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The French Revolution "Conservative" Phase: 1795-1799
The “Thermidorian Reaction” <ul><li>Begins July 1794..consisted of the destruction of the instruments of  T error ,  and t...
The “Thermidorian Reaction” <ul><li>Curtailed the power of the Committee for Public Safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Girondists a...
Characteristics of theThermidor <ul><li>Individuals associated with or involved in the original Terror were attacked often...
Establishment of the   Directory <ul><li>Constitution of 1793 abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution of Year III initiat...
Thermidor…has come to be associated with political reaction <ul><li>If Fr.Rev had originated in pol. conflicts characteris...
Now what? <ul><li>The Fr. Rev. gives rise to questions of property distribution and economic regulations. </li></ul><ul><l...
Who were the BIG winners? Why?
 
Political Instability:  1795-1796 <ul><li>May 20, 1795     Revolt of Prairial [Year III] </li></ul><ul><li>October 5,-13 ...
18 Brumaire  (Nov. 9, 1799) <ul><li>Coup d’ é tat   by Napoleon. </li></ul><ul><li>Approved by a plebiscite in December. <...
A British Cartoon about Napoleon’s Coup in 1799
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French revolution 3ab

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  • Transcript of "French revolution 3ab"

    1. 1. The French Revolution &quot;Conservative&quot; Phase: 1795-1799
    2. 2. The “Thermidorian Reaction” <ul><li>Begins July 1794..consisted of the destruction of the instruments of T error , and the institution of a new constitutional regime. </li></ul><ul><li>WHY ? </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread belief that the revolution had become too radical </li></ul><ul><li>weariness of the Terror </li></ul><ul><li>fear the sans culottes were exerting far too much political influence </li></ul><ul><li>The sans culottes will be replaced by wealthy middle class and professional individuals </li></ul>
    3. 3. The “Thermidorian Reaction” <ul><li>Curtailed the power of the Committee for Public Safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Girondists allowed to take seats (appeared from hiding or prison) </li></ul><ul><li>Some ..but by no means all of those individuals responsible for the Terror were removed from public life </li></ul><ul><li>Paris Commune outlawed </li></ul><ul><li>Closed the Paris Jacobin Club. And Jacobin clubs in the provinces forbidden to communicate with each other </li></ul><ul><li>Repealed Law of 22 Prairial </li></ul><ul><li>Churches were reopened. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1795  freedom of worship for all cults was granted. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic restrictions were lifted in favor of laissez-faire policies. </li></ul><ul><li>August, 1795  a new Constitution is written </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more conservative republicanism. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Characteristics of theThermidor <ul><li>Individuals associated with or involved in the original Terror were attacked often murdered no more due process than before  “White” Terror </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bands of Jesus” gangs of youth with aristocratic connections who avoided service in the army roamed streets …like Sept. Massacres of 1792. </li></ul><ul><li>Republic of Virtue replaced by “republic of vice” </li></ul><ul><li>Self-indulgence  frivolous culture; salons return; wild fashions. Prostitution in Paris. New plays. Wild parties </li></ul><ul><li>Return family life to before revolution (No more social or political change) </li></ul><ul><li>Repeal of divorce laws. No improvement of women’s education </li></ul><ul><li>Revival of Catholicism but the Convention continued to favor the Cult of the Supreme Being </li></ul>
    5. 5. Establishment of the Directory <ul><li>Constitution of 1793 abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution of Year III initiated…constitutional monarchy and democracy reflected </li></ul><ul><li>Legislature. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Council of Elders [250 members]  husbands or widowers over 40 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council of 500  men of at least 30 either married of single…. initiates legislation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Executive. </li></ul><ul><li>5-man executive committee or oligarchy [to avoid a dictatorship]. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They accepted or rejected the legislation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both houses elected by electors who owned or rented property worth 100-200 days’ labor [limited to 30,000 voters]. The electors were elected by all males over 21 who were taxpayers… Or were soldiers..no property needed </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Thermidor…has come to be associated with political reaction <ul><li>If Fr.Rev had originated in pol. conflicts characteristic of 18 th cent. </li></ul><ul><li>BY 1795 </li></ul><ul><li>It had become something very different </li></ul><ul><li>A pol. structure based on rank and birth had given away to a pol system based on equality and social status based on property ownership </li></ul>
    7. 7. Now what? <ul><li>The Fr. Rev. gives rise to questions of property distribution and economic regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>Those qualifications Can not be ignored ! </li></ul><ul><li>Representation had been established as a principle of politics! </li></ul><ul><li>In the lev é e en masse the French demonstrated to Europe the power of the secular ideal of nationhood! </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout Europe which new groups will gain representation and HOW? </li></ul>
    8. 8. Who were the BIG winners? Why?
    9. 10. Political Instability: 1795-1796 <ul><li>May 20, 1795  Revolt of Prairial [Year III] </li></ul><ul><li>October 5,-13 1795 : V endémire—sections of Paris revolt led by royalists against the Convention </li></ul><ul><li>Winter 1794-1795  Worst food shortages of the period= Inflation; bread riots. Convention put down with force…end of sans-culottes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military suppressed them with a general (Nappy) and “a whiff of grapeshot” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaties of Basel in March and June 1795 peace with Prussia and Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of both radicals and royalists in upcoming elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directory formed ..social unrest….. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May, 1796  First “communist” revolt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gracchus Babeuf and the Conspiracy of Equals” </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. 18 Brumaire (Nov. 9, 1799) <ul><li>Coup d’ é tat by Napoleon. </li></ul><ul><li>Approved by a plebiscite in December. </li></ul><ul><li>Abbe Sieyès: Confidence from below; authority from above. </li></ul>
    11. 12. A British Cartoon about Napoleon’s Coup in 1799
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