Setting objectives and providing feedbackPresentation Transcript
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Classroom Instruction that Works Chapter 8
The process of establishing a direction for learning.
Generalizations about Goal Setting from the Research:
Instructional goals narrow what students focus on.
Instructional goals should not be so specific.
Students should be encouraged to personalize the teacher’s goals.
Instructional Goals Narrow What Students Focus On
Narrowing the objective can cause students to focus attention to such a degree that they ignore information not specifically related to the goal.
Can limit the learning.
Instructional Goals Should Not Be Specific
Characteristics of effective instructional goals:
Performance always says what a learner is expected to be able to do.
Conditions affect the performance.
Criterion is how well the learner must perform in order to be considered acceptable.
Students Should Be Encouraged to Personalize the Teacher’s Goals
Adapt to personal needs and desires.
Not too specific ( hinders adaptation to personal needs and desires).
Demonstrates positive effects of student’s goal setting in a “contractual” context.
“ Teacher needs to be flexible”
“ The most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be dollops of feedback.”
Providing information on how a student is doing on an assignment or project.
Generalizations about Feedback From Research
Feedback should be “corrective” in nature.
Feedback should be timely.
Feedback should be specific to a criterion.
Feedback Should Be Corrective in Nature
Students need an explanation of what they are doing correct as well as what they are not doing correct.
Asking students to keep working on a task until they succeed appears to enhance achievement.
Feedback Should Be Timely
The more time between completion of assignment and feedback yields the least amount of improvement.
Feedback given immediately following a test yields the highest achievement.
Feedback Should Be Specific to a Criterion
Norm referenced tells students where they stand in relation to other students.
Criterion referenced tells students where they stand relative to a specific target of knowledge or skill.
The manner in which students receive feedback is important for student achievement.
A Final Thought :
“ What students are to learn is usually not subject to negotiation, but they have considerable choice & numerous options in what they will do and how they will go about doing those things in order to learn.”