The vietnamwar

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  • Ho Chi Minh had been fighting for Vietnamese independence since World War I.
    The U.S. gave France aid to win its support in American anticommunist efforts in Western Europe.
  • Ho Chi Minh had been fighting for Vietnamese independence since World War I.
    The U.S. gave France aid to win its support in American anticommunist efforts in Western Europe.
  • Realizing he would Diem backs out of elections.
  • Realizing he would lose, Diem backed out of elections.
  • Realizing he would Diem backs out of elections.
  • Kennedy’s advisors were clearly fighting a covert war by 1963.
    MacNamara has suggested that he believes Kennedy would have pulled the U.S. out, but evidence in inconclusive.
    JFK realizes Diem is a liability; offers quiet support to a Vietnamese military coup d’etat.
    The coup results in the brutal murders of Diem and his brother
    The Vietnamese generals overthrow one another. A relatively stable, but tyrannical government emerges. It is little better than Diem’s.
  • What Johnson told Congress
    What he didn’t tell Congress:
    He had already written the resolution before the “incident.”
    The U.S. naval vessels were aiding ARVN in commando raids in North Vietnam at the time.
    He learned that the attack probably hadn’t occurred.
    The U.S. navy was not on the “high seas” but in N. Vietnam’s 12 mile territorial limit.
  • What Johnson told Congress
    What he didn’t tell Congress:
    He had already written the resolution before the “incident.”
    The U.S. naval vessels were aiding ARVN in commando raids in North Vietnam at the time.
    He learned that the attack probably hadn’t occurred.
    The U.S. navy was not on the “high seas” but in N. Vietnam’s 12 mile territorial limit.
  • Kennedy’s advisors were clearly fighting a covert war by 1963.
    MacNamara has suggested that he believes Kennedy would have pulled the U.S. out, but evidence in inconclusive.
    JFK realizes Diem is a liability; offers quiet support to a Vietnamese military coup d’etat.
    The coup results in the brutal murders of Diem and his brother
    The Vietnamese generals overthrow one another. A relatively stable, but tyrannical government emerges. It is little better than Diem’s.
  • Nixon’s “secret” plan never materializes.
    He involved us more.
    “Peace with Honor” We’ll win befoe we withdraw.
    Expansion:Cambodia invaded in 1970: Ho Chi Minh Trail
    Laos invaded in 1971: Ho Chi Minh Trail
  • Nixon resigns over the Watergate Scandal in 1974.
    Ford takes the helm.
  • Nixon resigns over the Watergate Scandal in 1974.
    Ford takes the helm.
  • Many U.S.-loyal South Vietnamese attempt to flee for fear of execution by the North.
  • Diversion of capital to the war indirectly caused economic recession: 11% inflation and 12% unemployment!
  • War Powers Act., 1973, passed over Nixon's veto, requires the President to
    notify Congress within 48 hours of his use of military force in a foreign country or enlarging an ongoing conflict.
    The President must secure Congressional approval if he intends to keep these troops overseas for more than 60 days. If he doesn't, he must withdraw the forces.
    Congress can pass a joint resolution to withdraw the troops before the 60 day deadline. (Each President since has denied its validity, though the issue has never been tested.)
    No welcome home (shamed and ashamed), high unemployment, alcohol & drug abuse; poor care of disabled vets: underfunded vets hospitals, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder; Agent Orange health problems, birth defects in vets’ children.
  • The vietnamwar

    1. 1. The Vietnam War 1954 - 1975 Ms. Susan M. Pojer Hora Ms. Susan M. Pojer Hora
    2. 2. Background to the War  France controlled “Indochina” sinceFrance controlled “Indochina” since the late 19the late 19thth centurycentury  Japan took control during WorldJapan took control during World War IIWar II  With U.S. aid, France attemptedWith U.S. aid, France attempted re-colonization in the postwarre-colonization in the postwar periodperiod
    3. 3. Background to the War  The French lost control toThe French lost control to Ho Chi Minh’sHo Chi Minh’s Viet MinhViet Minh forces in 1954 atforces in 1954 at Dien BienDien Bien PhuPhu  President Eisenhower declined toPresident Eisenhower declined to intervene on behalf of France.intervene on behalf of France.
