United States presidential elections of 1860-1928
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United States presidential elections of 1860-1928 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. By: Benedict Gombocz
  • 2.  Held November 6, 1860 and was the driving force for the outbreak of the Civil War Was focused on issues surrounding expansion of slavery and rights of slave owners Democratic Party, as a result of conflicting regional interests, split into Northern and Southern factions; a new Constitutional Union Party was formed President before election was Democrat James Buchanan of Pennsylvania; elected President was Republican Abraham Lincoln of Illinois Lincoln’s victory in this election led to declaration of secession by seven Southern states following South Carolina, which both outgoing President James Buchanan and President-elect Lincoln rejected as illegal
  • 3.  Held November 8, 1864, during the Civil War; re-elected incumbent Abraham Lincoln Lincoln ran under National Union (instead of Republican) ticket against former top general, Democrat George B. McClellan, who ran as “peace candidate”, even though he personally did not believe in his party’s platform National Union Party was created by Republicans loyal to Lincoln who joined with a number of War Democrats, for whom the party was formed to accommodate them Although only votes that were cast in states that did not attempt to secede from the Union were counted, elections were held in Union-controlled states of Louisiana and Tennessee, both carried by Lincoln First election since 1832 in which the incumbent was re-elected; unfortunately, Lincoln’s second term was cut short only six weeks after it began with his assassination and death
  • 4.  Held November 3, 1868; first presidential election to take place after Civil War, during the period known as Reconstruction Three ex-Confederate states (Texas, Mississippi, Virginia) had not been readmitted to Union; consequently, they were not allowed to participate in the election Incumbent President Andrew Johnson (who assumed presidency following Abraham Lincoln’s assassination in 1865) unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination; Horatio Seymour was nominated in his place to challenge Union general in Civil War Ulysses S. Grant In the North, Grant was one of the most popular men because of his efforts in leading Union to victory in Civil War President before election was Andrew Johnson of National Union Party of North Carolina; elected president was Republican Ulysses S. Grant of Ohio
  • 5.  Held November 5, 1872; easily re-elected incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant with Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts as his running mate, in spite of a split within Republican Party that resulted in withdrawal of support of several Liberal Republicans to opponent Horace Greeley Democratic Party likewise nominated candidates of Liberal Republican ticket in 1872 On November 29, 1872, Greeley died after popular vote, but Electoral College, cast votes With Greeley’s death, electors previously committed to him voted for at least four different presidential candidates, and eight different vice-presidential candidates; even though Greeley gained three posthumous electrol votes, Congress declared them invalid Only election to date in which a presidential candidate died during electrol process
  • 6.  Held November 7, 1876; was one of the most disputed and controversial presidential elections in American history In popular vote, Democratic Samuel J. Tilden of New York outpolled Republican Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio with 184 electoral votes to Hayes’ 165; 20 votes were uncounted and were in dispute in three Southern states: Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina These disputed electoral votes were given to Hayes after a legal and political battle, declaring him winner over Tilden Informal deal, Compromise of 1877, was struck to settle the disputed election First presidential election since 1852 in which Democratic candidate won majority of popular vote; also first, and to date only, election in history of the United States in which a candidate gained absolute majority of popular vote (more than 50 percent) and was not elected President by Electoral College
  • 7.  Held November 2, 1880; largely viewed as referendum on end of Reconstruction in Southern states carried out by Republicans Was not focused on any pressing issues other than tariffs; Republicans endorsed higher tariffs and Democrats endorsed lower ones Incumbent President Rutherford B. Hayes did not run for re-election, a promise he made during the 1876 campaign Republican Party chose another Ohioan, James A. Garfield, as their nominee; Democratic Party chose Civil War General Winfield Scott Hancock as theirs President before election was Republican Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio; elected President was Republican James A. Garfield of Ohio
  • 8.  Held November 4, 1884; saw first election of a Democrat in 28 years 1884 campaign was spoiled by exceptional political acrimony and personal invective Democrat and Governor of New York Grover Cleveland narrowly won over Republican and former U.S. Senator James G. Blaine of Maine to surpass longest losing streak for any major political party in American political history (six consecutive presidential elections) After deciding the election, New York gave Grover Cleveland the state’s 36 electors by margin of only 1,047 out of total 1,171,312 votes cast
  • 9.  Held November 6, 1888; saw incumbent President Grover Cleveland run for re-election against Republican and former U.S. Senator from Indiana Benjamin Harrison Despite economic prosperity and peace, Cleveland lost re-election in Electoral College, even though he received a plurality of popular vote by close margin Principle issue in the election was tariff policy Harrison took side of industrialists and factory workers who wanted tariffs to remain high; Cleveland condemned high tariffs as unfair to customers President before election was Democrat Grover Cleveland of New York; elected President was Republican Benjamin Harrison of Indiana
  • 10.  Held November 8, 1892; former President Grover Cleveland once again ran against incumbent Benjamin Harrison, who ran for re- election In this “re-match,” Cleveland won over Harrison and became the only American president to win a second, non-consecutive term; won both popular and electoral vote in this election Campaign of 1892 focused ideally on issue of sound currency Populist Party was created by groups from Grange, Farmers’ Alliances, and Knights of Labor; won over a million votes, but Cleveland won easily; he also became first Democrat to be nominated by his party three consecutives times, a record equaled only by future President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1940 and then surpassed by FDR in 1944
