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Jackson Politics
 

Jackson Politics

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    Jackson Politics Jackson Politics Presentation Transcript

    • The Age of Jacksonian Democracy AP U.S. History
    • Election of 1824
      • Henry Clay-American System: high tariff on imports to finance extensive internal improvements (transportation).
      • Jackson won 43% of popular vote; only 38% of electoral vote-12 th Amendment
        • Henry Clay threw support to Adams
        • “ Corrupt Bargain!”
    • John Quincy Adams
      • Internal Improvements
        • Railroads and canal systems
      • Problems with sectionalism and states' rights
      • Unpopular with America-lack of personality and did not reward party supporters
      • Attempted to deal fairly with Natives-Cherokee-angered many
    • Nullification
      • High tariffs upset Southern states
      • Calhoun(VP) opposed the tariff-Tariff of Abominations. (1828)
        • Championed nullification-states rights
        • Instead Jackson signed a new tariff!
          • Calhoun resigned/SC threatened to secede.
      • Compromise
        • “ The Union will be preserved.” Use of troops to enforce federal law. Also reduced the tariff.
    • Election of 1828
      • John Quincy Adams: National Republicans
      • Andrew Jackson: Democratic Republicans
        • Won 56% of electoral votes
        • Ugly election
        • John C. Calhoun VP
    • Andrew Jackson: President
      • Popular with common man
      • Kitchen Cabinet: ignored appointed Cabinet-relied on friends and party supporters
      • Spoils System: Filling government positions with supporters
      • Maysville Road Veto: federal subsidies cannot be used for state projects.
    • Indian Policy
      • Supported removal of all Indian tribes to west of Mississippi
      • Indian Removal Act of 1830: federal enforcement
      • Worcester v. Georgia-supported claims of Cherokee-ignored
      • Trail of Tears: forced march
    • Webster-Hayne Debate-1830
      • Questions about land distribution
        • West/South wants cheap land available
        • North opposed-drive away labor and drive up wages
      • Hayne used anti tariff arguments to support nullification
      • Webster questioned policy-nature of the Union and states' rights within it
        • Union over states rights
    • Second Nullification Crisis
      • Final split btw Jackson and Calhoun
        • Tariff of 1832 and Mrs. Calhoun's snub of Peggy Eaton, wife of Secretary of War.
      • Jackson defender of states' rights, but within the context of a dominant Union
      • Supported higher rates of new Tariff
        • Calhoun composed the Ordinance of Nullification: Jackson obtained Force Bill which enabled him to use federal troops to enforce tax collection.
          • Gradual reduction and Calhoun backed down
    • Trouble with the Bank
      • Jackson traditionally supported agrarian South.
      • Jackson HATED the 2 nd National Bank.
        • Viewed it as undemocratic-favored rich
        • 1832 Congress voted to renew Bank Charter
          • Jackson vetoed the renewal
          • Critics stated that he was a tyrant that wanted to destroy the rights of Congress.
    • Election of 1832
      • Jackson defeated Henry Clay
        • Jackson removed deposits from the federal bank and placed them in various state and local banks (pet banks)
        • Nicholas Biddle tightened credit and called in loans to try to embarrass nation.
          • Jackson did not let down and a recession began.
    • Panic of 1837
      • When Biddle was forced to relent through pressure from business interests, the economy immediately rebounded. With credit policies relaxed, inflation began to pick up.
      • Government offered millions of acres of western land for sale to settlers at low prices.
      • Jackson ordered a distribution of surplus funds-more inflation.
      • Issued the “Specie Circular.” -Required payment for public land in hard money-Leads to Depression.
    • Backlash...
      • Recession lasted into the 1840s
      • The downturn affected everyone! (Esp. Atlantic coast)
      • Americans blamed everyone in power-including Jackson and and businesses.
      • This will help to initiate and intensify reform that will occupy the nation in the 2 nd half of the 19 th century.
    • Formation of the Whig Party
      • Supporters of the Bank (Clay and Webster) wanted a strong federal government.
        • Clay lost in 1832
      • In 1836 voters picked Martin Van Buren (Jackson's successor)
        • The economy continued to suffer (Panic of 1837).
    • Martin Van Buren
      • Inherited the problems and resentments generated by Jackson.
      • Dealt with chaos left behind by the destruction of the 2 nd Bank.
      • Persuaded Congress to create an Independent Treasury to handle government funds. -1840.