The Teaching Process, Fundamentals of Instruction
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The Teaching Process, Fundamentals of Instruction

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  • Subject matter- needs to be knowledgeableabout teaching.
  • The change in behavior as a result of experience is measurable and can be assessed. Assessment of learning is a complex process and it is important to be clear about the purpose of the assessment.
  • As an aviation instructor we have added responsibilities that we need to uphold.
  • Review Multiple intelligences
  • Development is the main part of the lesson.
  • Lectures are used to introduce new subjects, summarizing ideas, showing relationships between theory and practice and reemphasizing main points. The lecturer needs to be flexible to match the audience. Discussion method, the instructor will provide a short lecture, usually no more than 20 minutes. Look at Problem-based learning
  • Success with cooperative or group learning depends on conditions and controls set in place. Pairstudents with same knowledge level or with varying knowledge level
  • Demonstration-performance is best used for the mastery of mental or physical skills that require practice

The Teaching Process, Fundamentals of Instruction The Teaching Process, Fundamentals of Instruction Presentation Transcript

  • Flight Instructor ASE Ground Training Course Ground Lesson 4 6/27/2013 1
  • What is Teaching  Teaching is to instruct or train someone, or the profession of someone who teaches. To be a teacher implies one has completed some type of formal training, has specialized knowledge, has been certified or validated in some way, and adheres to a set of standards of performance.  Defining a “good instructor” has proven more elusive, but in The Essence of Good Teaching (1985), psychologist Stanford C. Ericksen wrote “good teachers select and organize worthwhile course material, lead students to encode and integrate this material in memorable form, ensure competence in the procedures and methods of a discipline, sustain intellectual curiosity, and promote how to learn independently.” 6/27/2013 2
  • Essential Teaching Skills  People skills  The ability to interact, talk, understand, empathize, and connect with people  Technical knowledge is useless if the instructor fails to communicate properly  There is a two-way process for communication  Subject Matter Expertise  Must possess a high level of expertise, knowledge, or skill in a particular area. 6/27/2013 3
  • Essential Teaching Skills  Management Skills  The ability to plan, organize, lead and supervise. These skills are reflected in the ability to plan, organize and carry out a lesson.  The ability to understand what can be realistically achieved within the allotted time and makes the best use of time.  Assessment Skills  Ability to effectively assess the students abilities 6/27/2013 4
  • Instructors Code of Conduct  An Aviation Instructor needs to remember  Make Safety the number one priority  Develop and exercise good judgment in making decisions  Recognize and manage risk effectively  Be accountable for your actions  Act with responsibility and courtesy  Adhere to prudent operating practices and personal operating parameters  Adhere to applicable laws and regulations 6/27/2013 5
  • Instructor Code of Conduct  Instructors also need to remember  Seek proficiency in control of the aircraft  Use flight deck technology in a safe and appropriate way  Be confident in a wide variety of flight situations  Be respectful of the privilege of flight 6/27/2013 6
  • The Teaching Process  The teaching process consist of four steps  Preparation  Presentation  Application  Assessment  Course of Training is a complete series of studies leading to attainment of a specific goal  Curriculum is a set of courses in an area of specialization offered by an educational institute  Syllabus is a summary or outline of a course of study that generally contains a description of each lesson, including objectives and completion standards. 6/27/2013 7
  • Preparation  A determination of objectives and standards is necessary before any important instruction can be presented. Although some schools and independent instructors may develop their own syllabus, in practice, many instructors use a commercially developed syllabus that already has been selected by a school for use in their aviation training program. For the aviation instructor, the objectives listed in the syllabus are a beginning point for instruction. 6/27/2013 8
  • Preparation  Training Objectives and Standards  Aviation training involves two types of objectives: performance based and decision based. Performance-based objectives are essential in defining exactly what needs to be done and how it is done during each lesson. As the student progresses through higher levels of performance and understanding, the instructor should shift the training focus to decision-based training objectives. Decision-based training objectives allow for a more dynamic training environment and are ideally suited to scenario type training. The instructor uses decision-based training objectives to teach aviation students critical thinking skills, such as risk management and aeronautical decision-making (ADM). 6/27/2013 9
