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Staar review social studies 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Social Studies STAAR Test Review
  • 2. Colonization
  • 3. 1. Reasons for English Colonization• Social-• Economic-• Religious-
  • 4. 2. Jamestown- 1607• First permanent English settlement in North America.
  • 5. 3. Virginia House of Burgesses• First representative assembly in the colonies.
  • 6. 4. 1620• Founding of Plymouth Colony• Mayflower Compact- Early example of self government.
  • 7. 5. Representative Government• Power is held by the people who elect representatives to look out for their interests.
  • 8. 6. Plantations• Large farms that usually grow one kind of cash crop.
  • 9. 7. Cash Crops• Grown to make money.
  • 10. 8. Mercantilism• Economic system where colony can only trade with Mother Country (England). Hurt the colony’s economy
  • 11. 9. Triangular Trade• Buying and selling of humans for forced labor.
  • 12. 10. Colonial Economies• Southern- Agricultural.• Northern- Industrial, ship building, fishing.
  • 13. 11. Free Enterprise• Economic system where there is competition between businesses with little governmental control.
  • 14. Revolution
  • 15. 12. Effect of the French and Indian War• Colonies paid Britain taxes to help pay off England’s war debt.
  • 16. 13. King George III• King of England during the American Revolution.
  • 17. 14. “No Taxation Without Representation”• Reason colonists were upset with British government.
  • 18. 15. Samuel Adams• Opposed British taxation.• Helped form the Sons of Liberty.
  • 19. 16. Patrick Henry• Known for his “Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Death” speech.
  • 20. 17. Thomas Paine• Wrote “Common Sense” which gave reasons to fight for independence.
  • 21. 18. Thomas Jefferson• Wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776.• This listed grievances (complaints) against King George III.
  • 22. 19. Unalienable Rights• Rights that cannot be taken away.• In the Declaration of Independence they are-
  • 23. 20. George Washington• Commander of the Continental Army.
  • 24. 21. Lexington and Concord• Opening battles of the American Revolution.
  • 25. 22. Saratoga• Battle which was the turning point of the revolution.• France began to help the colonies after this victory. Victory
  • 26. 23. Benjamin Franklin• Helped convince France to help the colonists fight the British.
  • 27. 24. Valley Forge• Where Washington’s army spent a difficult winter but emerged a stronger force.
  • 28. 25. Yorktown• Ended the American Revolution. USA
  • 29. 26. Treaty of Paris• British recognized American independence.• Mississippi River became the western border of the U.S.
  • 30. Government andthe Constitution
  • 31. 27. Articles of Confederation• First U.S. Constitution.• Weak National government.
  • 32. 28. Northwest Ordinance• Set up an orderly system to bring in new states.
  • 33. 29. Convention of 1787• Called to revise the Articles of Confederation• New Constitution was written.
  • 34. 30. James Madison• “Father of the Constitution”
  • 35. 31. Federalist• For the Constitution.
  • 36. 32. Federalist Papers• Written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay to gain support for the Constitution.
  • 37. 33. Anti-Federalist• Against the Constitution.• Feared a loss of rights.
  • 38. 34. George Mason• Anti-Federalist who was concerned that the new Constitution was too powerful and would take away the rights of the people and the states.
  • 39. 35. Great Compromise• Set up Congress into 2 houses.• House of Representatives: Based on state’s population.• Senate- Two for each state.
  • 40. 36. Three-Fifths Compromise• Settled how slaves would be counted for taxation and representation purposes.
  • 41. 37. Branches of Government• Executive- President: Carries out the laws.• Legislative- Congress: Makes laws.• Judicial- Courts: Interprets the laws.
  • 42. 38. Bill of Rights• First 10 Amendments to the Constitution.• Protects Unalienable rights.
  • 43. 39. Limited Government• All authority figures must obey the law.
  • 44. 40. Republicanism• People hold the power through the election of representatives. People Elect Representatives
  • 45. 41. Checks and Balances• Prevents one branch of the government from becoming too powerful. EXAMPLES:
  • 46. 42. Federalism• The sharing of power between a national government and states.
