Instructional Design


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  • This is an overview of the psychological foundations that I find to be aligned with my beliefs of education.
  • *Pavlov was influential in animal conditioning *Watson was influential in researching classical conditioning of humans*Skinner took the research one step further and developed operant conditioning
  • These are some examples of how I have used behaviorism in my classroom.
  • Information is first taken in by the sensory registers and if it is attention is given to the information it moves to the memory. It will first go into short term memory and if it is processed or recalled then it will move into the long term memory where there is no limit to how much the LTM can hold. The information must be linked in some way to prior knowledge for it to be transferred to LTM.
  • These are some of the ways I deliver instruction in the classroom to ensure that my students will remember the inforamtin I am presenting. We have songs for just about everything we learn.
  • Finding a child’s ZPD is very important for a teacher. You need to know where to direct your instruction and what level it should be at. Since I began teaching my school district has come up with a balanced literacy approach to teach reading. This is helpful in that a chunk of the lessons are done whole group but the bulk of the reading instruction is done in small groups which allows you to hone in on each child’s “zone” where they can receive the msot effective teaching that is not to high or low for them.
  • Linguistic – people who read and write well – such as authorsLogical-mathematical- great with mathematics and logical reasoning – such as scientists, accountantsSpatial- people that are good with recreating things visually – such as artists, architectsBodily-kinesthetic – people who can use their body – such as dancers, baseball playersMusical- people who are good with creating music – such as musiciansInterpersonal- people who are good with other people – such as- teachers, politiciansIntrapersonal- people who are very in tune to their own emotions and experience – such as a counselor
  • Gagne suggest that these steps should be followed sequentially in order to provide the best instruction to the learner.
  • This is a brief overview of a lesson I use during our Unit Of Inquiry on Weather and seasons. We follow through these steps as we teach the unit.
  • Pedagogy has generally been thought of as strictly teacher directed. However, I have been involved in a program with my school the last few years where environment at my school is supposed to be mostly student directed. At some levels there has to be teacher directed instruction but the units are designed with the opportunity that the students will take the learning off into various directions. This happens more in the older grades than in the younger grades. The yoounger grades are not able to take it as far on their own and we are guiding them on how to take their inquiry into another direction.
  • Motivation is extremely important in the classroom. I am constantly having to motivate my students in order to keep them wanting to learn. At the kindergarten level they are very curious but at the same time I have to constantly keep their attention in order to get them to learn. One way I motivate them is by conducting lessons on the Promethan Board and giving them the opportunity to use the board during the lesson. This keeps them focused and ready to participate and learn.
  • Instructional Design

    1. 1. INST 5131 <br />Spring 2010<br />Toni HollomanAssignment #2<br />
    2. 2. Psychological Foundations<br />
    3. 3. Behaviorism<br />Cognitive Process<br />Schema<br />Cognitive Load<br />Constructivism<br />Overview of Psychological Foundations<br />
    4. 4. Behaviorism - the theory of “human learning that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts mental activities” (On Purpose Associates, 2008)<br />
    5. 5. <ul><li>Influential Behavior Theorists:
    6. 6. Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, B.F. Skinner
    7. 7. Two types of behaviorism –
    8. 8. classical conditioning - occurs when a persons “natural reflex responds to stimulus” (On Purpose Associates, 2008)
    9. 9. operant conditioning - occurs when a persons response is reinforced through feedback. The feedback can be positive or negative.</li></ul>Key Points of Behaviorism<br />
