Nixon to present

792 views
694 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
792
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
22
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Nixon to present

  1. 1. A CRISIS IN CONFIDENCE, 1969-1980 America: Past and Present Chapter 31
  2. 2. Nixon in Power <ul><li>Apparent success in first term </li></ul><ul><li>Triumphs in foreign affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon cuts himself off from Congress, his own cabinet, and the nation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reshaping the Great Society <ul><li>Nixon and the Great Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more efficient administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shift responsibility to the states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shift school desegregation to the courts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shift to conservative Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>appointment of conservatives and moderates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burger Court similar to Warren Court </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pace of change slows but continues </li></ul>
  4. 4. Nixonomics <ul><li>Nixon and inflation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inflation spurred by Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>federal spending cuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interest rates forced up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1970--Nixon-induced recession </li></ul><ul><li>1971--wage and price controls </li></ul><ul><li>Economy revives </li></ul>
  5. 5. Building a Republican Majority <ul><li>Nixon obsessed about reelection </li></ul><ul><li>Inactive on desegregation to win South </li></ul><ul><li>Attack cultural revolution to win “middle America” </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats retain majority by joining crusade against drugs, crime </li></ul>
  6. 6. In Search of D é tente <ul><li>Foreign-policy assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold War to be managed, not won </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>America must make a strategic retreat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improve relations with China to neutralize Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>February 1972--Nixon visits China </li></ul>
  7. 7. In Search of D é tente: Outcome of China Visit <ul><li>February 1972--U.S. recognition of Communist China set in motion </li></ul><ul><li>May 1972--Russians sign SALT I </li></ul><ul><li>Apparent mutual desire to reduce Cold War tensions </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ending the Vietnam War <ul><li>Nixon’s plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gradual reduction of American troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intensify American bombing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hard line at the peace talks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1970--invasion of Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>January, 1973--peace talks conclude with disguised American surrender </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Crisis of Democracy <ul><li>June, 1972--Nixon agents arrested for attempted Watergate break-in </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon stonewalled the press about White House involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>even instructed aides to lie under oath </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Election of 1972 <ul><li>Nixon’s opponents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Independent George Wallace--shot and disabled, followers vote for Nixon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democrat George McGovern--nomination alienates middle class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nixon landslide suggests new alignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>middle class shifting to Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans, Jews, the poor remain strongly Democratic </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. The Watergate Scandal <ul><li>Summer 1973--Senate investigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>damaging Senate hearings on cover-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White House tapes discovered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summer 1974 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon must relinquish tapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House Judiciary committee recommends impeachment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>August 9, 1974--Nixon resigns </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Watergate Scandal: Consequences <ul><li>Demonstrates growing power of the executive branch </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrates vitality of institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the press </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the federal judiciary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Energy and the Economy <ul><li>U.S. way of life based on cheap energy </li></ul><ul><li>1970s energy crisis sparks inflation </li></ul>
  14. 15. The October War <ul><li>October, 1973--Yom Kippur War pits Egypt, Syria against Israel </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. supplies weapons to Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Arab oil nations retaliate with boycott </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prices of gasoline and home heating fuel rose sharply </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. The Oil Shocks <ul><li>Effects of soaring oil prices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consumer spending plunges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recession by 1974 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inflation persists through 1970s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tax cut aids recovery </li></ul><ul><li>1979--Iranian Revolution causes second surge in oil prices </li></ul>
  16. 17. The Oil Shocks: Price Increases of Crude Oil and Gasoline, 1973-1985
