• The politics of Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, take place in the structure of a single-party “socialist” republic in which the
President of Vietnam serves as the head of state and the PM of Vietnam is the head of government, in a system dominated by only one party, the
Communist Party of Vietnam.
• The government and the President of Vietnam exercise executive power.
• The National Assembly of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Quoc hoi) exercises legislative power.
• The Judiciary functions independently of the executive.
• On 15 April 1992, the parliament approved the current Constitution of Vietnam (its fourth); since then, it has been amended once.
Major leaders of Vietnam
• Government Single-party “socialist” republic
• President Trương Tấn Sang
• Communist Party General Secretary Nguyễn Phú Trọng
• Prime Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng
• Chairman of National Assembly Nguyễn Sinh Hùng
Political map of Vietnam
Map of Vietnam with provinces
• Vietnam is a single-party “socialist” republic.
• The current Socialist Republic of Vietnam draws its roots directly back to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the August 1945
Revolution under Hồ Chí Minh.
• The current Vietnamese constitution was approved by the National Assembly of Vietnam on 15 April 1992, prior to which there were three other
constitutions in Vietnam’s history: the constitutions of 1946, 1959, and 1980.
• The current constitution was only modified once, during the 10th session of the National Assembly on 25 December 2001.
• The Communist Party of Vietnam, the dominant non-state organ, functions according to the laws.
• Government powers in Vietnam, as in many other nations, are divided into legislative, executive, and judiciary powers.
• The legal system of Vietnam is modeled on “socialist” legality in accordance with article 12 of the constitution.
• The Congress is the party’s most supreme body.
• The direction of the Party and the Government is determined at the National Congress, which assembles every fifth year.
• The National Congress is responsible for electing the Central Committee.
• Representatives vote on policies and candidate positions within the central party leadership.
• After approval of the decisions taken at the National Congress, the National Congress dissolves itself.
• The Central Committee, elected by the National Congress every five years, puts into effect the decisions of the National Congress in the five-year
• As the Central Committee only assembles twice yearly, the Politburo puts into effect the policies of the National Congress.
Communist Party of Vietnam
• Also known as the Vietnamese Communist Party; founding and governing political party
of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
• Exists with the Vietnamese Fatherland Front (by name), but retains a unitary
government with consolidated authority over the state, military, and media.
• Article 4 of the constitution of Vietnam guarantees the rule of the CPV.
• Its current leader is Nguyễn Phú Trọng, who has the titles of General Secretary of the
Central Committee and Secretary of the Central Military Commission.
• Known for advocating what it calls a “socialist-oriented market economy”.
• The party’s most supreme institute is the party’s National Congress that elects the
Central Committee, the highest body with respect to party affairs, in between party
• Right after every party congress, the Central Committee elects the Politburo and the
Secretariat, and nominates the First Secretary, the most supreme party office.
• The Politburo is the highest organ with respect to party affairs in between sessions of
the Central Committee, but it is only permitted to implement decisions based on policies
which have been adopted beforehand by either the Central Committee or the party’s
• The 11th Politburo, as of 2014, is made up of sixteen members.
Trương Tấn Sang
• Born 21 January 1949 in Duc Hoa, French Indochina (now Vietnam).
• 9th and current President of Vietnam since 25 July 2011 and one of the nation’s
highest leaders, together with PM Nguyễn Tấn Dũng.
• Became state president after a July 2011 vote of the National Assembly.
• His position is official, but he also ranks second after General Secretary Nguyễn
Phú Trọng on the party’s Central Secretariat, a body that governs policy making.
• Has served in the Central Politburo, the executive commission of the Communist
Party, since 1996.
• Served as party secretary for Ho Chi Minh City from 1996-2000.
• Advanced to the national party’s number two slot in October 2009.
• There are reports of a competition between Sang and PM Dũng (both are supported
by a group within the Communist Party of Vietnam).
Nguyễn Phú Trọng
• Born 14 April 1944 in Hanoi, Tonkin, French Indochina (now Vietnam).
• General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam, having been elected at the party’s 11th
National Congress on 19 January 2011.
• Presides over the party’s Secretariat and the Central Military Commission, Vietnam’s two most
dominant policymaking bodies.
• Born in Đông Hội Commune, Đông Anh District, Hanoi.
• His official biography only describes his family background as “poor peasant”.
• Studied philology at Vietnam National University in Hanoi from 1963-1967.
• Officially became a member of the Communist Party in December 1968.
• Worked for the Tạp chí Cộng Sản (Communist Review), the theoretical and political organization of
the Communist Party of Vietnam (previously the “Labor Party”), from 1967-1973, 1976-1980, and
• Served as the editor-in-chief of the Tạp chí Cộng Sản from 1991-1996.
• Went to the Soviet Union in 1981 and studied at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Social Sciences and earned
the Kandidat nauk degree in history in 1983.
• Joined the party section committed to political work in 1998; is one of the most important
Vietnamese political doctrinaires, and led (from 2001-2006) the CPVCC’s Theoretical Council
responsible for the Party’s theoretical work.
Nguyễn Tấn Dũng
• Born 17 November 1949 in Cà Mau.
• 8th and current PM of Vietnam, having been confirmed on 27 June 2006 after being nominated
by his predecessor, Phan Văn Khải, who resigned.
• Has ranked third in the hierarchy of the Communist Party of Vietnam, after President
Trương Tấn Sang and Defense Minister Phùng Quang Thanh.
• Supposedly, on his twelfth birthday, offered to join the Vietcong, where he administered first
aid and communication tasks; he additionally worked as a nurse and a surgeon.
• Was injured four times in the Vietnam War, and was subsequently ranked as a level 2/4
• As a high-ranking lieutenant, he served as Chief Political Commissar of Infantry Battalion
207; as a commander, he was Political Chief of Infantry Regiment 152, during which he
protected the southwestern border.
• As Major, he led the Personnel Board of Kien Giang Province’s Military Command.
• Went to the high-level Nguyễn Ai Quoc Party School.
• Became a member of the Communist Party of Vietnam on 10 June 1967.
Nguyễn Sinh Hùng
• Born 18 January 1946 in Nghệ An.
• Chairman of the National Assembly of Vietnam since 23 July 2011.
• Is regarded as one of Vietnam’s four “key leaders” ((lãnh đạo chủ chốt), together
with Party General Secretary Nguyễn Phú Trọng, President Trương Tấn Sang,
and PM Nguyễn Tấn Dũng.
• Served as Deputy PM (first Deputy PM) from 2006-2011.
• Was previously the finance minister and also served as head of the State
• Ranked #4 on the list of Politburo members selected by the 2011 congress.