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  • 1. America as Nation of Immigrants ! “Give me your tired, your poor, ! Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, ! The wretched refuse of your teeming shore, Immigration and ! Send these, the homeless, the tempest- tost to me, American Identity ! I lift my lamp beside the golden door!” ! Emma Lazarus A gift from France, the Statue of Liberty was 1 2 erected in 1886. Welcoming the Reevaluating Immigration Uprooted ! Land of Freedom - ! Economic Opportunity vs. Stratification politics ! Political Freedom vs. Discrimination ! Melting Pot - culture ! Upward Mobility - ! Cultural Assimilation vs. Diversity economics ! Individual vs. family/kinship/community ! Immigration as networks modernization process - tradition-bound peasant to modern capitalist individuals 3 4 Why did they immigrate? Who are the Immigrants? Push Factors ! 24 mill. From 1860-1920 ! economic motivations ! Old Immigrants ! global expansion of capitalism ! pre-1880, 85% from ! “The capitalist form of Western and Northern production, under which Europe goods are produced for sale in order to make the ! New Immigrants largest profit possible and ! post-1880 80% from workers receive wages for Eastern and Southern selling their labor.” Europe " Sucheng Chan ! More New Immigrants ! disruption of agricultural economy ! approx. 1 million ! “After 1850 the spread of immigrants from Asia industrialization and 1850-1934 commercialized agriculture ! approx. 1 million from let to further declines in the Latin America, mostly number of landholdings after 1910 that could support families.” ! John Bodnar, The 5 Transplanted 6 ! core-periphery movement 1
  • 2. Political Upheaval and Persecution Family Decision ! Pogroms in the Pale ! Male migratory wage-earners ! Jewish family migration - settlement ! Return migration approx. 50% ! only 3% return rate ! Chain migration ! 1.4 million in NYC’s Lower East Side by 1915 ! Extended kinship network ! Mexican Revolution 1910-11 ! Adopted/fictive kin ! 1900-1930 Mexican American population in ! Family reunification Southwest grew from 375,000 to 1,160,000 ! Esp. women 7 8 Pull Factors: Looking for Gold Mountain ! “‘America’ was in everybody’s mouth. Businessmen talked of it over their accounts; the market women made up their quarrels that they might discuss it from stall to stall; people who had relatives in the famous land went around reading their letters for the enlightenment of less fortunate folks….all talked of it, but scarcely anybody knew one true fact about this magic land.” ! Mary Antin, Russian Immigrant ! “Heroes were sitting right there in the room and telling what creatures they met on the road, what customs the non-Chinese follow….Nuggets cobbled the streets in California, the loose stones to be had for the stopping over and picking them up….In their hunger the men forgot that the gold streets had not been there when they’d gone to look for themselves.” ! From Chinamen, by Maxine Hong Kingston ! Labor recruiters ! Incorporation of America and the demand for labor 9 10 Implications of Economic Opportunities? labor stratification ! Labor Market Segmentation ! Economic benefits for employers ! Primary vs. Secondary Labor Market ! Protectionism on behalf of labor ! Differences in jobs, working conditions, benefits, security, to protect wage scale and wages, etc. privileges ! Dual Wage Economy ! anti-Immigration ! KOL ! “cheap labor” = same work, less pay ! AFL ! transnational industrial reserve army ! Jobs for “Americans” ! “to weigh down white workers during periods of economic ! But who are “Americans” and expansion and to hold white labor in check during periods who deserves the better jobs? of overproduction” ! Family wage for men not necessarily higher wages ! Old immigrants and native-born vs. New Immigrants for women ! Men vs. Women ! Race = nationality 11 12 ! Whites vs. non-whites 2