  17. 18. The Search for an Energy Policy <ul><li>Ford tries to encourage production </li></ul><ul><li>Carter tries to encourage conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Congressional legislation to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encourage production, e.g. Alaska pipeline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encourage conservation, e.g. gas rationing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy problem persists </li></ul>
  18. 19. The Great Inflation <ul><li>Oil prices drive inflation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>price of goods soars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>real income declines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attempted government controls result in record high interest rates </li></ul>
  19. 20. The Shifting American Economy <ul><li>U.S. share of world markets declines </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. heavy industry declines </li></ul><ul><li>High technology prospers </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses tend to diversify </li></ul>
  20. 21. Private Lives—Public Issues <ul><li>Traditional American family gives way to more diverse living arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Number of working women increases sharply </li></ul><ul><li>Gay rights movement emerges </li></ul>
  21. 22. The Changing American Family: Family Life by 1990 <ul><li>21% of women solely in childrearing </li></ul><ul><li>30% of married coupes without children </li></ul><ul><li>25% of households consist of one adult </li></ul><ul><li>Birthrate begins to climb after 15-year fall </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce rate levels and drops slightly </li></ul>
  22. 23. The Changing American Family: New Family Structure <ul><li>Many never marry or postpone marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Most mothers work outside the home </li></ul><ul><li>Proportion of single-parent households doubled </li></ul><ul><li>Women without partners head 1/3 of impoverished families </li></ul><ul><li>Children comprise 40% of the poor </li></ul>
  23. 24. Types of Households in the United States, 2000
  24. 25. Gains and Setbacks for Women <ul><li>Rapid movement of women into work force </li></ul><ul><li>Breakthroughs for women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leaders in industry, higher education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roe v. Wade strengthens reproductive rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>women appointed to Supreme Court </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most women remain in female-dominated jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wages only 77.5% of men’s earnings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal Rights Amendment fails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abortion widely stigmatized </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Voting on the Equal Rights Amendment
  26. 27. The Gay Liberation Movement <ul><li>1969--Stonewall Riot sparks gay rights movement </li></ul><ul><li>1980--Democrats include gay rights plank </li></ul><ul><li>1980s--AIDS activism </li></ul><ul><li>1987--600,000 march on Washington </li></ul><ul><li>1993--“Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” policy a setback </li></ul><ul><li>1996--Defense of Marriage Act prohibits state recognition of same-sex unions </li></ul><ul><li>2000--Vermont legalizes same-sex “civil unions” </li></ul>
  27. 29. Politics After Watergate <ul><li>Watergate erodes public trust </li></ul><ul><li>Confrontation leaves nation leaderless </li></ul>
  28. 30. The Ford Administration <ul><li>Pardon of Nixon unpopular </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Congress alienated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>disclosure of illegal CIA activities under Kennedy and Johnson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>opposes Democratic bills protecting the environment and civil rights </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. The 1976 Campaign <ul><li>Ford damaged by Watergate </li></ul><ul><li>Democrat Jimmy Carter wins close vote </li></ul><ul><ul><li>former governor of Georgia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>campaigns as outsider </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>calls for decency, morality in government </li></ul></ul>
  30. 33. Disenchantment with Carter <ul><li>Carter displays lack of political vision </li></ul><ul><li>Outsider status hampers effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>1979--Carter blames American people for &quot;national malaise&quot; </li></ul>
  31. 34. From Détente to Renewed Cold War <ul><li>U.S. international dominance declined sharply in the 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Internal and external events weakened foreign policy </li></ul>
  32. 35. Retreat in Asia <ul><li>April 1975--North Vietnam captures Saigon </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. response--evacuation, no aid </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent incidents met with caution, restraint </li></ul>
  33. 36. Accommodation in Latin America <ul><li>1977--treaty returns Panama Canal to Panama </li></ul><ul><li>1979--U.S. refuses aid to Nicaraguan government against Sandinistas </li></ul><ul><li>Carter assists El Salvador against Marxist rebels </li></ul>
  34. 37. The Quest for Peace in the Middle East <ul><li>Carter’s success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1978--Camp David Accords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1979--Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carter’s failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1979--Iranian Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>November--U.S. embassy in Teheran invaded, 58 Americans taken hostage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carter fails to secure hostages’ release </li></ul></ul>
  35. 38. The Cold War Resumes <ul><li>Carter, Brzezinski shift from Détente </li></ul><ul><ul><li>condemn Soviet human rights abuses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new missile systems deployed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased aid to China </li></ul></ul><ul><li>December, 1979--Russians invade Afghanistan </li></ul>
  36. 39. A Failed Presidency <ul><li>Carter lost public confidence during the Iranian hostage crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Double-digit inflation also contributed to voter disappointment </li></ul>

×