THE TURBULENT SIXTIES America:  Past and Present
 
Kennedy Intensifies the Cold War <ul><li>John F. Kennedy a &quot;Cold Warrior&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy advisors sup...
Flexible Response <ul><li>Arms buildup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conventional armed forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the nucl...
Crisis over Berlin <ul><li>1961--Khrushchev renews threat again to give Berlin to East Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy’s...
Containment in Southeast Asia <ul><li>Kennedy sees Southeast Asia as focus of U.S.-Soviet rivalry  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>s...
Containing Castro: The Bay of Pigs Fiasco <ul><li>Kennedy supports “anti-Castro forces in exile” </li></ul><ul><li>Bay of ...
Containing Castro: The Cuban Missile Crisis <ul><li>October, 1962--Soviet nuclear missiles confirmed in Cuba </li></ul><ul...
Containing Castro: The Cuban Missile Crisis (2) <ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kennedy’s popularity soars </li></...
The New Frontier at Home <ul><li>Kennedy staff competent, activist  </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks legislative and economic refor...
The Congressional Obstacle <ul><li>Congress controlled by Southern Democrat-Republican coalition </li></ul><ul><li>Coaliti...
Economic Advance <ul><li>Economic stimulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased space, defense spending  </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Moving Slowly on Civil Rights <ul><li>Downplay civil rights legislation to avoid alienating Southern Democrats  </li></ul>...
&quot;I Have a Dream&quot; <ul><li>May, 1963--violent police suppression of nonviolent protestors in Birmingham </li></ul>...
The Supreme Court and Reform <ul><li>Defendants’ rights in criminal cases </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative reapportionment of...
&quot;Let Us Continue&quot; <ul><li>November 22, 1963--JFK  assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald  </li></ul><ul><li>Lyndon Jo...
Johnson in Action <ul><li>Poor image on television  </li></ul><ul><li>Effective manager of Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Spri...
The Election of 1964 <ul><li>1964--Johnson launches “war on poverty” to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encourage self-help  </li></...
The Triumph of Reform <ul><li>1965 Great Society legislation advances beyond New Deal </li></ul><ul><li>Medicare  </li></u...
African American Voter Registration Before and After Passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1964
The Second Great Migration: A Theoretical Example
 
Johnson Escalates the Vietnam War <ul><li>Hawkish foreign policy continued </li></ul><ul><li>1965--troops sent to Dominica...
The Vietnam Dilemma <ul><li>1964--Saigon on the verge of collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson’s initial response </li></ul><...
Southeast Asia and the Vietnam War
Escalation <ul><li>Johnson seeks to avoid diverting resource from Great Society to Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. effort i...
Stalemate <ul><li>1968--500,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam  </li></ul><ul><li>War of attrition increases American losses, enra...
U.S. Troop Levels in Vietnam (as of Dec. 31 each year)
Years of Turmoil <ul><li>Exceptional unrest at home  </li></ul><ul><li>Continued escalation of Vietnam war  </li></ul>
The Student Revolt <ul><li>1964--student protest movement launched at Berkeley </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge older generatio...
Protesting the Vietnam War <ul><li>October, 1967--100,000 protesters besiege the Pentagon </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrations...
The Cultural Revolution <ul><li>Rejection of older values through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sexual expression </li></ul></ul><...
&quot;Black Power&quot; <ul><li>1964-1967--riots in northern cities </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of militant leaders </li></ul><...
Ethnic Nationalism <ul><li>Multiple groups emulate African American movement  </li></ul><ul><li>1965--C é sar Ch á vez org...
Women's Liberation <ul><li>1963--Friedan's  The Feminine Mystique </li></ul><ul><li>New feminist activism </li></ul><ul><u...
The Return of Richard Nixon <ul><li>1968 a year of turmoil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>presidential election </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Vietnam Undermines Lyndon Johnson <ul><li>1968--Tet Offensive leads to conclusion that Vietnam war cannot be won </li></ul...
The Democrats Divide <ul><li>Rivals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minnesota Senator Eugene McCarthy  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ro...
The Republican Resurgence <ul><li>Republicans unite on Richard Nixon </li></ul><ul><li>George Wallace’s third party candid...
 
The End of an Era <ul><li>Election of 1968 ends thirty-year era of liberal reform, activist foreign policy </li></ul><ul><...
