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Construction processes _procedures_37b_edline (1)
 

Construction processes _procedures_37b_edline (1)

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    Construction processes _procedures_37b_edline (1) Construction processes _procedures_37b_edline (1) Presentation Transcript

    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures 37b
    • Construction Technologies Processes and ProceduresConstruction is a technological activity. Itrequires a series of actions that have to bedone in the right order. These actions arepart of a technical process called theconstruction process. Construction isthe systematic act or process of building,erecting, or construction buildings, roads,or other structures.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and ProceduresStructures are constructed using a varietyof processes and procedures. In somecases, the procedure used depends onthe type of material available. Forexample, welds, bolts, and rivets are usedto assemble metal framing materials.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and ProceduresSometimes procedures are selected as afunction of cost, skills, and preference ofthe worker, or the level of quality desired.Citizens should be equipped to evaluatethe appropriateness of procedures used.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and ProceduresThe design of structures includes anumber of requirements. One of the mostimportant design constraint with structuresis function. For example, the function ofhouses is to provide safe and pleasantshelter for families, whereas the primaryfunction of a bridge is to carry loads overbarriers or obstructions.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and ProceduresOther important constraints includeappearance, strength, longevity,maintenance, and available utilities. Thedesign and construction of structures isregulated by laws, codes, andprofessional standards. Common designconstraints used by engineers andarchitects in the design of structuresinclude style, convenience, safety, andefficiency.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures The construction process generally follows these eight steps:3. Preparing to build.4. Preparing the site.5. Setting foundations.6. Building the framework.7. Enclosing the structure.8. Installing utilities.9. Finishing the interior.10. Finishing the site.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Preparing to BuildA structure starts with an identified need.A family needs a new home. Acommunity needs a new courthouse. Abusiness needs a new store. A doctorneeds a new office. The list could go onand on.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Preparing to BuildThe need must be changed into adesign. The selection of designs forstructures is based on many factors.Builders need to consider style,convenience, cost, climate, and function. They also must pay attention to buildinglaws and codes, which are typically partof the city or county regulations forconstruction.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Preparing to BuildOnce all of these factors have beenconsidered, a suitable design can becreated. The design is described with aset of plans. The new structure is shownon architecture drawings andspecifications. The drawings show theshape and size of the proposed structureand the arrangement of spaces withinthe structure.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Preparing to BuildThey also show the location of features,such as windows and doors, and howfoundations , floors, walls, and roofs areto be constructed. Electrical, heating,and plumbing systems are shown. Theplans often include additional informationsheets called specifications.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Preparing to BuildThese information sheets aredescriptions telling people how the workmust be done. They also explain whatquality of materials to use. The plansand specifications tell the builder whatthe structure will look like and how tobuild it.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Preparing to Build Architect blueprint of house plans.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Preparing the SiteFew building sites are ready for a newstructure. There may be old buildingsthat must be torn down. Brush and treesmay need to be removed. Rocks anddebris must be hauled away. Theground may need to be leveled.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Preparing to BuildAfter a site has beenselected it must beprepared forconstruction. The sitemay need to becleared of trees andbrush. An existingstructure may need tobe removed. Demolition of a residential house.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Preparing the SiteFew building sites areready for a new structure.There may be old buildingsthat must be torn down.Brush and trees may needto be removed. Rocks anddebris must be hauledaway. The ground mayneed to be leveled.Sometimes, temporarybuilding and service roads Earthmoving equipmentare built to aid the at work preparing aconstruction of permanent construction site forstructures. development.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Preparing the SiteOnce the site is prepared, a structurecan be located on it. It must be kept acertain distance from the property ofothers. Local restrictions dictate thesedistances. These crews measuredistances from the boundary lines of theproperty. Stakes are driven to showwhere to place the structure’sfoundation.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Preparing the SiteThe structure willneed to be locatedon the site.Surveying is doneto determine theexact boundariesof the property.The structure is A surveyor at a constructionthen located on the site peering through aproperty. theodolite.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Preparing the SiteThe structure will need to be located onthe site. Surveying is done to determinethe exact boundaries of the property. Thestructure is then located on the property.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Setting FoundationsA constructed structure hastwo major parts. There is thesubstructure below theground. It is often called thefoundation. The substructureconnects the structure to theearth. Also, it spreads out theweight of the structure so thestructure does not sink into House foundation – alsothe ground. called the substructure because it will be below the ground once completed.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Setting FoundationsThe other part of the structureis the superstructure, whichis usually seen above theground. It is the part of thestructure that is used. Thesuperstructure is the reasonthe structure is built. House superstructure – the structure that is above ground that sits on the foundation.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Building the FrameworkLet us explore common frame construction, as it isused in a house. The superstructure of the house isbuilt on top of the foundation. It has three mainparts:FloorWallRoof