  • 3. Race and Chinese Immigrants as Case Study Citizenship ! right of naturalization ! 322,000 and citizenship ! Naturalization law of immigrated 1790 specified that between 1852- naturalized citizenship 1882 reserved for whites ! played a key role ! Revisions instituted for African Americans; in developing the Mexican Americans; economic and and Native Americans transportation ! political parties and infrastructure of labor unions the American West 13 14 Mining ! “The Gold Rush” ! 2/3 of Chinese American Railroad population were involved construction in mining in 1860s ! Foreign Miners’ Tax (1852) ! $3 monthly tax for every foreign miner who did ! 12,000 Chinese employed by Central Pacific Railroad (90% not desire to become a of work force in mid-1860s) citizen ! Paid $31/month without board or lodgings (savings of 1/3) ! Collected $5 million from Chinese, 25%-50% ! 5,000 Chinese workers strike in 1870 for higher wages and of California state 8-hour day revenue by 1870 15 16 Domestic Service and “women’s Manufacturing work” ! 46% of labor force in ! 72% of all laundry workers in California in San Francisco in four 1870 were Chinese key industries ! boots and shoes ! woolens ! cigars and tobacco ! sewing ! Consumer boycott and union labels 17 18 3
  • 4. class hostility channeled into racial antagonism The Anti-Chinese Movement: “The Chinese Must Go!” ! Political Disfranchisement and Physical Violence ! People v. Hall (1854 Ca.) ! Chinese ineligible to testify in court against whites ! Racial Segregation and Social Harassment 19 20 Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 Why support from upper and middle classes? ! Social Darwinism ! 1st group to be designated for ! “Scientific” basis for exclusion based on justifying nationality and class racial ! Chinese laborers hierarchy targeted for ! Eugenics immigration exclusion ! Cultural/social vs. economic ! all Chinese motivations immigrants denied ! easier to racially right to become scapegoat than to naturalized citizens reform economic system 21 22 Implications for future immigrants: Ambiguously Raced: Who else is not white? Social Construction of Race ! Mexican Americans ! Definitely not white ! Spanish or Indigenous peoples? ! African Americans and Jim Crow ! South Asian “Indians” ! Bhagat Singh Thind case (1923) ! Most Asian immigrants ! “Caucasian” but not white ! Irish, Eastern and Southern Europeans ! aliens ineligible for citizenship ! ethnic and religious differences viewed as racial ! Immigration differences ! Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1906-1907 ! Anglo-Saxon race ! “No intelligent patriot…[can observe] the entrance…of ! Land ownership such vast masses of peasantry, degraded below our ! Alien Land Laws utmost concepts…without the gravest apprehension and alarm.” M.I.T. President Francis A. Walker 23 24 ! I.Q. Testing and Progressive Education 4
  • 5. Gradations of non-white identity 1924 Immigration Act ! Ellis Island (1900) vs. ! Nationality Quota System (in place until 1965) Angel Island (1910) ! 2% of 1890 census ! 2% rejection vs. 25% ! 164,000 total/year rejection rate ! Targeted towards reducing Southern and Eastern ! Ellis Island processing European Immigration rate – 5,000/day ! Cut of all immigration of “aliens ineligible for ! Angel Island - citizenship” i.e. Asian immigration detention up to ! Exception of Filipinos – American “nationals” months ! Immigration within Western Hemisphere exempted (e.g. Mexico, Canada) ! 29 vs. 200-1,000 ! labor needs questions 25 26 Individual strategies for Group Strategies achieving acceptance ! Political and Labor Advocacy ! Assimilation ! Cross-Group Cooperation ! education !Industrial Workers of the ! popular culture World (1905) ! upward mobility ! NAACP ! What are the benefits, costs, and limitations of this strategy? ! Political Machines ! Options available only for particular groups ! Progressivism ! 1922 Ozawa case - assimilated but not white ! Reinforce Social Stratification ! Biculturalism ! AFL ! Transnationalism ! continuing political, cultural, and financial connections with the ! Political machines homeland ! Progressivism ! Gender ! Is assimilation and wage force participation inherently liberating? 27 28 Reevaluating Immigration ! Transplanted versus uprooted cultures ! Family and kinship networks ! Unequal incorporation into U.S. labor market ! Unequal access to political rights ! Social construction of race ! Biculturalism and Transnationalism 29 5