Autism Spectrum Disorder “ There may be no greater challenge facing public schools today than the staggering increase in children diagnosed with autism...” - Edutopia 2008 Read702 Literacy Interventions for Striving Readers Section 4 Topic Investigation Holly Graffius
Categories of Autism Spectrum Disorder The term autism spectrum disorder refers to a complex group of related disorders that have similar characteristics: 1. Autistic Disorder 2. Asperger's Syndrome (High Functioning Autism) 3.Pervasive Development Disorder -Not Otherwise Specified 4. Rett Syndrome 5. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder 6. Semantic Pragmatic Communication Disorder 7. Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities 8. Hperlexia 9. Some aspects of ADHD These categories are based on what is currently being recognized in the United States and show additional categories recognized around the world. http://www.readingassessment.info/resources/publications/readingandautism.htm http://www.pediatricneurology.com/autism.htm
Autistic Disorder This disorder is recognized in terms of severely disorder verbal and non-verbal language with unusual behaviors. It is also based on 3 specific areas of development: 1. Defective social or personal behaviors 2. Language or communication difficulties 3. Play or preferred activities which are characterized by restricted, repetitive, and sterotyped patterns of behavior. http://www.pediatricneurology.com/autismde.htm heward7.ppt from course
Asperger Syndrome (also known as High Functioning Autism) This is a syndrome which refers to the existence of autistic characteristics but relatively intact language abilities. Symptoms: 1. the inability to recognize social cues such as body language, irony, or other “subtext” of communication 2. restricted eye contact 3. limited socialization 4. monotone, droning voice 5. good “concrete thinking” skills 6. over-sensitivity to sensory stimulus 7. unusual behaviors http://www.pediatricneurology.com/autism.htm
Pervasice Development Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) This is a disorder that refers to a collection of features that look very similar to autism but may not be as severe or extensive, and most do not meet all the criteria to be identified as having an autistic disorder. http://www.readingassessment.info/resources/publications/readingandautism.htm
Rett Syndrome This is a syndrome which primarily affects girls, is a genetic disorder beginning between 5 and 30 months of age, characterized by speech and motor skills that regress with age, along with neurological disorders, and effects 1 in every 10,000 to 15,000. According to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, they have discovered that Rett Syndrome is caused by a mutation in a sequence of a single gene. This discovery may assist in the development in treatments to slow or stop the progress of this syndrome which in turn may lead to an ability to screen for it and start treatment for this syndrome much earlier. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2008). Autism Spectrum Disorders: Pervasive Development Disorders. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/autism/complete-index.shtml
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder This disorder refers to a condition in which development appears normal for the first few years of life, but then regresses with the loss of speech and other skills until the characteristics of autism are evident, and is typically accompanied by loss of bowel and bladder control, seizures, and low IQ. Fewer than 2 out of 100,000 children will be diagnosed with Childhood Disintegrative Disorder with a higher prevalence in boys. http://www.readingassessment.info/resources/publications/readingandautism.htm
Segmantic Pragmatic Communication Disorder Delay and trouble with the use of language (both semantic and pragmatic), but socialization relatively spared. Semantics refers to the ability to use and understand words, phrases and sentences, including abstract concepts and idioms. Pragmatic refers to the practical ability to use language as it is used in social contexts including conversations and understanding how, when, and where to use certain phrases or statements. http://www.pediatricneurology.com/autism.htm
Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities Trouble integrating information in 3 areas: non-verbal difficulties causing the child to miss the major gist in language, spatial perception problems, and motoric coordination problems (gross motor and fine motor issues). Children in this category often do not see “the big picture” and can't make connections. http://www.pediatricneurology.com/autism.htm
Hyperlexia These students have a great ability to rote read at a very early age, have a fascination with letters and numbers, difficulty with verbal language, and difficulties in socialization and interacting with their peers and other people. http://www.pediatricneurology.com/autism.htm
Some aspects of ADHD Some aspects of ADHD are impulsiveness and control difficulties which can lead to problems in showing empathy. ADHD should only be included in the Autism Spectrum if these symptoms are seen: 1. poor reading of social cues 2. poor ability to use “self-talk” 3. poor sense of self-awareness 4. do better with predictable routine 5. poor generalization of rules http://www.pediatricneurology.com/autism.htm
Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders <ul><li>It is estimated that 1 in every 110 children in the United States has Autism Spectrum Disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated by the Center for Disease Control that Autism Spectrum Disorder will impact boys at a higher rate than girls on an average of 4 to 5 times. </li></ul><ul><li>Autism Spectrum Disorder occurs in all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data.html </li></ul><ul><li>The Rising Tide of Autism Webinar from AutismPro </li></ul>
Educational Placement of Autism Spectrum Disorder Students: Nearly 80% of students on the Autism Spectrum are placed in a general education classroom for at least 40% of the school day. Nearly 26% of student on the Autism Spectrum are placed in a general education classroom for at least 79% of the school day. Only 11% of students on the Autism Spectrum are receiving services in a special school or in a private placement. 1 in 4 classroom teachers will have a student on the Autism Spectrum in their classroom. 1 in 4 paraprofessional staff will be the primary support for a student on the Autism Spectrum. Over 50% of all school staff including bus drivers and cafeteria staff will interact with students on the Autism Spectrum. The Rising Tide of Autism Webinar from AutismPro
Recommendations for Educating Autistic Spectrum Disorder Students <ul><li>Enrollment into Early intervention programs to assist in acquiring social and communication skills. This is key to lower educational costs later in their school careers as well as the cost over a life-time. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction should include a systematic presentation of materials which are relevant to real-life situations which targets specific objectives and behaviors, </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Instruction in Functional Social Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Individualized and small group instruction is essential due to ASD students difficulties with attention to tasks, directions, and for behavioral supports. Grouping changes as needed based on data collection and progress monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Individualized programming, ongoing assessment, and adjustments to program on a regular basis with changes made as they are needed based on data collection and progress monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency in instructional delivery and behavioral supports to enhance ASD students learning and generalization as well as assisting in the building of success and trust for the ASD student. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to classroom and school libraries that contain large amounts of books, both fiction and non-fiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Extended time to respond and interact </li></ul><ul><li>Use of visual materials (pictures and words) paired with verbal directions. </li></ul>http://www.pathfindersforautism.org/articleItem.aspx?id=17