    4. 4. Background to the War  International Conference atInternational Conference at GenevaGeneva  Vietnam was divided at 17Vietnam was divided at 17thth parallelparallel O Ho Chi Minh’sHo Chi Minh’s nationalistnationalist forces controlled the Northforces controlled the North O Ngo Dinh DiemNgo Dinh Diem, a French-, a French- educated, Roman Catholiceducated, Roman Catholic claimed control of theclaimed control of the SouthSouth
    5. 5. Background to the War  A date was set for democraticA date was set for democratic elections to reunify Vietnamelections to reunify Vietnam  Diem backed out of theDiem backed out of the elections, leading to militaryelections, leading to military conflict between North andconflict between North and SouthSouth
    6. 6. U.S. Military Involvement Begins Repressive dictatorial rule by DiemRepressive dictatorial rule by Diem  Diem’s family holds all powerDiem’s family holds all power  Wealth is hoarded by the eliteWealth is hoarded by the elite  Buddhist majority persecutedBuddhist majority persecuted  Torture, lack of political freedom prevailTorture, lack of political freedom prevail  The U.S. aided Diem’s governmentThe U.S. aided Diem’s government  Ike sent financial and military aidIke sent financial and military aid  675 U.S. Army advisors sent by 1960.675 U.S. Army advisors sent by 1960.
    7. 7. Early Protests of Diem’s Government Self-Emolation by a Buddhist MonkSelf-Emolation by a Buddhist Monk
    8. 8. U.S. Military Involvement Begins  Kennedy elected 1960Kennedy elected 1960  Increases military “advisors” toIncreases military “advisors” to 16,00016,000  1963: JFK supports a1963: JFK supports a Vietnamese militaryVietnamese military coup d’etatcoup d’etat –– Diem and his brother areDiem and his brother are murderedmurdered (Nov. 2)(Nov. 2)  Kennedy was assassinated justKennedy was assassinated just weeks laterweeks later (Nov. 22)(Nov. 22)
    9. 9. Johnson Sends Ground Forces  Remembers Truman’s “loss”Remembers Truman’s “loss” of Chinaof China  Domino TheoryDomino Theory revivedrevived I’m not going to beI’m not going to be the president whothe president who saw Southeast Asiasaw Southeast Asia go the way Chinago the way China went.went.
    10. 10. Johnson Sends Ground Forces  Advised to rout the communistsAdvised to rout the communists by Secretary of State,by Secretary of State, RobertRobert S. McNamaraS. McNamara  Tonkin Gulf IncidentTonkin Gulf Incident  19641964 (acc. to Johnson, the attacks were(acc. to Johnson, the attacks were unprovoked)unprovoked)  Tonkin Gulf ResolutionTonkin Gulf Resolution  ““The Blank Check”The Blank Check” **
    11. 11. U.S. Troop Deployments in Vietnam
    12. 12. The Ground War 1965-1968 No territorial goalsNo territorial goals  Body counts on TV every nightBody counts on TV every night (first(first “living room” war“living room” war))  Viet Cong supplies over theViet Cong supplies over the Ho Chi Minh TrailHo Chi Minh Trail
    13. 13. The Air War 1965-1968  1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnam1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnam  Operation Rolling ThunderOperation Rolling Thunder (March 2, 1965)(March 2, 1965)  1966-68: Ongoing bombing of Hanoi1966-68: Ongoing bombing of Hanoi nonstop for 3 years! Esp. targets thenonstop for 3 years! Esp. targets the Ho Chi Minh TrailHo Chi Minh Trail..  Downed Pilots: P.O.W.sDowned Pilots: P.O.W.s  Carpet Bombing –Carpet Bombing – napalmnapalm
    14. 14. The Air War: A Napalm Attack
    15. 15. Who Is the Enemy?  VietcongVietcong:  Farmers by day; guerillas atFarmers by day; guerillas at night.night.  Very patient people willing toVery patient people willing to accept many casualties.accept many casualties.  The US grossly underestimatedThe US grossly underestimated their resolve and theirtheir resolve and their resourcefulness.resourcefulness. The guerilla wins if he does not lose,The guerilla wins if he does not lose, the conventional army loses if it doesthe conventional army loses if it does not win.not win. -- Mao ZedongMao Zedong
    16. 16. Who Is the Enemy?
    17. 17. The Ground War 1965-1968 General WestmorelandGeneral Westmoreland, late 1967: We can see theWe can see the “light at the end of the tunnel.”“light at the end of the tunnel.”
