Cold war truman eisenhower

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  • Cold war truman eisenhower

    1. 1. THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR America: Past and Present
    2. 2. The Cold War Begins: Issues Dividing U.S., U.S.S.R. <ul><li>Control of postwar Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Economic aid </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear disarmament </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Division of Europe <ul><li>1945--Russians occupy eastern Europe, American troops occupy western Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union seeks eastern European buffer </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. demands national self-determination through free elections throughout Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin converts eastern Europe into a system of satellite nations </li></ul>
    4. 4. Europe after World War II
    5. 5. Withholding Economic Aid <ul><li>Russia devastated by World War II </li></ul><ul><li>Some Americans seek to influence Russia with Lend-Lease economic aid </li></ul><ul><li>1945--United States halts Lend-Lease without Russian settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage lost in shaping Soviet policy </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Atomic Dilemma <ul><li>1943--nuclear race between U.S., U.S.S.R. </li></ul><ul><li>1946--Baruch Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rapid reduction of U.S. military force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gradual reduction favors U.S. atomic monopoly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><ul><li>larger conventional army than U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>immediate abolition of atomic weapons </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Containment <ul><li>1947--George C. Marshall appointed Secretary of State </li></ul><ul><li>Dean Acheson seeks for U.S. England's former role as arbiter of world affairs </li></ul><ul><li>George Kennan calls for “containment of Russia’s expansive tendencies” </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Truman Doctrine <ul><li>1947--Truman seeks funds to keep Greece, Turkey in western sphere of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Truman Doctrine: “support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure” </li></ul><ul><li>Doctrine an informal declaration of cold war against the Soviet Union </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Marshall Plan <ul><li>1947--George Marshall proposes aid for rebuilding European industries </li></ul><ul><li>Russia refuses aid </li></ul><ul><li>1948--Marshall Plan adopted by Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Plan fosters western European prosperity </li></ul>
    10. 10. Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, 1948-1952
    11. 11. The Western Military Alliance <ul><li>1949--North Atlantic Treaty Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>military alliance includes U.S., Canada, most of western Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. troops stationed in Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NATO intensifies Russia's fear of the West </li></ul>
    12. 12. The Berlin Blockade <ul><li>June, 1948--Russians blockade Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Truman orders airlift to supply the city </li></ul><ul><li>1949--Russians end blockade </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. political victory dramatizes division </li></ul>
    13. 13. The Cold War Expands <ul><li>1947--U.S.-Russian arms race accelerates </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict expands to Asia </li></ul>
    14. 14. The Military Dimension <ul><li>1947--National Security Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Defense unifies armed forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Intelligence Agency coordinates intelligence-gathering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Security Council advises president </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defense budget devoted to air power </li></ul><ul><li>1949--first Russian atomic bomb explodes, U.S. begins hydrogen bomb development </li></ul>
    15. 15. The Cold War in Asia <ul><li>1945--U.S. consolidates hold on Japan, former Japanese possessions in Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>1949--victory of Mao Tse-tung brings China into Soviet orbit </li></ul><ul><li>Truman refuses recognition of Communist China, begins building up Japan </li></ul>
    16. 16. The Korean War <ul><li>June25, 1950--Communist North Korean forces invade U.S.-influenced South Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Truman makes South Korea’s defense a U.N. effort, sends in U.S. troops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. routs Korean forces in South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to unify Korea draws in China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. pushed back to South, war a stalemate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Result--massive American rearmament </li></ul>
    17. 17. The Korean War, 1950-1953
    18. 18. The Cold War at Home <ul><li>New Deal economic policies undermined </li></ul><ul><li>Fears of Communist subversion </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans use anticommunism to revive their party </li></ul>
    19. 19. Truman's Troubles <ul><li>Obstacles to Truman’s Fair Deal reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>apathetic public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>labor unrest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1946--Republicans win Congress </li></ul>
    20. 20. Truman Vindicated <ul><li>1948--Thomas Dewey versus Truman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Truman thought unelectable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Democrats, Northern liberals desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roosevelt coalition reelects Truman on domestic issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans respond by challenging Truman’s handling of the Cold War </li></ul>
    21. 22. The Loyalty Issue <ul><li>Fear of Communist subversion </li></ul><ul><li>Truman administration conducts campaign against “subversives” </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats blamed for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;losing&quot; China to Communism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia's development of a hydrogen bomb </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. McCarthyism in Action <ul><li>1950--Senator Joseph McCarthy launches anticommunist campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Innocent overwhelmed by accusations </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks on privileged bureaucrats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supported by Midwest Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attract Irish, Italian, Polish workers to Republicans </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. The Republicans in Power <ul><li>1952--Eisenhower captures White House for Republican Party </li></ul><ul><li>July 27, 1953--stalemate accepted in Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower deals passively with McCarthy </li></ul><ul><li>1954--attack on Army discredits McCarthy who is then censured </li></ul>
    24. 26. Eisenhower Wages the Cold War <ul><li>Eisenhower relaxes tensions with Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower’s fears </li></ul><ul><ul><li>debt imposed by defense spending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>possibility of atomic warfare </li></ul></ul>
    25. 27. Entanglement in Indochina <ul><li>Eisenhower refuses military aid for French retention of colonial Indochina </li></ul><ul><li>Victory of Communist Ho Chi Minh prompts intervention to prevent election </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam divided </li></ul><ul><li>South Vietnam under U.S. puppet regime </li></ul>
    26. 28. Containing China <ul><li>Tough line against China </li></ul><ul><li>Drive wedge between China, Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy ultimately works </li></ul><ul><li>Effects not immediately apparent </li></ul>
    27. 29. Turmoil in the Middle East <ul><li>1956--Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal </li></ul><ul><li>France, England invade Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower wins Middle East trust by pressuring English, French withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>1958--Lebanon invites U.S. troops to maintain order </li></ul>
    28. 30. Covert Actions <ul><li>Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) used to achieve covert objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Iran--CIA restores the shah to power </li></ul><ul><li>Guatemala--CIA ousts leftist government </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Europe--refused to help East Germans or Hungarians </li></ul>
    29. 31. Waging Peace <ul><li>October, 1957--Russians launch Sputnik </li></ul><ul><li>October--U.S., U.S.S.R. agree to suspend nuclear testing in the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>November--Berlin blockade threatened </li></ul><ul><li>May, 1960--U-2 incident </li></ul>
    30. 32. The Continuing Cold War <ul><li>January, 1961--Eisenhower warns against growing military-industrial complex </li></ul><ul><li>Post-war era marked by Cold War rather than peace and tranquility </li></ul>

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