    10. 10. Students are given fuzzies for good behavior and after a certain number of fuzzies are acquired, they get to go to the treasure box.<br />When students make a wrong choice and do something that is against the rules they immediately know they will have to move their color.<br />When it is time to clean up during station time I ring the bell and the students clean up and return to their seats.<br />Examples of Behaviorism in the Classroom<br />
    11. 11. Cognitive Process – this theory focuses on the process through which we learn and how we learn best. Learning takes place through listening, hearing, touching and seeing objects and information.<br />
    12. 12. Influential Theorists:<br /><ul><li>Howard Gardner , Lev Vygotsky</li></ul>Memory plays an important role in the learning process<br /><ul><li>Three stages of information processing
    13. 13. Sensory Memory
    14. 14. Short Term Memory
    15. 15. Long Term Memory</li></ul>Key Points of Cognitive Process<br />
    16. 16. Sensory Memory – this is the part of the memory that receives all of the information a person senses. The delivery method of the information must be interesting and the learner must have some prior knowledge or connection to the information in order for it to be passed on to the Short Term Memory.<br />Short Term Memory - information stays in the STM for 15-20 seconds. This information will disappear unless it is recalled within 20 minutes.<br />Long Term Memory – information in LTM can be easily recalled and can hold information for an indefinite amount of time.<br />(Huitt, 2003)<br />Stages of Information Processing<br />
    17. 17. Do something to grab their attention, for example sing a song or show them a PowerPoint presentation of pictures to pique their interest in the topic.<br />Review a previous lesson so they can make a connection to the new information.<br />Use songs, poems, acronyms or any other fun way for them to remember the information.<br />After presenting the information to the students, have them complete an activity to apply the new information they were given so it will be transferred to the LTM.<br />Using Information Processing in the Classroom<br />
    18. 18. Lev Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development<br />Zone of Proximal Development refers to the difference between what a child can do independently and what they can do with assistance. <br />The “zone” is important because it shows the learners’ potential to learn the given information.<br />I use the “ZPD” in my classroom for each child when teaching them to read. I choose books on instructional levels that are not too hard and not too easy. This way optimal learning can take place. <br />
    19. 19. Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence’s<br />Follows the belief that all people have different intelligences and learn better by utilizing these intelligences.<br />The 7 intelligences are:<br /><ul><li>Linguistic
    20. 20. Logical-mathematical
    21. 21. Spatial
    22. 22. Bodily-kinesthetic
    23. 23. Musical
    24. 24. Interpersonal
    25. 25. Intrapersonal</li></li></ul><li>When designing instruction you must take into consideration the intelligence of the learner. <br />All learners learn differently so instructional designers should use various intelligences in the lessons they are presenting.<br />Assessments can also be created which allow the learner to choose the manner in which he/she shows what they have learned.<br />Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence’s, cont…<br />
    26. 26. Gagne’s Theory of Instruction – “is comprised of three principles: taxonomy of learning outcomes, conditions of learning, and nine events of instruction. Gagne asserts that specific learning conditions critically influence the learning o.utcomes” (Abbamondi, 2004).<br />
    27. 27. Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction<br />(Kearsley, 2009)<br />
    28. 28. <ul><li>Gain attention - show variety of pictures of the four seasons
    29. 29. Inform Learner of the Objectives – “At the end of the unit you will be able to tell me about seasonal changes”
    30. 30. Stimulate Recall of Prior Learning – ask students why they wore a jacket to school today or why they wear shorts during the summer.
    31. 31. Provide Learner Guidance – draw a diagram of how the seasons change over the year and explain
    32. 32. Present Stimulus – show a movie about the four seasons
    33. 33. Elicit Performance – the students will create a four part picture showing how the seasons change over the year
    34. 34. Provide Feedback- check over their work
    35. 35. Assess Performance- ask students to explain their pictures and the seasonal changes that are occurring.