  • 47. 43. Separation of Powers• Each branch of the government is assigned specific powers. L E J Make Carries Court Laws out System Laws
  • 48. 44. Popular Sovereignty• Political power rests with the people.• Exercised through voting. Power of the People
  • 49. 45. Amendment Process• Addition or change to the Constitution.• 2/3 approval vote in both houses of Congress.• ¾ approval of states.
  • 50. Early Nation
  • 51. 46. Federalist Party• Alexander Hamilton.• Believed in a strong national government.
  • 52. 47. Democratic-Republican Party• Thomas Jefferson• Weak national government.
  • 53. 48. Bank of the United States• Bank chartered by the National government to provide bank notes to be used as money and to regulate state banks.
  • 54. 49. Washington’s Farewell Address• Warned against political parties, foreign entanglements, regional differences, and having a debt.
  • 55. 50. 1803• Year Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million.• Doubled the size of the U.S.
  • 56. 51. Marbury v Madison• John Marshall- Supreme Court case which established Judicial Review.• Supreme Court can declare a law unconstitutional.
  • 57. 52. War of 1812• War with Britain over impressment, and interference with American trade, and military aid to Indians.
  • 58. 53. James Monroe• His doctrine stated European countries were to stay out of the Western Hemisphere.
  • 59. 54. Missouri Compromise• Missouri- slave state. Maine free state.• First sectional issue between the North and South.
  • 60. 55. Sectionalism• When one part of the country looks out for its own interests.
  • 61. IndustrialRevolution
  • 62. 56. Industrial Revolution• Production of goods and products in factories by machines.• Led to more goods being produced at lower prices.
  • 63. 57. Urbanization• Major movement of people from rural (Countryside) to cities (urban).
  • 64. 58. Interchangeable Parts• Eli Whitney.• Parts are made exactly the same to make it easier to replace defective parts.
  • 65. 59. Agricultural Inventions• Cotton Gin- Eli Whitney- Created a demand for slaves.• Steel Plow- John Deere- Increased agricultural production.• Mechanical Reaper- Cyrus McCormick- Increased grain production.
  • 66. 60. Transportation• Steamboat- Robert Fulton. Decreased travel time on water.• Canals- Man made waterways found mainly in the Northeast. Connected cities by water.• Railroads- Fastest form of transportation on land. Led to growth of cities and westward expansion.
  • 67. 61. Commerce Maryland,• McCulloch v. Maryland- you can’t Supreme Court case tax the Bank of which stated Congress the U.S. had the power to carry out its power stated in the Constitution.• Gibbons v. Ogden- Supreme Court case which stated Congress could regulate interstate commerce.
  • 68. 62. Improvement in Communication• Telegraph- Samuel Morse. Allowed people to communicate over long distances.
  • 69. ManifestDestiny
  • 70. 63. Manifest Destiny• Belief that the U.S. was destined to run from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans.
  • 71. 64. U.S.-Mexican War• Occurred over the annexation (addition) of Texas.• After its victory, the U.S. acquired most of the present day American Southwest (Mexican Cession).
  • 72. Age of Jackson and Reform Movements
  • 73. 65. Andrew Jackson• His election was one for the Common Man.• Believed in a strong national government.• Hero of the Battle of New Orleans.
  • 74. 66. Democratic Party• Revolved around the beliefs of Jackson.• Strong Federal Government.• Supported by Southerners and slave owners.
  • 75. 67. Daniel Webster• Represented the viewpoint of the North.• Believed in preserving the Union was most important. Remember what George Washington said about what geographical differences will do to our country.
  • 76. 68. Henry Clay• “Great Compromiser”.• Worried how the spread of slavery would affect Western Territories. Lets make a deal.
  • 77. 69. John C. Calhoun• Represented the South.• From South Carolina.• Believed in slavery and states’ rights. Long live slavery and states’ rights!
  • 78. 70. Protective Tariff• Tax on imports meant to protect U.S. industries.• Made imports more expensive and encouraged people to buy products made in the U.S.
  • 79. 71. States’ Rights• Belief that states don’t have to follow Federal law if that state feels that law violates the Constitution.
  • 80. 72. Nullification Crisis• Occurred when South Carolina refused to enforce the Protective Tariff of 1828.• President Jackson threatened to enforce the tariff• South Carolina threatened to secede from the Union.
  • 81. 73. Indian Removal Act of 1830• All Indians East of the Mississippi would be moved to Indian Territory (Oklahoma)• The Indian’s land was wanted for farming.