    18. 18. The Tet Offensive, January 1968 N. Vietnamese Army + Viet CongN. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously (67,000attack South simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the USattack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon)embassy in Saigon)  Take every major southern cityTake every major southern city  U.S. + ARVN beat back the offensiveU.S. + ARVN beat back the offensive  Viet Cong destroyedViet Cong destroyed  N. Vietnamese army debilitatedN. Vietnamese army debilitated  BUT…it’s seen as an American defeatBUT…it’s seen as an American defeat by the mediaby the media
    19. 19. The Tet Offensiv e, January 1968
    20. 20. Impact of the Tet Offensive Domestic U.S. Reaction:Domestic U.S. Reaction: Disbelief, Anger, Distrust ofDisbelief, Anger, Distrust of Johnson AdministrationJohnson Administration  Hey, Hey LBJ! HowHey, Hey LBJ! How many kids did youmany kids did you kill today?kill today?
    21. 21. Johnson’sJohnson’s popularitypopularity dropped indropped in 1968 from1968 from 48% to 36%.48% to 36%.
    22. 22. Impact of the Vietnam War ……I shall notI shall not seek, and I willseek, and I will not accept, thenot accept, the nomination of mynomination of my party for anotherparty for another term as yourterm as your President.President. Johnson announces (March, 1968):Johnson announces (March, 1968):
    23. 23. American Morale Begins to Dip Disproportionate representation ofDisproportionate representation of poor people and minorities.poor people and minorities.  Severe racial problems.Severe racial problems.  Major drugMajor drug problems.problems.  Officers in combatOfficers in combat 6 mo.; in rear6 mo.; in rear 6 mo. Enlisted6 mo. Enlisted men in combat for 12 mo.men in combat for 12 mo.
    24. 24. Are We Becoming the Enemy?  Lt. William CalleyLt. William Calley,, Platoon LeaderPlatoon Leader  Mylai MassacreMylai Massacre, 1968, 1968  200-500 unarmed villagers200-500 unarmed villagers Charlie Company, 1Charlie Company, 1stst Battalion, 20Battalion, 20thth InfantryInfantry
    25. 25. Anti-War Demonstration s Columbia UniversityColumbia University 19671967
    26. 26. Hell no, we won’tHell no, we won’t go!go!
    27. 27. Democratic ConventionDemocratic Convention in Chicago, 1968in Chicago, 1968 Student ProtestorsStudent Protestors at Univ. of CAat Univ. of CA in Berkeley, 1968in Berkeley, 1968 Anti-War Demonstration s
    28. 28. “Hanoi Jane” Jane Fonda: Traitor?Jane Fonda: Traitor?
    29. 29. Anti-War Demonstrations  May 4, 1970May 4, 1970  4 students4 students shot dead.shot dead.  11 students11 students woundedwounded Kent State UniversityKent State University  Jackson StateJackson State UniversityUniversity  May 10, 1970May 10, 1970  2 dead; 122 dead; 12 woundedwounded
    30. 30. Nixon on Vietnam  Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised anNixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war:end to the war: Peace with HonorPeace with Honor  Appealed to the greatAppealed to the great “Silent Majority”“Silent Majority”  VietnamizationVietnamization  Expansion of theExpansion of the conflictconflict  The “Secret War”The “Secret War”  CambodiaCambodia  LaosLaos  Agent OrangeAgent Orange (chemical defoliant)(chemical defoliant)
    31. 31. “Pentagon Papers,” 1971  Former defense analystFormer defense analyst Daniel EllsbergDaniel Ellsberg leaked govt. docs. regarding war effortsleaked govt. docs. regarding war efforts during Johnson’s administration to theduring Johnson’s administration to the New York TimesNew York Times..  Docs.Docs. Govt. misled Congress & Amer.Govt. misled Congress & Amer. People regarding its intentions in VietnamPeople regarding its intentions in Vietnam during mid-1960s.during mid-1960s.  Primary reason for fighting not toPrimary reason for fighting not to eliminate communism, buteliminate communism, but to avoidto avoid humiliating defeathumiliating defeat..  New York Times v. United StatesNew York Times v. United States (1971)(1971) **
    32. 32. The Ceasefire, 1973  Peace is at handPeace is at hand  Kissinger, 1972Kissinger, 1972  North Vietnam attacks SouthNorth Vietnam attacks South  Most Massive U.S. bombing commencesMost Massive U.S. bombing commences  1973: Ceasefire signed between1973: Ceasefire signed between  U.S., South Vietnam, & North VietnamU.S., South Vietnam, & North Vietnam  Peace with honorPeace with honor (President Nixon)(President Nixon)