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Kennedy and johnson

  1. 1. THE TURBULENT SIXTIES America: Past and Present
  2. 3. Kennedy Intensifies the Cold War <ul><li>John F. Kennedy a &quot;Cold Warrior&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy advisors support U.S. hard line against Russia </li></ul>
  3. 4. Flexible Response <ul><li>Arms buildup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conventional armed forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the nuclear arsenal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Forces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. strength tempts new administration to challenge U.S.S.R. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Crisis over Berlin <ul><li>1961--Khrushchev renews threat again to give Berlin to East Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy’s response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>announce crisis on nationwide television </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>call up the National Guard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soviets retreat </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin Wall built </li></ul>
  5. 6. Containment in Southeast Asia <ul><li>Kennedy sees Southeast Asia as focus of U.S.-Soviet rivalry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>support Saigon’s Diem regime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sends 16,000 American military &quot;advisors&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>November, 1963--coup against Diem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kennedy accepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coup further destabilizes South Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. involvement in Vietnam deepened </li></ul>
  6. 7. Containing Castro: The Bay of Pigs Fiasco <ul><li>Kennedy supports “anti-Castro forces in exile” </li></ul><ul><li>Bay of Pigs invasion a part of 1960 CIA plan under Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><li>April, 17 1961—Invasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1,400 Cuban exiles land without expected U.S. military support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated within 48 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kennedy takes responsibility in defiant speech against “communist penetration” </li></ul>
  7. 8. Containing Castro: The Cuban Missile Crisis <ul><li>October, 1962--Soviet nuclear missiles confirmed in Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Plan to blockade, invade Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>October 22--Kennedy informs Americans of Cuban Missile Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>October 28--Khrushchev agrees to remove missiles </li></ul>
  8. 9. Containing Castro: The Cuban Missile Crisis (2) <ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kennedy’s popularity soars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democrats gain in Congressional elections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diplomatic effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>moderation of the Cold War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russians begin naval, nuclear buildup </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. The New Frontier at Home <ul><li>Kennedy staff competent, activist </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks legislative and economic reform </li></ul><ul><li>JFK the administration's greatest asset </li></ul>
  10. 11. The Congressional Obstacle <ul><li>Congress controlled by Southern Democrat-Republican coalition </li></ul><ul><li>Coalition blocks far-reaching reform </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy does not challenge Congress </li></ul>
  11. 12. Economic Advance <ul><li>Economic stimulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased space, defense spending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>informal wage and price guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1962--U.S. Steel forced to lower prices </li></ul><ul><li>1963--tax cut spurs one of the longest sustained advances in U.S. history </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy's economic policies double growth, cut unemployment </li></ul>
  12. 13. Moving Slowly on Civil Rights <ul><li>Downplay civil rights legislation to avoid alienating Southern Democrats </li></ul><ul><li>May, 1961--federal marshals sent to protect Birmingham freedom riders </li></ul><ul><li>1962--federal marshals, National Guard to U. of Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>1963--deputy attorney general faces down George Wallace at U. of Alabama </li></ul>
  13. 14. &quot;I Have a Dream&quot; <ul><li>May, 1963--violent police suppression of nonviolent protestors in Birmingham </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kennedy intervenes on side of blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress asked for civil-rights laws </li></ul></ul><ul><li>August, 1963--MLK leads March on Washington </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy record disappointing to supporters, ultimately effective </li></ul>
  14. 15. The Supreme Court and Reform <ul><li>Defendants’ rights in criminal cases </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative reapportionment of states </li></ul><ul><li>1962-- Baker v. Carr establishes &quot;one man, one vote&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Greater social justice achieved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rights of the underprivileged protected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dissent and free expression protected </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. &quot;Let Us Continue&quot; <ul><li>November 22, 1963--JFK assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald </li></ul><ul><li>Lyndon Johnson promises to continue Kennedy's programs </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson ultimately exceeds Kennedy’s record on economic, racial equality </li></ul>