  • 82. 74. Trail of Tears• The Cherokee Indians were forced to march to Indian Territory.• One fourth of them died on the trip.
  • 83. 75. Reform Movements• Women’s Rights- Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. The “Declaration of Sentiments” from the Seneca Falls Convention called for equal rights for women.
  • 84. 75 Reform Movements• Public (Common) School- Led by Horace Mann. Called for education for all students regardless of background.
  • 85. 75. Reform Movements• Temperance- Against the abuse of alcohol. Believed it caused problems like family violence and poverty.
  • 86. 75. Reform Movements• Abolitionist- Wanted to do away with slavery. Found in the North.
  • 87. 75. Reform Movements• Mental Illness and Prison Reform- Dorothea Dix. Wanted to improved conditions for the mentally ill and better treatment of prisoners.
  • 88. The Coming of The Civil War
  • 89. 76. Frederick Douglass• Former slave who spoke against slavery and for human rights.
  • 90. 77. Compromise of 1850• California admitted as a free state.• Strengthened Fugitive Slave Law.
  • 91. 78. Uncle Tom’s Cabin• Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe.• Antislavery novel which caused many Northerners to oppose slavery.
  • 92. 79. Kansas-Nebraska Act• Allowed Popular Sovereignty to determine legality of slavery in these territories.• Led to violence.
  • 93. 80. Dred Scott v Sanford• Supreme Court case which stated slaves were not citizens.
  • 94. 81. Election of 1860• Abraham Lincoln elected president.• Caused Southern states to secede from the Union.
  • 95. 82. Lincoln’s Inaugural Addresses• First Inaugural Address- North would leave slavery alone but would act to preserve the Union.• Second Inaugural Address- Wanted to treat the Southern states without malice after the Civil War.
  • 96. Civil War
  • 97. 83. 1861-1865• Years of the Civil War.
  • 98. 84. Confederate States of America• Formed by former Southern states.
  • 99. 85. Jefferson Davis• President of the Confederate States.
  • 100. 86. Ulysses S. Grant• Commander of Union (North) forces during the Civil War.
  • 101. 87. Robert E. Lee• Commander of the Confederate (South) forces during the Civil War.
  • 102. 88. Fort Sumter• Opening battle of the Civil War.
  • 103. 89. Battle of Gettysburg• Northern victory which was the turning point of the war in the East.• Southern troops withdrew.
  • 104. 90. Gettysburg Address• Speech by Lincoln which reaffirmed the North’s commitment to winning the war.
  • 105. 91. Battle of Vicksburg• Northern victory which was the turning point of the war in the West.• North controlled the Mississippi River.
  • 106. 92. Emancipation Proclamation• Issued by Lincoln.• Freed the slaves in the rebelling states (south).
  • 107. 93. Appomattox Court House• Civil War ended with a Union victory when Lee surrendered to Grant.
  • 108. Reconstruction
  • 109. 94. Reconstruction Amendments• 13th- Ended slavery and made it illegal.• 14th- Defined citizenship and gave equal protect under the law.• 15th- Granted Black men the right to vote.
  • 110. 95. Andrew Johnson• Became President after Lincoln’s assassination. Wanted to treat the South leniently.
  • 111. 96. Black Codes• Passed by Southern states to limit the civil To all Freedmen: rights and Any Freedman freedom of the found without a freedmen. job will be fined and possibly jailed!
  • 112. 97. Freedman’s Bureau• Created to help freedmen adjust and to set up schools to educate them. They were given food, clothing and medical care.
  • 113. 98. Homestead Act• Allowed any citizen to own 160 acres of land if they lived on it for 5 years and improved it. Contributed to people moving westward.
  • 114. 99. Morrill Act• Gave each state Colleges Established Under 30,000 acres of the Morrill Act •Iowa State federal land •Kansas State times the •Michigan State •Rutgers University number of its •Penn State University members of •University of Vermont •University of Minnesota Congress. •University of Missouri States could •University of Wisconsin sell land to fund public colleges.
  • 115. 100. Dawes Act• Broke up Indian tribes and promoted the assimilation of Native Americans into American society. Caused Indians to lose most of their lands.
  • 116. Maps To Know
  • 117. Maps To Know