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The Age of Jacksonian Democracy AP U.S. History
Election of 1824 <ul><li>Henry Clay-American System:  high tariff on imports to finance extensive internal improvements (t...
John Quincy Adams <ul><li>Internal Improvements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroads and canal systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>P...
Nullification <ul><li>High tariffs upset Southern states </li></ul><ul><li>Calhoun(VP) opposed the tariff-Tariff of Abomin...
Election of 1828 <ul><li>John Quincy Adams: National Republicans </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson:  Democratic Republicans...
Andrew Jackson:  President <ul><li>Popular with common man </li></ul><ul><li>Kitchen Cabinet:  ignored appointed Cabinet-r...
Indian Policy <ul><li>Supported removal of all Indian tribes to west of Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Removal Act o...
Webster-Hayne Debate-1830 <ul><li>Questions about land distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West/South wants cheap land avai...
Second Nullification Crisis <ul><li>Final split btw Jackson and Calhoun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tariff of 1832 and Mrs. Calh...
Trouble with the Bank <ul><li>Jackson traditionally supported agrarian South. </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson HATED the 2 nd  Na...
Election of 1832 <ul><li>Jackson defeated Henry Clay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson removed deposits from the federal bank ...
Panic of 1837 <ul><li>When Biddle was forced to relent through pressure from business interests, the economy immediately r...
Backlash... <ul><li>Recession lasted into the 1840s </li></ul><ul><li>The downturn affected everyone! (Esp. Atlantic coast...
Formation of the Whig Party <ul><li>Supporters of the Bank (Clay and Webster) wanted a strong federal government. </li></u...
Martin Van Buren <ul><li>Inherited the problems and resentments generated by Jackson. </li></ul><ul><li>Dealt with chaos l...
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Jackson Politics

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Transcript of "Jackson Politics"

  1. 1. The Age of Jacksonian Democracy AP U.S. History
  2. 2. Election of 1824 <ul><li>Henry Clay-American System: high tariff on imports to finance extensive internal improvements (transportation). </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson won 43% of popular vote; only 38% of electoral vote-12 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Clay threw support to Adams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Corrupt Bargain!” </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. John Quincy Adams <ul><li>Internal Improvements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroads and canal systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems with sectionalism and states' rights </li></ul><ul><li>Unpopular with America-lack of personality and did not reward party supporters </li></ul><ul><li>Attempted to deal fairly with Natives-Cherokee-angered many </li></ul>
  4. 4. Nullification <ul><li>High tariffs upset Southern states </li></ul><ul><li>Calhoun(VP) opposed the tariff-Tariff of Abominations. (1828) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Championed nullification-states rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead Jackson signed a new tariff! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calhoun resigned/SC threatened to secede. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Compromise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Union will be preserved.” Use of troops to enforce federal law. Also reduced the tariff. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Election of 1828 <ul><li>John Quincy Adams: National Republicans </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson: Democratic Republicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Won 56% of electoral votes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ugly election </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John C. Calhoun VP </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Andrew Jackson: President <ul><li>Popular with common man </li></ul><ul><li>Kitchen Cabinet: ignored appointed Cabinet-relied on friends and party supporters </li></ul><ul><li>Spoils System: Filling government positions with supporters </li></ul><ul><li>Maysville Road Veto: federal subsidies cannot be used for state projects. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Indian Policy <ul><li>Supported removal of all Indian tribes to west of Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Removal Act of 1830: federal enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Worcester v. Georgia-supported claims of Cherokee-ignored </li></ul><ul><li>Trail of Tears: forced march </li></ul>
  8. 8. Webster-Hayne Debate-1830 <ul><li>Questions about land distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West/South wants cheap land available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North opposed-drive away labor and drive up wages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hayne used anti tariff arguments to support nullification </li></ul><ul><li>Webster questioned policy-nature of the Union and states' rights within it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Union over states rights </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Second Nullification Crisis <ul><li>Final split btw Jackson and Calhoun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tariff of 1832 and Mrs. Calhoun's snub of Peggy Eaton, wife of Secretary of War. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jackson defender of states' rights, but within the context of a dominant Union </li></ul><ul><li>Supported higher rates of new Tariff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calhoun composed the Ordinance of Nullification: Jackson obtained Force Bill which enabled him to use federal troops to enforce tax collection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual reduction and Calhoun backed down </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Trouble with the Bank <ul><li>Jackson traditionally supported agrarian South. </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson HATED the 2 nd National Bank. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewed it as undemocratic-favored rich </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1832 Congress voted to renew Bank Charter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson vetoed the renewal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critics stated that he was a tyrant that wanted to destroy the rights of Congress. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Election of 1832 <ul><li>Jackson defeated Henry Clay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson removed deposits from the federal bank and placed them in various state and local banks (pet banks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicholas Biddle tightened credit and called in loans to try to embarrass nation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson did not let down and a recession began. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Panic of 1837 <ul><li>When Biddle was forced to relent through pressure from business interests, the economy immediately rebounded. With credit policies relaxed, inflation began to pick up. </li></ul><ul><li>Government offered millions of acres of western land for sale to settlers at low prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson ordered a distribution of surplus funds-more inflation. </li></ul><ul><li>Issued the “Specie Circular.” -Required payment for public land in hard money-Leads to Depression. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Backlash... <ul><li>Recession lasted into the 1840s </li></ul><ul><li>The downturn affected everyone! (Esp. Atlantic coast) </li></ul><ul><li>Americans blamed everyone in power-including Jackson and and businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>This will help to initiate and intensify reform that will occupy the nation in the 2 nd half of the 19 th century. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Formation of the Whig Party <ul><li>Supporters of the Bank (Clay and Webster) wanted a strong federal government. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay lost in 1832 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1836 voters picked Martin Van Buren (Jackson's successor) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The economy continued to suffer (Panic of 1837). </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Martin Van Buren <ul><li>Inherited the problems and resentments generated by Jackson. </li></ul><ul><li>Dealt with chaos left behind by the destruction of the 2 nd Bank. </li></ul><ul><li>Persuaded Congress to create an Independent Treasury to handle government funds. -1840. </li></ul>
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