  • 11.  Held November 3, 1896; saw Republican William McKinley of Ohio win over Democrat William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska in campaign seen by scientists to be one of the most dramatic and complicated in American History Often seen as realigning system that ended old Third Party System and saw advent of Fourth Party System McKinley forged coalition which represented businessmen, professionals, skilled factory workers, and prosperous farmers Of primary importance were economic issues, which included bimetallism, gold standard, free silver, and tariffs President before election was Democrat Grover Cleveland of New York; elected President was Republican William McKinley of Ohio
  • 12.  Held November 6, 1900; re- match of 1896 race between incumbent Republican President William McKinley of Ohio and Democratic opponent William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska Return of economic prosperity and recent victory in Spanish- American War played a role in McKinley’s re-election Re-elected President McKinley chose Governor of New York Theodore Roosevelt as running mate for Vice President; his running mate in 1896 election, Garret A. Hobart, died of heart failure in 1899
  • 13.  Held November 8, 1904; resulted in election of Republican Theodore Roosevelt to full term , who ascended to presidency upon William McKinley’s assassination in 1901; Republican Party unanimously nomination him for President at 1904 national convention During election campaign, Roosevelt called on voters to endorse his “square deal” policies Nominee of Democratic Party was Alton B. Parker, Chief Judge of New York Court of Appeals, who made an urgent request for an end to what he called “rule of individual caprice” and “usurpation of authority’’ by President Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt won the election easily; through his election, he became the first president to assume the office after the death of a president who won his own full term
  • 14.  Held November 3, 1908; popular incumbent President Theodore Roosevelt, honoring tradition set by past presidents not to seek third term, persuaded Republican Party to nominate close friend and Secretary of War William Howard Taft to succeed him With bad loss in 1904 election with conservative candidate Alton B. Parker, Democratic Party chose two- time candidate William Jennings Bryan, who had previously been defeated in 1896 and 1900 by Republican William McKinley In spite of previous two losses, Bryan continued to be popular among more liberal and populist elements of Democratic Party President before election was Republican Theodore Roosevelt of New York; elected President was Republican William Howard Taft of Ohio
  • 15.  Held November 5, 1912 and was rare four- way contest; incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft was nominated by Republican Party with endorsement of its conservative wing over Theodore Roosevelt, who left Republican Party and called his own convention and created his own party, Progressive Party (nicknamed “Bull Moose Party”) Candidate for Socialist Party of America was Eugene V. Debs of Indiana Democrat Woodrow Wilson won over Taft, Roosevelt, and Debs in general election; won a huge majority in Electoral College with 42% of popular vote, while closest rival, Roosevelt, gained only 27% Between 1892 and 1932, Wilson was only elected Democratic president; was also only second of two Democrats to be become president in that 40 year period
  • 16.  Held November 7, 1916; took place while Europe was engaged in World War I and before United States’ entry Public attitude in still neutral U.S. leaned towards allied British and French forces because of harsh treatment of civilians by German Army, which invaded and occupied big parts of neutral Belgium and the north of France In spite of being sympathetic with allied forces, most American voters favored not getting involved in the war and sticking to policy of neutrality Incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson won over Republican opponent Charles Evan Hughes with narrow margin Wilson’s campaign slogan “He kept us out of war “ helped him secure re- election
  • 17.  Held November 2, 1920; was entirely focused on aftermath of the First World War and hostile response to incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson’s policies Politicians were engaged in disagreements concerning peace treaties including Treaty of Versailles and question of United States’ entry into League of Nations, which was opposed by many because it produced an isolationist reaction Ex-President Theodore Roosevelt was frontrunner for Republican nomination, but his health declined in 1918; he died in January 1919 Democrats nominated newspaper publisher and Governor James M. Cox; Republicans selected Senator Warren G. Harding, himself an Ohio newspaper publisher President before election was Democrat Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey; elected President was Republican Warren G. Harding of Ohio
  • 18.  Held November 4, 1924; was won by incumbent Republican President and candidate Calvin Coolidge, who was vice president under Warren G. Harding, and became president with Harding’s death in office in 1923 Coolidge received credit for booming economy (the 1920s were a prosperous decade) at home and no present crises abroad; his candidacy was helped by split in Democratic Party Regular Democratic candidate was little well known former congressman and diplomat from West Virginia, John W. Davis; because Davis was a conservative, several liberal Democrats moved away from the party and endorsed campaign of third-party and Progressive candidate Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin First presidential election in which every Native American was recognized as citizen and allowed voting rights
  • 19.  Held November 6, 1928; was election between Republican Herbert Hoover of California and Democrat Al Smith of New York Republicans remained popular because they were associated with booming economy of 1920s Incumbent Republican President Calvin Coolidge did not seek another full term Al Smith, Roman Catholic by faith, suffered political discrimination from Anti-Catholic prejudice, anti- prohibitionist position, and legacy of corruption of Tammany Hall, with which he was identified President before election was Republican Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts; elected President was Republican Herbert Hoover of California with landslide win