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Created by: Viktor Gombocz and Cristi Olaraşu Russian History
Countries of the former U.S.S.R. Armenia Russia Azerbaijan Tajikistan Belarus Turkmenistan Estonia Ukraine Georgia Uzbekistan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania Moldova
U.S.S.R.- Statistics Location: Northern Eurasia, stretching from the Eastern half of Europe to the Eastern part of Asia. Capital: Moscow Official name: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; abbreviated as U.S.S.R. or USSR; informal names Soviet Union and Russia. Official language: Russian Established: Saturday, December 30, 1922 Dissolved: Thursday, December 26, 1991
U.S.S.R. - Leaders Leader: Native country: Vladimir Lenin (1917-1922) Russia Joseph Stalin (1922-1953) Georgia Nikita Khrushchev (1953- Ukraine 1964) Leonid Brezhnev (1964- Ukraine 1982) Yuri Andropov (1982-1984) Russia Constantine Chernenko Russia (1984-1985) Russia Mikhail Gorbachev (1985- 1991)
U.S.S.R. – Satellite nationsCountry Year of Russian invasion Yugoslavia 1943 Poland 1944 Albania 1946 Bulgaria 1946 Hungary 1947 Romania 1947 Czechoslovakia 1948 East Germany 1949
Timeline of events 1917: February and October (dated November 1936-1938: Stalin arrests and kills the country’s in Russian Calendar) revolutions lead to peasants, marking the Great Purge. overthrow of Czar Nicholas II and victory for 1938: Germany de facto annexes Austria. Vladimir Lenin’s Bolsheviks. 1939: Non-aggression pact with Hitler and 1918-1924: Civil War following Russia’s dismemberment of Poland; WWII withdrawal from WWI. commences. 1919: Treaty of Versailles is 1940: Occupation of the Baltic nations. signed, dismembering the German Empire. 1941: Third five-year plan is disrupted by Axis 1920: Treaty of Trianon is invasion; the U.S.S.R. joins the Allied powers. signed, dismembering the Kingdom of Japan attacks Pearl Harbor; the United States Hungary. enters the war. 1922: U.S.S.R. established and recognized. 1942-1943: Battle of Stalingrad leads to first Benito Mussolini seizes power in Italy. victory against the Germans. 1924: Lenin dies and is succeeded by Joseph Stalin. 1928-1932: First five-year plan. 1933-1937: Second five-year plan. 1933: Adolf Hitler rises to power in Germany.
Timeline of Events – cont. 1943: Tehran Conference. 1953: Stalin dies and is succeeded 1944: The Allies stage an invasion by Nikita Khrushchev, who in Normandy and drive German formally denounces his legacy. forces away. 1956: Khrushchev denounces 1945: Yalta Stalinism in his speech to the Conference, Occupation, Battle, a Congress of the CPSU. Anti- nd Fall of Berlin, and victory Communist Revolutions in against Germany. Japan Hungary and Poland are crushed. surrenders. 1957: Sputnik 1 is launched into 1946: Stalin predicts the triumph space. of Communism. 1958: Hungarian Anti-Communist 1948: Berlin blockade. leader Imre Nagy is hanged for 1949: The U.S.S.R., United treason. States, France, and Great Britain 1959: Fidel Castro seizes power in create West and East Germany. Cuba. Khrushchev meets with 1950-1953: Korean War. Eisenhower.
Timeline of Events – cont. 1961: Stalingrad is renamed back 1968: The Prague Spring in to Volgograd. Bay of Pigs invasion. Czechoslovakia is crushed by the Khrushchev meets with Kennedy Warsaw Pact. in Vienna. Construction of the 1969: The US accomplishes their Berlin Wall begins. goal of going to the moon. 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis. 1972: Nixon makes his first visit to 1963: Kennedy announces U.S. China. First meeting between alliance with West Germany while Nixon and Brezhnev. giving his prominent ‘’Ich bin ein 1973: The US withdraws from Berliner’’ speech in West Berlin. Vietnam. 1964: Khrushchev removed and 1974: Nixon resigns and Gerald R. replaced by Leonid Ilyich Ford becomes president. SALT I Brezhnev. Treaty is signed in Vladivostok. 1967: Six-Day War.