    33. 33. Peace Negotiations  US &US & VietnameseVietnamese argue forargue for 5 months5 months over theover the size of thesize of the conferenceconference table!table! Dr. Henry KissingerDr. Henry Kissinger & Le Duc ThoLe Duc Tho
    34. 34. The Ceasefire, 1973  Conditions:Conditions: 1.1. U.S. to remove all troopsU.S. to remove all troops 2.2. North Vietnam could leave troopsNorth Vietnam could leave troops already in S.V.already in S.V. 3.3. North Vietnam would resume warNorth Vietnam would resume war 4.4. No provision for POWs or MIAsNo provision for POWs or MIAs  Last American troops left SouthLast American troops left South Vietnam on March 29, 1973Vietnam on March 29, 1973  1975: North Vietnam defeats South1975: North Vietnam defeats South VietnamVietnam  Saigon renamedSaigon renamed Ho Chi Minh CityHo Chi Minh City
    35. 35. The Fall of Saigon South VietnameseSouth Vietnamese Attempt to Flee the CountryAttempt to Flee the Country
    36. 36. The Fall of Saigon America Abandons Its EmbassyAmerica Abandons Its Embassy April 30, 1975April 30, 1975
    37. 37. The Fall of Saigon North VietnameseNorth Vietnamese at the Presidential Palaceat the Presidential Palace
    38. 38. Formerly SaigonFormerly Saigon A United Vietnam
    39. 39. The Costs 1.1. 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed3,000,000 Vietnamese killed 2.2. 58,000 Americans killed;58,000 Americans killed; 300,000 wounded300,000 wounded 3.3. Under-funding of Great SocietyUnder-funding of Great Society programsprograms 4.4. $150,000,000,000 in U.S.$150,000,000,000 in U.S. spendingspending 5.5. U.S. morale, self-confidence,U.S. morale, self-confidence, trust of government, decimatedtrust of government, decimated
    40. 40. The Impact  2626thth AmendmentAmendment: 18-year-olds vote: 18-year-olds vote  Nixon abolished the draftNixon abolished the draft all-volunteer armyall-volunteer army  War Powers Act,War Powers Act, 19731973 ‫٭‬‫٭‬  President must notify Congress within 48President must notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying military forcehours of deploying military force  President must withdraw forces unless hePresident must withdraw forces unless he gains Congressional approval within 90gains Congressional approval within 90 daysdays  Disregard for VeteransDisregard for Veterans  seen asseen as “baby killers”“baby killers”  POW/MIA issue lingeredPOW/MIA issue lingered
    41. 41. Some American POWs Returned from the “Hanoi Hilton” Senator John McCainSenator John McCain (R-AZ)(R-AZ)
    42. 42. 2,583 American2,583 American POWs / MIAsPOWs / MIAs still unaccounted for today.still unaccounted for today.
    43. 43. If we have to fight, weIf we have to fight, we will fight. You will killwill fight. You will kill ten of our men and we willten of our men and we will kill one of yours, and in the end itkill one of yours, and in the end it will bewill be youyou who tires of it.who tires of it. AndAnd in the End….in the End…. Ho Chi Minh:Ho Chi Minh:
    44. 44. Lessons for Future American Presidents1.1. Wars must be of short duration.Wars must be of short duration. 2.2. Wars must yield few AmericanWars must yield few American casualties.casualties. 3.3. Restrict media access toRestrict media access to battlefields.battlefields. 4.4. Develop and maintain CongressionalDevelop and maintain Congressional and public support.and public support. 5.5. Set clear, winnable goals.Set clear, winnable goals. 6.6. Set deadline for troop withdrawals.Set deadline for troop withdrawals.
    45. 45. The Vietnam Memorial, Washington, D.C.
    46. 46. Memorial to US Servicemen in Vietnam
    47. 47. Memorial to USMemorial to US Nurses inNurses in VietnamVietnam
    48. 48. 58,00058,000
    49. 49. President Clinton formally recognized Vietnam on July 11, 1995
    50. 50. Where Were You in the War, Daddy? This war haunts us still!
    51. 51. AND TODAY….. The “Light” at the End of This Tunnel? 2003 to2003 to ??:: “Operation Iraqi Freedom”“Operation Iraqi Freedom” 2400+ American dead and counting…2400+ American dead and counting…??
    52. 52. Another Vietnam? OROR A transformation of the Middle East? Only time & history can tell!
    53. 53. Bibliograp hy  Nash, Gary, et al.Nash, Gary, et al. The AmericanThe American People,People, Harper & Row, 1986Harper & Row, 1986  Compton’s Encyclopedia 2000Compton’s Encyclopedia 2000 Deluxe, Broderbund, 1999.Deluxe, Broderbund, 1999.  The Americans,The Americans, McDougal Littell,McDougal Littell, 19981998  A myriad of web sites on theA myriad of web sites on the internetinternet
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