting. A variety of new storage technologies are being developed that will support the operation of smart, grid-connected microgrids.

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  • &#xAD;&#xAD;&#xAD;&#xAD;&#xAD;&#xAD;&#xAD;&#xAD;&#xAD;&#xAD;But there are too many choices <br />
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  • If renewable penetrations are in the single digit %s you don&#x2019;t need storage <br /> The most obvious application of storage involves charging all day when the sun shines and discharging at night. Potentially cost-effective with thermal storage and pumped hydro, hopelessly uneconomic with batteries. <br /> All is not lost because in between these two extremes there is a huge role for storage to keep the variability of renewable resources from playing havoc with the rest of the system. <br />
  • It is easy to get overwhelmed by the variety of ways that storage could add value. Recently reviewed 3 different reports <br /> Each listed 15-20 different applications <br /> <br /> Overlapping and inconsistent definitions <br /> <br /> Reliability can be backup or reserves <br /> Power quality can be frequency control, voltage control, VAR support <br /> Economics can be arbitrage, eliminate curtailments, prevent inefficient operation of other plants. <br /> Distributed resources are the only way to provide the highest levels of reliability <br />
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HOMER Energy: Perspectives on Advanced Energy Storage HOMER Energy: Perspectives on Advanced Energy Storage Presentation Transcript

  • Analyzing Storage and Distributed Renewables in Micro-grids with HOMER® Peter Lilienthal, Ph.D. peter.lilienthal@homerenergy.com CEO, HOMER Energy Battery Power Dallas, Texas October 19,2010
  • HOMER • Industry standard for optimizing the design of hybrid micro-grids with: – Conventional resources • Reciprocating gensets • Turbines • Grid connections – Renewable resources • Wind • Solar • Hydro • Biomass power – Storage • Lead-acid • Flow batteries • Flywheels • Hydrogen – Load Management • Deferrable loads • Multiple levels of priority loads • Thermal loads
  • HOMER • Developed at National Renewable Energy Lab – 1992-2009 • Original developers now at HOMER Energy, LLC. • 48,000 users in 193 countries New users per month
  • The Future of Power Clean, distributed power with hybrid renewables and smart micro-grids But how do we get there?
  • The Future of Power Clean, distributed power with hybrid renewables and smart micro-grids But how do we get there?
  • Unconventional Wisdom • The real problem with wind and solar occurs when they produce too much power. – The problems with wind and solar is not what happens when the wind doesn’t blow or the sun doesn’t shine. That is an easy problem to solve because we just use our conventional resources just like we always have. What do we do with the excess power when they produce too much power? When can we take generators off-line? • Baseload vs. peaking is an obsolete distinction – The important distinction going forward is variable vs. flexible. Storage is flexible, but so is load management and turbine manufacturers are trying to make their products more flexible. • No single storage application is cost-effective. – This doesn’t mean that storage is never cost-effective. There are multiple values that storage provides. Successful projects will have to find ways to capture more than one of those value streams. – Arbitrage won’t pay for a storage project. • Storage will not make wind act like coal. – There is a huge potential for hybridizing renewables and storage, but it still won’t behave like a coal plant. Storage should be operated to maximize the benefit to the grid as a whole, not just an individual wind project. • Small isolated grids will be the smart grid trailblazers
  • Clean Power Evolution The
security
and
regulatory
obstacles
for
large
interconnected
u4li4es
to
create
a
smart
 grid
with
distributed
controls
are
daun4ng.
 Smaller,
isolated
grids
have
an
economic
impera4ve
to
reduce
consump4on
of
 petroleum‐derived
liquid
fuels.
The
impacts
on
them
of
high
penetra4ons
of
renewable

 power
and
distributed
“smart‐grid”
controls
will
be
undiluted
by
regional
power
flows. Distributed
control
technology
will
also
be
deployed
in
grid‐connected
micro‐grids
where
 security
and
reliability
considera4ons
require
extended
off‐grid
“islanded”
opera4on.
  • Smart, clean micro-grids • Capable of islanded operation • Backup generation for reliability – Petroleum-derived liquid fuels • Substantial renewables – Reduce fuel consumption for economic and environmental reasons • Storage and load management – Absorb variability for grid stability and minimization of low-load generator operation
  • Too Many Choices So lar C ells e l Fu Wind s Hydro Micro -turbine Geothermal Micro-grids s s B ioma Dema nd Re hs. Lo spons e Tec ad r age Ma Sto c na N ew c tri es ge le icl E eh Smart grids me nt V
  • Too Many Choices So lar C ells e l Fu Wind s Hydro Micro -turbine Geothermal Micro-grids s s B ioma Dema nd Re hs. Lo spons e Tec ad r age Ma Sto c na N ew c tri es ge le icl E eh Smart grids me nt V
  • Sensitivity HOMER identifies which system is best under what conditions? Different penetration levels require different amounts of storage.
  • Levels of renewable regimes Low No Storage Medium Minutes of storage for power quality High Hours of bulk storage Load management can supplement or replace some/all of the storage. This typically involves thermal storage. This is the real competition to electric storage. System in St. Paul Alaska runs with just wind and load management of electric heating (no diesel or storage) for weeks at a time. More renewables requires more intelligent controls St. Paul, Alaska
  • Valuing Storage • White papers list dozens of different applications of storage • 3 broad categories – Improves reliability • Backup or reserves – Improves power quality • Frequency control, voltage control, VAR support – Reduces cost • Arbitrage, eliminate curtailments, prevent inefficient operation of other plants • Locational issues – The only value that requires storage at the point of generation is when a renewable resource has interconnection constraints – Service reliability is best provided by distributed resources • The vast majority of outages are due to distribution system disturbances – Reactive power and voltage support are also local problems – Many sources of value, such as arbitrage and frequency control, have the same value to the system regardless of location.
  • Arbitrage • Buy low / sell high is everyone’s first answer to: Why storage? – It’s a bad answer for most storage technologies. • Assume $300/kWh, 1000 cycles to failure • Each kWh of throughput costs $0.30/kWh in battery wear; ~$0.50 including input energy and losses. • High arbitrage opportunity may only be for summer weekdays ~100 cycles per year. • Could be a modest value adder if there are other values or with 10,000 cycle lifetime.
  • Micro-grids are the future • Distributed storage has a huge role to play • It may be in the form of electric vehicles • Large variety of possible system designs • Micro-grids allow experimentation at a reasonable scale. • Already happening on islands and developing countries