Besides Petroleum
The promise of bio fuels to contribute to the solution of current challenges
Presentation on the Interna...
www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 3
challenges
 Burning fossil fuels increases atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide.
 Fossil fuels...
www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 4
challenges - kerosene, a volatile commodity
 Jet fuel price once peaked at 180 USD / bbl. It is...
www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 5
challenges - future fuel expenses
 For airlines fuel expenses represent an ever growing
fractio...
www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 6
challenges - the target – set by IATA
 IATA targets to reduce CO2 emissions by 50% of 2005 leve...
www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 7
solution – bio fuels from algae
productivity figures from the CELLANA consortium on marine algae...
www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 8
solution - algal cultivation strategies
Several types of algae cultivation exist – each has adva...
www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 9
solution - kerosene vs. bio-fuel
as petro crude price increases – algae crude price decreases
So...
www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 10
solution - algae bio fuels …
offer huge potential for the Gulf Region
advantages of the Region:...
www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 11
solution – a novel refinery process
 Algae are the fastest growing feedstock
 Depending on st...
www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 12
proposal - algae plus ppi
a promising combination
 Pacific propellants, Inc. has developed a u...
www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 13
proposal – partnering to complete the value chain
 An existing large scale algae feedstock pro...
www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 14
questions - comments – suggestions?
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Besides Petroleum - The promise of bio fuels to contribute to the solution of current challenges

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Presentation on the International Conference: „Perspectives of Industrial Investment in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries“
Ras al Khaimah, UAE
06-08 November 2010
agend:
Challenges
kerosene, a volatile commodity
future fuel expenses
the target – set by IATA
Solution
bio fuels from algae
algal cultivation strategies
hydrocorbons vs. bio-fuel
algae bio fuels offer huge potential for the Gulf Region
a novel refinery process
Proposal
algae plus ppi
a promising combination: partnering to complete the value chain

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  • Besides Petroleum - The promise of bio fuels to contribute to the solution of current challenges

    1. 1. Besides Petroleum The promise of bio fuels to contribute to the solution of current challenges Presentation on the International Conference: „Perspectives of Industrial Investment in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries“ Ras al Khaimah, UAE 06-08 November 2010 Dr. Horst Walther Pacific Propellants, Inc. a 2nd generation biofuel refinery 6015 S Virginia St., Ste. E480 Reno, NV 89502, USA horst.walther@pcfpp.com +44 208 1237381
    2. 2. www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 3 challenges  Burning fossil fuels increases atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide.  Fossil fuels are a finite resource.  Some industry sectors like aviation cannot switch to solar electricity.  Aviation industry accounts for 2% of greenhouse gas emissions due to human activity.  By 2050 aviation emissions are expected to almost equal the amount from automobiles.  IATA‘s goal is a 25 % reduction of emissions per passenger by 2020.  Only a few renewable feedstock types offer sustaining economic potential – e.g. algae.  Today refining renewable feedstock into bio fuels requires huge capital investments.  Today's processes mostly deliver esters not hydrocarbons.  There is a strong need to derive drop-in fuels from renewable feedstock.
    3. 3. www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 4 challenges - kerosene, a volatile commodity  Jet fuel price once peaked at 180 USD / bbl. It is likely to approach this level over the next 5 years again.
    4. 4. www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 5 challenges - future fuel expenses  For airlines fuel expenses represent an ever growing fraction of their total operating expenses. CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate
    5. 5. www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 6 challenges - the target – set by IATA  IATA targets to reduce CO2 emissions by 50% of 2005 level during the next 40 years – mostly by bio fuels drop-in.
    6. 6. www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 7 solution – bio fuels from algae productivity figures from the CELLANA consortium on marine algae Algae are more productive than terrestrial energy crops *Cellana plant: Kona Pilot Facility, Hawaii *  There is the general expectation, that only bio fuels from algae have the potential to deliver the required volumes.
    7. 7. www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 8 solution - algal cultivation strategies Several types of algae cultivation exist – each has advantages.  Open systems-typically outdoor open ponds  Closed systems-enclosed clear plastic vessels (bags or tubes) known as photo bioreactors, or dark tanks (such as fermentation tanks)  Offshore systems-growing algae in the open ocean- usually contained in some way (bags or ropes)  All established production types still offer several severe challenges to be considered as stable and competitive.
    8. 8. www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 9 solution - kerosene vs. bio-fuel as petro crude price increases – algae crude price decreases Source: Booz & Company, Outlook on Climate Change and Aviation  The development can be boosted considerably provided adequate investments will be done.
    9. 9. www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 10 solution - algae bio fuels … offer huge potential for the Gulf Region advantages of the Region:  pre-requisite for fast growth: long daily sunshine duration,  suitable temperatures: high growth rates expected,  abundant (sea) water available,  sufficient space (desert areas),  financial & intellectual potential,  traditional refinery infrastructure.  But still considerable financial & intellectual investments are necessary
    10. 10. www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 11 solution – a novel refinery process  Algae are the fastest growing feedstock  Depending on strain they contain 5 – 50% lipids.  But further processing consumes a lot its energy content.  For harvesting, dewatering, drying & blending innovation is moving fast.  To derive true hydrocarbons a cheap and efficient process was still missing. cultivation harvesting dewatering drying extraction refining blending  The new pacific propellants bio refinery process promises to close the refining gap. 9 conversion techniques were known:  Fermentation of Sugar/Starch Crops  Fermentation of Lignocellulosic Biomass  Transesterification of Triglycerides  Gasification: Formation of Syngas  Fast Pyrolysis  Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis  Hydrogenation  Conversion of Syngas  Anaerobic Digestion
    11. 11. www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 12 proposal - algae plus ppi a promising combination  Pacific propellants, Inc. has developed a unique process to convert bio fuel feedstock to hydrocarbons.  The ppi process offers advantages over established processes …  delivers a fuel very similar to traditional fuel from fossil sources.  requires lower of capital costs than traditional refinery processes.  is linearly scalable from mobile one container-units to large plants.  operates at moderate temperatures (~ 50 °C) and normal pressure.  does not require expensive or low availability materials for input.  does not produce any hazardous by- products  Decentralized plants, e.g. near airports, could capitalize on the local potential of the region.
    12. 12. www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 13 proposal – partnering to complete the value chain  An existing large scale algae feedstock producer  Pacific propellants, Inc. and its unique bio refinery process. Renewable feedstock Renewable feedstock ppippi Renewable jet fuel Renewable jet fuel  For full value chain processing a joint venture of ppi a large scale algae feedstock producer is preferred.
    13. 13. www.pcfpp.com2010-08-10 14 questions - comments – suggestions?

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