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Causes Of The Civil War

Causes Of The Civil War






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    Causes Of The Civil War Causes Of The Civil War Presentation Transcript

    • Causes of the Civil War AP U.S. History
    • Wilmot Proviso
      • Proposed amendment to war appropriations bill.
        • Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any territory to be acquired from Mexico.
          • Passed by the House, rejected by the Senate
          • Intense sectional feelings-Southerners furious
          • Northern suspicions confirmed
        • Southern position (John C. Calhoun)
          • Congress had no power the limit the property of states
        • Northerners believed that Congress had the right to make such laws! (NO of 1787, Compromise of 1820)
      • Compromises
        • Extended 36 30 line
        • Popular sovereignty
    • Election of 1848
      • Democrats-Lewis Cass
        • Middle of the road popular sovereignty
      • Whigs-General Zachary Taylor
        • Fame in Mexican war
        • Took no position to slavery
      • “ Conscience” Whigs
        • Disgusted with parties-antislavery
      • “ Barnburner” Democrats
        • Wanted to get rid of “pro-slavery” rats.
          • Free Soil Party
    • Gold in California
      • 1848, gold discovered at Sutter's Mill
        • Population in CA grew rapidly
      • Forty-niners-quick prospects-lawless communities
      • 1849, CA petitions to become a state
        • Sought admission as a free state
          • Caused more sectional crisis
    • Compromise of 1850
      • Taylor encouraged territories to organize and seek admission as states in order to avoid territory crises.
        • Southerners furious-would be outvoted in Senate with CA as a free state
      • Disputed land between Texas and the New Mexico Territory.
        • Sectional crisis deepening
      • Henry Clay develops deal to appease both sides.
    • 1850
      • North
        • CA would be free
        • NM would get disputed territory
        • Status of slavery for UT and NM to be decided by popular sovereignty
        • Slave trade abolished in D.C.
      • South
        • Tougher Fugitive Slave law
        • Gov't would pay Texas pre-annexation debt
        • No control over interstate slave trade
        • Not abolish slavery in D.C.
    • Continued...
      • Heated debate between Clay, Calhoun, and Webster.
        • Taylor died
        • Succeeded by Vice President Millard Fillmore
          • Strong supporter of compromise
        • Stephen A. Douglas-pushed through compromise
        • Created an illusion of peace.
    • Election of 1852
      • Democrats-Franklin Pierce
      • Whigs-General Winfield Scott
        • Whigs divided over slavery issue
      • Pierce and Young America
        • 1853-Commodore Matthew Perry opened trade with Japan
        • Sought to annex Hawaii, increase U.S. interest in Central America, and acquire territory from Mexico and Spain.
    • Growth
      • 1853-Gadsden Purchase
        • Purchased land from Mexico to extend trans-continental railroad.
        • Ostend Manifesto-urged military seizure of Cuba should Spain remain unwilling to sell.
      • Some northerners viewed these advancements as favoring Southern views
        • Sec. Of War-Jefferson Davis
    • Economic Growth
      • Rise of the railroads
        • 30,000 of track across the U.S.
        • Linked midwest to the northeast
      • Water Transportation
        • Steamboat-rivers
        • Clipper ship-seas
      • Factory System
        • Textile industry-Elias Howe
        • Growth of major urban areas
    • Kansas-Nebraska Act
      • Senator Douglas introduced a bill to Congress to organize the area west of Missouri and Iowa as the territories of Kansas and Nebraska.
        • Wanted to facilitate trans-continental railroad.
        • Forced to include bill to repeal Missouri Compromise and keep only popular sovereignty.
        • Passed into law
          • Opposed by Northern Democrats and remaining Whigs.
    • End of the Whigs!
      • Dissolved partially as a result of the issues of slavery-lost election of 1852
        • Party divided along North-South lines
      • Nativist movement could also be at fault!
        • Know-Nothing Party-grew out of alarm on the part of native-born Americans at the rising tides of immigration.
        • Told to answer know nothing when asked about proceedings
          • Anti-foreign, anti-Catholic
    • Development of Republican Party
      • Kansas-Nebraska caused outrage
        • Many Northern Democrats left party and joined former Whigs and Know-Nothings to form the Republican Party.
      • Firm belief that slavery should be banned from all territories, confined to states where it already existed, and not be allowed to spread further.
      • Mostly confined to the North.
        • Fugitive Slave Law helped to fuel more anger.
    • Bleeding Kansas
      • North and South began competing to see which could send the greatest number of voters into the territory.
      • Majority of settlers ended up being midwesterners who opposed slavery.
      • Large-scale election fraud
        • Border ruffians-crossed into Kansas on election day to vote pro-slavery principles early and often.
        • Free-soil formed own government based on unfair election.
      • Two governments...
        • Both sides armed themselves and guerilla warfare ensued.
    • Violence in the Senate
      • Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts delivered the “Crime Against Kansas.”
        • Denounced slavery and insulted South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler
      • Butler's nephew, Preston Brooks, entered the Senate chamber and beat him about the head and shoulders with a cane.
        • Southerners sent him new canes.