  • Preparation  Performance-Based Objectives  Performance-based objectives are used to set measurable, reasonable standards that describe the desired performance of the student. This usually involves the term behavioral objective, although it may be referred to as a performance, instructional, or educational objective. All refer to the same thing, the behavior of the student. 6/27/2013 10
  • Preparation  Decision-Based Objectives  Decision-based objectives are designed specifically to develop pilot judgment and ADM skills. Improper pilot decisions cause a significant percentage of all accidents, and the majority of fatal accidents in light single- and twin-engine aircraft. Often combined with traditional task and maneuver training within a given scenario, decision-based objectives facilitate a higher level of learning and application. By using dynamic and meaningful scenarios, the instructor teaches the student how to gather information and make informed, safe, and timely decisions. 6/27/2013 11
  • The Teaching Process  Importance of the PTS  PTS hold an important position in aviation training curricula because they supply the instructor with specific performance objectives based on the standards that must be met for the issuance of a particular aviation certificate or rating. It is a widely accepted belief in the aviation community that test items included as part of a test or evaluation should be both content valid and criterion valid. Content validity means that a particular maneuver or procedure closely mimics what is required. Criterion validity means that the completion standards for the test are reflective of acceptable standards. 6/27/2013 12
  • Presentation of a Lesson  Research into how people learn has led many experts to recommend ways to present lessons that keep the attention of a class. The steps in the diagram on the next slide form a guideline for lesson presentation. Many of them can be combined during the actual presentation. For example, consider a video presentation given during the weight and balance lecture. The video adds a multimedia element to the lecture, is a good attention getter, and can be used to visually demonstrate the learning objective. 6/27/2013 13
  • Presentation of a Lesson 6/27/2013 14
  • Organization of Material  Even the most knowledgeable instructor must properly organize the material. Once a determination of objectives and standards has been made, an instructor formulates a plan of action to lead students through the course in a logical manner toward the desired goal. 6/27/2013 15
  • Organization of Material  Introduction  Attention- focus the students attention on the lesson  Motivation- offer the student specific reasons why the lesson content is important.  Overview- an overview tells the students what is to be covered during the period. 6/27/2013 16
  • Organization of Material  Development  Past to Present- the subject matter is arranged chronologically  Simple to Complex- begin with simple facts and work up to concepts  Known to Unknown- begin with something the student already knows  Most Frequently Used to Least Used Conclusion  The review and wrap-up of ideas will reinforce student learning and improves retention 6/27/2013 17
  • Delivery Methods  Lecture Method  The instructor delivers his knowledge via lecture to students are more or less silent participants  Discussion Method  The instructor provides a short lecture to give the basic knowledge, then will lead a discussion of the material. Discussion relies on the exchanging of information between participants.  Problem-Based Learning  Lessons are structured in such a way as to confront students with problems encountered in real life that forces them to reach real world solutions. 6/27/2013 18
  • Delivery Methods  E-Learning  Students learn the material through the use of electronics  Cooperative or Group Learning Method  Organize students into groups who can work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning  Drill and Practice Method  Promotes learning through repetition because those things most often repeated are best remembered 6/27/2013 19
  • Delivery Method  Demonstration-Performance Method  Students observe the instructor demonstrate and then try to reproduce the skill. It is based on the principle that people learn by doing. 6/27/2013 20
  • Application of Lesson  Application is student use of the instructor’s presented material. If it is a classroom presentation, the student may be asked to explain the new material. If it is a new flight maneuver, the student may be asked to perform the maneuver that has just been demonstrated. In most instructional situations, the instructor’s explanation and demonstration activities are alternated with student performance efforts. 6/27/2013 21
  • Assessment of Lesson  Before the end of the instructional period, the instructor should review what has been covered during the lesson and require the students to demonstrate how well the lesson objectives have been met. Review and assessment are integral parts of each classroom, and/or flight lesson. The instructor’s assessment may be informal and recorded only for the instructor’s own use in planning the next lesson for the students, or it may be formal. 6/27/2013 22
  • Instructional Aids and Training Technologies  Instructional Aids are devices that assist an instructor in the teaching-learning process.  Instructional aids help students remember important information, gain and hold a students attention 6/27/2013 23
  • Instructional Aids 6/27/2013 24
  • Test Preparation 6/27/2013 25