Timeline of Events – cont. 1976: Brezhnev is awarded the Hero 1984: Andropov dies; Konstantin of the Soviet Union on his 70th Chernenko takes his place. The birthday. Soviet Union boycotts the Summer 1979: Brezhnev and Jimmy Carter Olympics in Los Angeles. meet in Vienna to sign the SALT II 1985: Chernenko dies and is Treaty. The Soviet Union invades replaced by Mikhail Gorbachev, who Afghanistan. begins initiating reforms to allow 1980: The US boycotts the Summer freedom for the Eastern Bloc Olympics in Moscow. nations. 1982: Brezhnev dies; Yuri Andropov 1986: The Challenger explodes on its replaces him. way into space. Chernobyl suffers a major nuclear leak.
Timeline of Events – cont. 1987: Reagan delivers his famous ‘’Tear Down This Wall’’ speech in West Berlin; Socialism continues to decline and draws nearer to its end. 1988: Russian troops withdraw from Afghanistan, ending the nine-year war. 1989: Hungarian Communist leader János Kádár dies of cancer a year after resigning as the dictator of Hungary. The Berlin Wall is torn down. Romanian Communist leader Nicolae Ceauşescu and his wife are indicted for crimes against the state and are executed by a firing squad following his bloody 24- year rule as dictator of Romania. 1990: Gorbachev elected President of the Soviet Union. East and West Germany join to reunify Germany. 1991: Gorbachev kidnapped after coup in August. After being released, he resigns. Each republic declares its independence, and the U.S.S.R. ceases to exist after nearly 70 years. The Russian Federation is recognized as the legal successor to the extinct state.
Neighboring countries of the former U.S.S.R. Afghanistan (Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan) China (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan) Czechoslovakia (Ukraine) Finland (Russia) Hungary (Ukraine) Iran (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan) Mongolia (Russia) North Korea (Russia) Poland (Belarus, Lithuania, Ukraine) Romania (Moldova, Ukraine) Turkey (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia)
Effects of the collapse of the U.S.S.R. Russian lost status as co-official language in every post- Soviet republic, save for Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. Russian lost its importance in the republics that refused to allow it to remain co-official following the demise of the U.S.S.R. Russian troops were withdrawn from the former satellite nations, ending Russia’s dominance over those nations. The aged state’s secret police, KGB, was dissolved. The United States was left as the world’s biggest superpower, ending the Cold War.
New organizationsOrganization Current members Commonwealth of Independent Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, K States (CIS) azakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova , Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenista n, and Uzbekistan.
Membership in other organizations North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): Only three nations of the former U.S.S.R., Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, are members of NATO. Georgia is currently seeking membership in NATO while other republics of the former U.S.S.R. do not wish to join the organization. European Union (EU): Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are also the only three post-Soviet states that are members of the European Union. Georgia is looking at membership in the EU while Ukraine is looking at becoming a candidate. United Nations (UN): As UN-recognized nations, all 15 of the former states of the U.S.S.R. are members of the UN.
Capital cities Country: Capital city: Armenia Yerevan Azerbaijan Baku Belarus Minsk Estonia Tallinn Georgia Tbilisi Kazakhstan Astana Kyrgyzstan Bishkek Latvia Riga Lithuania Vilnius Moldova Chişinău
Capital cities – cont. Country: Capital city: Russia Moscow Tajikistan Dushanbe Turkmenistan Ashgabat Ukraine Kyiv Uzbekistan Tashkent
Religion in the former U.S.S.R. The religions with the most followers were Christianity and Islam, although most people of the U.S.S.R. gave up their religious beliefs in accordance with government law. The religion with the least followers was Judaism; many Soviet Jews left the U.S.S.R. to find refuge in countries like Israel and the US because of the strong anti-Semitic ways of the Soviet government. Today, Israel is home to many Russian Jews; Russian is the most widely spoken unofficial language in Israel, followed by English.
Vehicles from the former U.S.S.R. Lada Lada Riva Lada-Samara Lada 110 VAZ-2101 Moskvitch Volga Kamaz