Reading Strategies for Autistic Students <ul><li>Guided Reading Instruction is an instructional strategy which can be used to teach all readers and occurs in small group instruction for more interaction between the teacher and student. It has 3 fundamental guiding principles: </li></ul><ul><li>1. to meet the varying instructional needs of all readers in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>2.to teach students to read across a variety of genres and texts with fluency and comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>3. the ability to construct meaning while using problem solving strategies to figure out sentence structure and to gain an understanding of new concepts and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Source 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Instruction is a reading strategy where a teacher models a skills for the student, the teacher observes the students using and practicing the skill which was modeled for them where they are given corrective feedback and praise, and the students are then given the opportunity to use the skill in other academic and real-life situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Source 1 </li></ul><ul><li>http://autistic-students.suite101.com/article.cfm/autism_and_reading_comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>2. Using Guided Reading With Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders </li></ul>
Reading Strategies for Autistic Students <ul><li>Anaphoric cuing is a reading strategy used by a teacher to teach a child how to identify words in the text that reference words previously used in the text (anaphora). The students are shown how to pause at anaphora and relate these words back to the original reference. Anaphora words are usually pronouns which refer back to a person within the text. This strategy is used to teach text to text connections. </li></ul>http://autistic-students.suite101.com/article.cfm/autism_and_reading_comprehension Visual Strategies for autistic students are very important. Visual activities to use with autistic students are matching activities, illustrating text, cloze activities, and organizational maps. Picture symbols with words are very important as well especially if the students have limited verbal ability or no verbal ability.
Reading Strategies for Autistic Students <ul><li>Oelwein's Method is an approach to reading instruction where visual learning is introduced through meaningful words using flashcards, games, charts, and books. Once the words have been taught, the student is then presented with the individual letters and sounds. The words are presented verbally and written to enforce auditory learners. Kinesthetic learners are also addressed in this method because the student uses matching and selection, as well as using the words in sentences based on the presented flashcards. This strategy has 4 stages of learning: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Acquisition is the ability of a child to learn and recognize words. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fluency is the ability for the student to recognize a word on a consistent basis. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Transfer is the ability for a student to recognize a word across different text, context, and fonts. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Generalization is the ability for the student to recognize the word across all contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>Broun, L.T. (2004) Teaching Students With Autistic Spectrum Disorders to Read. Teaching Exceptional Children, 36(4), 36-40. </li></ul>
Incorporating Technology for Autistic Spectrum Disorder Students, Parents, and Teachers: TeachTown is an educational program which includes computer lessons, non-computer activities, data collection features, and a communication system to assist in instruction for autistic students. AutismPro is a database of resources, lessons, and intervention strategies for teacher's of students on the Autism Spectrum. Mind Reading is a educational resource designed to assist people with learning about emotions. This program contains 412 different emotional concepts as well as mini-stories to provide context. It is based on the use of video clips, stories, and voices. Lessons and quizzes are provided for data collection and progress monitoring. Autism Internet Modules are a free, online resource for autistic students, parents, and teachers. This includes 60 modules on a variety of issues related to the Autism Spectrum such as characteristics and identification, research-based practices and interventions, as well as the transition from school into adulthood.
Helpful Websites: Autistic Spectrum Disorder Websites: Autism Society of America: http://www.autism-society.org/site/PageServer Oasis @MAPP: http://www.aspergersyndrome.org/ ASPEN: http://www.aspennj.org/ TEACHH: http://www.teacch.com/ OAR: http://www.researchautism.org/resources/reading/index.asp The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Autism Site: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/autism/ AutismWeb: www.autismweb.com/education.htm Schwab Learning: www.schwablearning.org
References: Broun, L.T. (2004) Teaching Students With Autistic Spectrum Disorders to Read. Teaching Exceptional Children, 36(4), 36-40. Custer, K., Mellor, P, & Duncan-Chapman, J. (2009). Rising Tide of Autism. Retrieved from http://www.autismpro.com/ Heward, W.L. (2009). Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education (9 th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc. 2009 Partnership for Accessible Reading Assessments. (2006). Reading and Students with Autism. Retrieved from http://www.readingassessment.info/resources/publications/readingandautism.htm Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders-Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, United States, 2006 . Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. December 18, 2009; 58 (SS-10). CDC. Simpson, C. G., Spencer, V. G., Button, R., Rendon, S. (2007). Using guided reading with students with autism spectrum disorders. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 4(1) Article 5. Retrieved from http://escholarship.bc.edu/education/tecplus/vol4/iss1/art5 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2008). Autism Spectrum Disorders: Pervasive Development Disorders. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/autism/complete-index.shtml
References continued: Williams, E. (n.d.).Educational Recommendations for Autism Spectrum Disorders. Retreved from http://www.pathfindersforautism.org/articleItem.aspx?id=17#top Winn, K. (2009). Autism and Reading Comprehension: Improving the Reading Skills of Diagnosed with Autism. Retrieved from http://autistic-students.suite101.com/article.cfm/autism_and_reading_comprehension
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