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  • 1. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Classroom Instruction that Works Chapter 8
  • 2. Goal Setting
    • Definition:
    • The process of establishing a direction for learning.
  • 3. Generalizations about Goal Setting from the Research:
    • Instructional goals narrow what students focus on.
    • Instructional goals should not be so specific.
    • Students should be encouraged to personalize the teacher’s goals.
  • 4. Instructional Goals Narrow What Students Focus On
    • Narrowing the objective can cause students to focus attention to such a degree that they ignore information not specifically related to the goal.
    • Can limit the learning.
  • 5. Instructional Goals Should Not Be Specific
    • Characteristics of effective instructional goals:
    • Performance always says what a learner is expected to be able to do.
    • Conditions affect the performance.
    • Criterion is how well the learner must perform in order to be considered acceptable.
  • 6. Students Should Be Encouraged to Personalize the Teacher’s Goals
    • Adapt to personal needs and desires.
    • Not too specific ( hinders adaptation to personal needs and desires).
    • Demonstrates positive effects of student’s goal setting in a “contractual” context.
    • “ Teacher needs to be flexible”
  • 7. Providing Feedback
    • “ The most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be dollops of feedback.”
    • John Hattie
  • 8. Feedback
    • Definition:
    • Providing information on how a student is doing on an assignment or project.
  • 9. Generalizations about Feedback From Research
    • Feedback should be “corrective” in nature.
    • Feedback should be timely.
    • Feedback should be specific to a criterion.
  • 10. Feedback Should Be Corrective in Nature
    • Students need an explanation of what they are doing correct as well as what they are not doing correct.
    • Asking students to keep working on a task until they succeed appears to enhance achievement.
  • 11. Feedback Should Be Timely
    • The more time between completion of assignment and feedback yields the least amount of improvement.
    • Feedback given immediately following a test yields the highest achievement.
  • 12. Feedback Should Be Specific to a Criterion
    • Norm referenced tells students where they stand in relation to other students.
    • Criterion referenced tells students where they stand relative to a specific target of knowledge or skill.
  • 13. Criterion-Referenced Feedback
    • The manner in which students receive feedback is important for student achievement.
    • Rubrics
    • Student-feedback
  • 14. A Final Thought :
    • “ What students are to learn is usually not subject to negotiation, but they have considerable choice & numerous options in what they will do and how they will go about doing those things in order to learn.”
    • Philip C. Schlechty
    • Working on the Work