Road to Revolution Tax, Law, or Battle? AP U.S. History
Proclamation of 1763 Battle Law Tax Forbade white settlement west of the Appalachians-wanted to keep Natives happy and settlers closer to British control.
Sugar Act (1764) Tax Law Battle Raised revenue by taxes on goods imported by the Americans. Intended to raise revenue rather than control trade. Strictly enforced and led to admiralty courts.
Currency Act Tax Law Battle Forbade colonial attempts to issue currency not redeemable in gold or silver. Made it difficult for Americans to avoid the constant drain of money.
Stamp Act Tax Law Battle Imposed a direct tax on Americans for the first time. Required Americans to purchase revenue stamps on everything from newspapers to legal documents. “Taxation without Representation is Tyranny!” Formation of Stamp Act Congress.
Declaratory Act Tax Law Battle New PM Rockingham passed this Act. Claimed Britain had the power to tax or make laws for the Americans “in all cases whatsoever.” Americans generally ignored it.
Townshend Duties Tax Law Battle Charles Townshend passed a program of taxes on items imported into the colonies. Mistakenly believed the Americans would accept these. Also included admiralty courts, writs of assistance, and punishment to NY legislature for noncompliance with the Quartering Act (required colonies to pay for British Troops).
Boston Massacre Tax Law Battle Friction between British soldiers and Boston citizens (mostly merchants). Five Bostonians were killed. British soldiers were acquitted of charges.
Tea Act Tax Law Battle Americans were buying smuggled Dutch tea rather than taxed British tea. British East India company tried to compromise. Americans became more resistant to British “right to tax.” Americans resisted the cheaper tea. On December 16, 1773, Bostonians disguised as Indians boarded tea ships and threw the tea into the harbor.
Response to “Boston Tea Party.” Four Acts titled the Coercive Acts.
Closed the Boston Port until citizens agreed to pay for the dumped tea.
Massachusetts Government Act
Administration of Justice Act
As a response to these, the First Continental Congress was called and met in Philadelphia in 1774.
Quartering Act Tax Law Battle Strengthened Quartering Act part of Coercive Acts. Allowed General Thomas Gage to quarter his troops anywhere, including private homes. The Quebec Act will also be passed to anger Americans.
Lexington and Concord Tax Law Battle America was declared in a state of rebellion. British wanted to teach lesson and sent more troops. General Gage was to find resisters and destroy colonial arms and ammunition. ~70 minutemen met the British and “a shot” was fired and 8 Americans were killed. British moved to Concord and faced minutemen and “guerilla style warfare.” Open warfare had begun!