Lungworm infection

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Lungworm infection

  1. 1. Verminous pneumonia in Sheep and Goat Submitted by : Hitesh Jaswal
  2. 2. Lung worms of sheep and goat • Species are mainly… Dictyocaulus filaria Muellerius capillaris Protostronglyus rufescens These are all species encountered in these small ruminants
  3. 3. Dictyocalus filaria
  4. 4. Mullerius cappilaris
  5. 5. Age group affected • Lambs 4-6 months of age are most severely affected but sheep of all ages are suceptible
  6. 6. • Infestations with cystocaulus ocreatus and Neostrongylus linearis , the latter similar in most of its characters to M.capillaris , have also been observed in sheep in Great Britain and Iran but their economic significance has not been identified.
  7. 7. • D.filaria infestations in sheep appear to follow the same pattern as those of D. viviparous in calves but the number of lungworms is usually low and widespread lesions are not common
  8. 8. Life Cycle • The life cycle is direct and the third stage larvae are long lived in damp, cools surroundings . • The lambs of one season are the main source of infection for the next season’s lambs, but overwintering larvae passed by the ewes and yearlings also contribute to pasture contamination .
  9. 9. Epidemiology • The prevalence of infection is low in spring and summer but rises rapidly in the autumn and winter when most clinical cases are seen • Warm , wet summers give rise to heavier burdens in the following autumn and winter.
  10. 10. • Acute cases , caused by massive infestations with larvae ,do not appear to occur • Adult worms live in the bronchi and causes alveolar and bronchiolar damage. • the resulting blockage of bronchioles by exudates leads to the collapse of proportions of lung • The area of damage is usually not sufficiently extensive to cause severe dyspnea.
  11. 11. Pathogenesis • Adult worms live in bronchi , causes alveolar and bronchial damage, resulting blockage by exudates leading to collapse of part of lung. • Cause dypsnea. • Cough formation • Minor irritation in intestinal minor irritation • Alveolar epithelisation is also there • Hypersensitivity is also seen
  12. 12. Clinical findings • Bronchial irritation and its resulting cough , on moderate dyspnea and loss of condition • there may be added fever and evidence of toxemia if secondary bacterial infection occurs
  13. 13. Lab findings • Depends on the detection of first stage larvae in the faces of infested animals. • Eosinophillia is seen • Eggs are also seen in faecal examples.
  14. 14. Necropsy findings • lesions are similar to those of the sub acute disease diseases in calves with exudates in the bronchioles and scattered patches of consolidation. • Enlargement of the lungs due to edema and emphysema , widespread areas of collapsed tissue of dark pink , hemorrhagic bronchitis with much fluid filling all the air passages and enlargement of the regional lymph nodes .
  15. 15. • Histologically the characteristic lesions are edema , eosinophillic infiltration , dilation of lymphatic's , filling of the alveoli and bronchi with inflammatory debris and larvae in the bronchioles and alveoli • In sub acute cases interstitial emphysema is usually gross, areas of dark pink consolidation are present in all lobes but particularly in diaphragmatic lobe and occupy about two thirds of the lung volume and tend to be gathered around the bronchi
  16. 16. Histology • Eggs and larvae can be seen air the air p, the passages, the alveoli show epithelisation. • Giant cell reaction is also there
  17. 17. Diagnosis • History • Clinical symptoms • Eggs in faces • Radiography • Necropsy findings
  18. 18. DDx • Tuberculosis • Neoplasm's of lung • Emphysema of lungs
  19. 19. treatment • Ivermectin 0.2 mg/kg • Oxfenbendazole 5 mg/kg BW • Fenbendazole 5 mg/kg BW • Levamisole 7.5 mg/kg Bw • Febantel 5 mg/kg BW
  20. 20. Control • Vaccination with irradiated larvae of D. filaria • Reduce the exposure • Regular deworming • Hygenic measures
  21. 21. Thanks to all

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