  16. 17. Johnson in Action <ul><li>Poor image on television </li></ul><ul><li>Effective manager of Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Spring, 1964--Kennedy's tax cut passed </li></ul><ul><li>July 2-- Civil Rights Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bans public segregation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protects voting rights </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. The Election of 1964 <ul><li>1964--Johnson launches “war on poverty” to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encourage self-help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Johnson wins landslide election against Republican Barry Goldwater </li></ul>
  18. 19. The Triumph of Reform <ul><li>1965 Great Society legislation advances beyond New Deal </li></ul><ul><li>Medicare </li></ul><ul><li>Medicaid </li></ul><ul><li>Elementary and Secondary Education Act </li></ul><ul><li>Voting Rights Act </li></ul>
  19. 20. African American Voter Registration Before and After Passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1964
  20. 21. The Second Great Migration: A Theoretical Example
  21. 23. Johnson Escalates the Vietnam War <ul><li>Hawkish foreign policy continued </li></ul><ul><li>1965--troops sent to Dominican Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Determined not to &quot;lose&quot; Vietnam to the Communists </li></ul>
  22. 24. The Vietnam Dilemma <ul><li>1964--Saigon on the verge of collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson’s initial response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>refuse to send American combat forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>economic aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>military advisers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>covert actions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>August 1964--Gulf of Tonkin Resolution </li></ul>
  23. 25. Southeast Asia and the Vietnam War
  24. 26. Escalation <ul><li>Johnson seeks to avoid diverting resource from Great Society to Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. effort intended to bring Hanoi into peace negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>Policy of secrecy and deceit to assure Americans of Vietnam’s insignificance </li></ul>
  25. 27. Stalemate <ul><li>1968--500,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>War of attrition increases American losses, enrages South Vietnamese </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson’s tactics fail to win the war </li></ul><ul><li>Americans gradually turn against the war </li></ul>
  26. 28. U.S. Troop Levels in Vietnam (as of Dec. 31 each year)
  27. 29. Years of Turmoil <ul><li>Exceptional unrest at home </li></ul><ul><li>Continued escalation of Vietnam war </li></ul>
  28. 30. The Student Revolt <ul><li>1964--student protest movement launched at Berkeley </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge older generation’s materialism </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam War targeted </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread cultural uprising </li></ul>
  29. 31. Protesting the Vietnam War <ul><li>October, 1967--100,000 protesters besiege the Pentagon </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrations suppressed by a combination of force, concessions </li></ul>
  30. 32. The Cultural Revolution <ul><li>Rejection of older values through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sexual expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>music </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some extremism provokes outrage </li></ul><ul><li>Serious challenge to hypocrisy of American society </li></ul>
  31. 33. &quot;Black Power&quot; <ul><li>1964-1967--riots in northern cities </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of militant leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>black separatism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>armed struggle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MLK leads anti-poverty crusade </li></ul><ul><li>April, 1968--MLK assassinated </li></ul><ul><li>Militancy increases African American pride </li></ul>
  32. 34. Ethnic Nationalism <ul><li>Multiple groups emulate African American movement </li></ul><ul><li>1965--C é sar Ch á vez organizes National Farm Workers' Association </li></ul><ul><li>Chicanos win federal mandate for bilingual education </li></ul>
  33. 35. Women's Liberation <ul><li>1963--Friedan's The Feminine Mystique </li></ul><ul><li>New feminist activism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1964 Civil Rights Act used to attack inequality in employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pro-choice advocacy on abortion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seek to toughen enforcement of rape laws </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1972--Congress sends Equal Rights Amendment to the states </li></ul>
  34. 36. The Return of Richard Nixon <ul><li>1968 a year of turmoil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>presidential election </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>turning point in the Vietnam War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>massive protests in the streets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Richard Nixon election demonstrates desire for national reconciliation </li></ul>
  35. 37. Vietnam Undermines Lyndon Johnson <ul><li>1968--Tet Offensive leads to conclusion that Vietnam war cannot be won </li></ul><ul><li>March--Johnson announces he will not seek another term as president </li></ul>
  36. 38. The Democrats Divide <ul><li>Rivals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minnesota Senator Eugene McCarthy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Kennedy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>party leaders favor Hubert Humphrey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kennedy assassinated during campaign </li></ul><ul><li>1968 Democratic convention in Chicago besieged by antiwar protestors </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats wounded in public opinion </li></ul>
  37. 39. The Republican Resurgence <ul><li>Republicans unite on Richard Nixon </li></ul><ul><li>George Wallace’s third party candidacy draws Democratic votes </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon wins narrow victory </li></ul>
  38. 41. The End of an Era <ul><li>Election of 1968 ends thirty-year era of liberal reform, activist foreign policy </li></ul><ul><li>Americans seek less intrusive government </li></ul>
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