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Building the FrameworkThe superstructuremust be securelyfastened to thefoundation. Bolts orstraps are embeddedin the top of thefoundation wall. Woodpieces are attached tothe bolts or straps. This picture shows a boltThese parts make up attached through the sill platethe sill plate. securing the superstructure to the foundation.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Building the FrameworkLet us explore common frame construction, as it isused in a house. The superstructure of the house isbuilt on top of the foundation. It has three mainparts: Floor Wall Roof
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Building the Framework Floor FramingThe floor frame is fastenedon top of the sill plate. Joistextend from one wall toanother. The joist are placedon an edge and nailed to aheader. They must carry theweight of the floor, furniture,appliances, and people thatwill be on them. Floor Framing
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Building the Framework Wall FramingIn most houses, wallsare made of woodframing. Recently, steelframing is being used insome homes. Wallframes are designed tobe light and strong.They include plates Wall Framingstuds, and headers.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Building the Framework Roof FramingBuildings may have a flator pitched roofs. Apitched roof is attached tothe walls. It rises severalfeet to the center of thehouse. The high part ofthe roof is called theridge. The low ends arecalled eaves. The roofframing members arecalled rafters. Roof Framing
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Enclosing the StructureBuildings are designed to serve manypurposes such as keeping out the weather(rain, snow, wind, heat, and cold). Theyprotect people and goods as well as provideprivacy. To accomplish these tasks, thebuildings must be enclosed. Builders willperform many tasks to close in the structure.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Enclosing the StructureThey will cover the frame with a sheetmaterials such as plywood, flake board,oriented strand board (OSB), or insulatingboard. The material closes the structure andmakes the frame more rigid. When thismaterial is applied to outside walls, it iscalled sheathing. Sheathing used on roofsis known as decking.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Enclosing the StructureThese houses are being enclosed using sheathingto get them ready to cover with a variety of othermaterials so they look more attractive.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Enclosing the Structure Enclosing Wall MaterialsAfter the sheathing is applied, windows andoutside doors are installed. The sheathing,however, is not very attractive. To improvethe beauty of the building, attractivewaterproof materials cover the sheathing.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Enclosing the Structure Enclosing Wall MaterialsThere are many different types of exteriorbuilding materials. The material may bebrick, stone, wood siding, aluminum, vinyl(plastic), brick, veneer, glass, wood panels,rocks, logs, or shingles.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Enclosing the StructureThis house has been closed in using a variety of materials.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Enclosing the Structure Enclosing the RoofRoofs are more likely to leak than walls are.Special waterproof materials must be usedto keep the building dry. Shingles arenormally used on all pitched roofs. Ashingled roof is installed by attaching manysmall pieces of waterproof material.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Enclosing the Structure Enclosing the RoofThe roofing material must withstand manykinds of weather conditions. As each pieceis installed, it overlaps the one beneath it.Shingles are made of many differentmaterials, such as wood, slate, ceramic,aluminum, copper, fiberglass, or asphalt.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Enclosing the Structure Enclosing the Roof Asphalt Shingles
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Enclosing the Structure Installing UtilitiesBuildings usually contain a variety ofsubsystems, including electrical, water,waste disposal, climate control,communication, and structural subsystems.Most of these subsystems are referred to asutilities. Utilities are services coming into abuilding. They are supplied by pipes andcables.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Enclosing the Structure Installing UtilitiesMechanical systems must be installedbefore the inside of the house is finished.Installing mechanical systems is calledroughing in. Usually you cannot see thesystems. Mechanical systems are placedinside the walls and under floors.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Enclosing the Structure Installing UtilitiesIf you go into a basement or under a house,you may see the pipes, ducts, and electricalwiring. The steps in roughing in are usuallycarried out in a special order. Ductwork orpipes for the heating and cooling system areinstalled first.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Enclosing the Structure Installing UtilitiesThey carry warm or cool air from a furnaceor air conditioner. These pipes go to eachroom of the house. They are fitted betweenthe floor joists and wall studs. Plumbingsystems are installed next. This system ofpipes carries liquids and gases.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Enclosing the Structure Installing Utilities Plumbing in a building is needed to accomplish several purposes:• Provide fresh, pure water• Remove wastewater• Carry fuel to furnaces, water heaters, and stoves
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Enclosing the Structure Installing UtilitiesWater Electrical Natural Gas