    36. 36. Enhance Retention and Transfer – show students pictures of the seasons and have them tell you what season is it</li></ul>(Kearsley, 2009)<br />Example of a Lesson Using the Nine Events of Instruction<br />
    37. 37. Constructivism – a theory based on student directed learning where they are guided by the instructor to construct their own learning . The focus can change based on the direction of the student inquiry.<br />
    38. 38. How Constructivism Impacts Learning<br />Curriculum–Constructivism calls for the elimination of a standardized curriculum. Instead, it promotes using curricula customized to the students’ prior knowledge. Also, it emphasizes hands-on problem solving.<br />Instruction–Under the theory of constructivism, educators focus on making connections between facts and fostering new understanding in students. Instructors tailor their teaching strategies to student responses and encourage students to analyze, interpret, and predict information. Teachers also rely heavily on open-ended questions and promote extensive dialogue among students.<br />Assessment–Constructivism calls for the elimination of grades and standardized testing. Instead, assessment becomes part of the learning process so that students play a larger role in judging their own progress.<br />(On Purpose Associates, Constructivism, 2009)<br />
    39. 39. Learning Environments<br />
    40. 40. Learning Environment – is defined as all of the stimulus around a learner, for example, objects, people, activities and places. The learning environment should assist the child in receiving the best overall learning. <br />
    41. 41. Learning environment can refer to a classroom or an online virtual environment.<br />The environment must offer a wide range of learning resources to take into consideration the various learning styles of the learners inside.<br />The environment should be positive, safe and should promote learning.<br />There are two main types of learning environments – objectivist and constructivist.<br />Effective learning environments should be measured by the success in learning.<br />Key Facts About Learning Environments<br />
    42. 42. In an objectivist learning environment the designer:<br /><ul><li>analyzes what the learner needs to know and what the learner already knows
    43. 43. designs a set of objectives to be presented to the learner
    44. 44. develop and implement activities and instructional materials that will assist the learner in reaching the stated objectives
    45. 45. evaluates the learner by providing a specific assessment so the learner can show what they know</li></ul>(Reiser and Dempsey, 2007)<br />Objectivist Learning Environment<br />
    46. 46. Constructivist Learning Environment<br />In a constructivist learning environment the designer:<br /><ul><li>analyzes what the learning environment should look like and creates a problem for the learner to figure out
    47. 47. designs an environment where the learner can explore various aspects of the information or construct their own learning
    48. 48. develop and implement learning resources and consult on activates that the learner can choose to follow or implement into the unit of learning
    49. 49. Evaluate the learner on an assessment method of his/her choice in order to show what they have learned.</li></ul>(Reiser and Dempsey, 2007)<br />
    50. 50. I use a combination of objectivist and constructivist learning environments in my classroom.<br />In kindergarten it is hard to give them all of the control but I do allow them some room to choose what direction our Units of Inquiry go.<br />Which Learning Environment Do I Use?<br />
    51. 51. Andragogy vs. Pedagogy<br />
    52. 52. Learner Motivation<br />
    53. 53. Motivation - is “the most overlooked aspect of instructional strategy, and perhaps the most critical element needed for employee-learners. Even the most elegantly designed training program will fail if the students are not motivated to learn”<br />(Kruse)<br />
    54. 54. Keller’s ARCS Model<br />Self-Regulation<br />Intrinsic and Extrinsic<br />Types of Motivation<br />
    55. 55. Keller’s ARCS Model for Motivation<br />
    56. 56. <ul><li>Attention – you must keep the learner’s attention by including sensory stimuli and inquiry arousal
    57. 57. Relevance – the learner must feel that the information is relevant to his/her life or professional realm in order to maintain attention and motivation
    58. 58. Confidence – the learner must feel like they are capable of learning the information or achieve the objectives in order to maintain motivation
    59. 59. Satisfaction – the learner must fell as if they will gain some sort of reward for completing the task given to learn the information</li></ul>(Kruse)<br />Keller’s ARCS Model for Motivation…cont.<br />
    60. 60. Self- Regulation<br />All learners, at any age, are capable of self-regulation<br />When learners are faced with self-regulation the following actions occur:<br />They analyze the given task and compare it to their prior knowledge.<br />They set goals to help them achieve their set objective.<br />They continually monitor their progress giving internal feedback.<br />They adjust their strategies based on their internal feedback.<br />They use motivational strategies within themselves to keep on task.<br />(Author Unknown, 2003)<br />
    61. 61. Self-observation – the learner pays specific attention to their own behavior<br />Self-judgment – compares the set goal with their current progress<br />Self-reaction – the learners reaction to their own self-judgment<br />(Author Unknown, 2003)<br />Components of Self-Regulation<br />
    62. 62. Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic<br />
    63. 63. Citations<br />Author Unknow, (2003). Self Regulation of learning. Retrieved from m<br />Abbamondi, D. (2004). Gagne's theory. Retrieved from<br />Huitt, W. (2003). The information processing approach to cognition. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [February 20, 2009) from,<br />Kearsley, G. (2009). The Theory Into Practice Database. Retrieved from<br />Kruse, K. (n.d.). The Magic of learner motivation: the arcs model. Retrieved from<br />On Purpose Associates. (2009). Behaviorism. Retrieved from<br />On Purpose Associates (2009). Constructivism. Retrieved from<br />Reiser, R., & Dempsey, J. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.<br />Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, . (1995). Constructin knowledge in the classroom. Retrieved from<br />