Setting Objectives and
Classroom Instruction that Works
The process of establishing a
direction for learning.
Generalizations about Goal Setting
from the Research:
Instructional goals narrow what
students focus on.
Instructional goals should not be so
Students should be encouraged to
personalize the teacher’s goals.
Instructional Goals Narrow What
Students Focus On
Narrowing the objective can cause
students to focus attention to such a
degree that they ignore information
not specifically related to the goal.
Can limit the learning.
Instructional Goals Should Not Be
Characteristics of effective
Performance always says what a
learner is expected to be able to do.
Conditions affect the performance.
Criterion is how well the learner must
perform in order to be considered
Students Should Be Encouraged to
Personalize the Teacher’s Goals
Adapt to personal needs and desires.
Not too specific ( hinders adaptation to personal
needs and desires).
Demonstrates positive effects of student’s goal
setting in a “contractual” context.
“Teacher needs to be flexible”
“The most powerful single modification
that enhances achievement is
feedback. The simplest prescription
for improving education must be
dollops of feedback.”
Providing information on how a student
is doing on an assignment or project.
Generalizations about Feedback From
Feedback should be “corrective” in
Feedback should be timely.
Feedback should be specific to a
Feedback Should Be Corrective in
Students need an explanation of what
they are doing correct as well as what
they are not doing correct.
Asking students to keep working on a
task until they succeed appears to
Feedback Should Be Timely
The more time between completion of
assignment and feedback yields the
least amount of improvement.
Feedback given immediately following
a test yields the highest achievement.
Feedback Should Be Specific to a
Norm referenced tells students where
they stand in relation to other students.
Criterion referenced tells students where
they stand relative to a specific target of
knowledge or skill.
The manner in which students receive
feedback is important for student
A Final Thought:
“What students are to learn is usually
not subject to negotiation, but they
have considerable choice & numerous
options in what they will do and how
they will go about doing those things
in order to learn.”
Philip C. Schlechty
Working on the Work