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Enclosing the Structure Installing UtilitiesLike the ductwork, plumbing is installed inthe open spaces between the wall studs andfloor joists. Electrical systems distributeelectrical power. They also are used forcommunication. Electric power runsappliances, and is used for lighting.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Enclosing the Structure Installing UtilitiesTelephones and intercomsystems use electricalimpulses to carry speech.Some homes have theatersystems requiring wring tovarious speakers. Sinceelectrical wiring is small, itis installed last. Electrical box outlet in new home construction interior.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the InteriorOnce the utilities are roughed in, theinterior can be finished. The walls andceilings can be insulated. Also, they canbe covered with protective and decoratingmaterials. Finally, appliances, cabinets,and fixtures can be installed.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Interior InsulatingOutside walls and ceilings of the housemust be insulated. Insulation is a materialthat resists heat passage. It keeps heatinside during cold weather. In hot weather,it keeps the heat outside. Insulation is avery light, soft material made in severalforms.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Interior InsulatingLoose insulation can be blown into ceilings.Long strips of insulation, called batts, canbe placed between studs and joists. Insulation blown into the ceiling Long strips of insulation batts.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Interior Enclosing Interior Walls and CeilingsOnce the insulation is in the interior can beclosed. First, walls and ceilings are coveredto provide a smooth surface. This isgenerally done with drywall or wallboard.Drywallers attach large sheets of drywallwith glue or nails. Seams and nail headsare concealed with a special tape and filler.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Interior These workers are attaching drywall to the interior walls and ceilings.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Interior Finishing the Inside Finishing includes jobs making the interior of the building attractive. These tasks generally follow a certain order:3. Painting and decorating.4. Installing finish flooring.5. Installing window, door, and baseboard trim.6. Installing electrical and plumbing fixtures and accessories.7. Cleaning up.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Interior Finishing the InsidePainting and decoratingare usually done first.They are done tobeautify the interior.Paint protects wood anddrywall surfaces.Wallpaper, wood, An interior nursery room painted and decorated in sea style.paneling, and ceramictile are other choices forwall covering.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Interior Finishing the InsideFinish flooring is usually installed after thepainting and decorating are done. Installing it atthis point keeps the floors from being damagedduring the painting process. Flooring materialsare designed to wear well and look attractive.Many different materials make good finishflooring. Wood, carpet, linoleum, and ceramic tileare among the most commonly used.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Interior Finishing the Inside These are examples of different types of flooring.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Interior Finishing the InsideThe final steps involve trimming the structure andinstalling accessories. Trim consists of thedecorative wood or plastic strips covering joints.Joints appear where floors, walls, and ceilingsmeet. They are also where window and doorframes meet walls.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Interior Finishing the InsideNext, room doors are carefully hung on theirhinges. Closet doors are installed. Cabinets areinstalled in kitchens, bathrooms, and otherrooms. These cabinets provide storage spaceand support countertops. During this installation,the countertops and kitchen appliances areinstalled.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Interior Finishing the InsideFinally, hardware and accessories are installed.Hardware includes doorknobs, latches, catches,and brackets. Other accessories include closetshelving and towel bars. Plumbing faucets andelectrical fixtures are among the final itemsinstalled.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Site Construction is not complete until the building site is finished. During construction, the site becomes cluttered. Scraps of building materials are everywhere. There may be piles of dirt. Several things must still be done:2. Clearing the site.3. Leveling and grading the ground.4. Creating walks and drives.5. Adding landscaping.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Site Clearing the SiteClearing the site may need to be done beforeany other finishing steps are taken. Some ofthe dirt may not be needed. It must behauled away. Rocks, trash, and scraps ofbuilding materials must be removed.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Site Leveling and Grading the GroundEarth may have to be moved. Holes may havebeen dug for foundations. Some of the earth ispushed back to fill in around the foundation. Thisis called backfilling. The earth is shaped aroundthe structure. Soil may be moved from one spotand placed in another, so it is more pleasing.Topsoil may be returned to areas that haveplants and lawn.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Site Leveling and Grading the Ground
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Site Creating Walks and DrivesWalks and drives give users access to a building. Drives must have a heavy base of gravel. Thesurface may be finer gravel, concrete, or asphalt.Sidewalks can be constructed of concrete,natural stone, wood, or masonry.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Site Creating Walks and Drives
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Site Adding LandscapeLandscaping is a way of making the site moreattractive. It includes planting trees, shrubs, andflowers. Landscaping also often includesplanting grass or putting down sod. Groundcover, such as back and rock, is sometimes usedwhere grass is not wanted. It keeps soil fromwashing away and covers unattractive soil.
    • Construction Technologies Processes and Procedures Finishing the Site Adding Landscape