Politics of the Philippines


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Politics of the Philippines

  1. 1. Benedict (Viktor) Gombocz
  2. 2. Philippines: Geography  Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam  Area:  Total: 300,000 sq km  Country comparison to the world: 73  Land: 298,170 sq km  Water: 1,830 sq km  Area – comparative: slightly larger than Arizona  Land boundaries: 0 km  Coastline: 36,289 km
  3. 3. Philippines: Religion  Religion in the Philippines comprises an extensive range of spiritual faiths, such as Catholics, Iglesia ni Cristo, Aglipayans, Protestants, Muslims, Buddhists, Atheist s, Agnostics, animists, and Hindus.  It is important not as a theoretical belief system, but as a host of experiences: customs and adjurations that allow for stability in life, shared unity, and honorable point for existence.  Spiritual associations belong to the system of essential kinship ties, patron-client bonds, and other relationships outside of the nuclear family.  Christianity and Islam have been applied to early rituals and acculturated.  The unique spiritual blends that have resulted, when merged with the strong personal faith of Filipinos, have led the way to various and assorted revivalist movements.  Usually characterized by anti-modern favoritism, supernaturalism, and authoritarianism in the individual of a charming messianic figure, these associations have drawn thousands of Filipino people, in particular areas like Mindanao, which have been subjected to tremendous pressure of reform during a short period of time.  Many have been recruited in these movements, due to an improved sense of society and community.  Like the very observable examples of flagellation and reenacted crucifixion in the Philippines, such movements may have few shared beliefs with organised Christianity or Islam.  In contrast, in the strongly personalistic Philippine sacred perspective, there are less aberrations and more excessive examples of religion keeping is important function in society.
  4. 4. Philippines: Religion statistics (2000 census)  Catholic 82.9% (Roman Catholic 80.9%, Aglipayan 2%)  Muslim 5%  Evangelical 2.8%  Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%  Other Christian 4.5%  Other 1.8%  Unspecified 0.6%  None 0.1%
  5. 5. Philippines: Government  Capital: Manila  Largest city: Quezon City  Official languages: Filipino, English  Recognized regional languages: Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilokano, Pampa ngo, Pangasinense, Tagalog, Waray  Optional languages: Spanish, Arabic  Demonym: Filipino  Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic  President: Benigno Aquino III  Vice President: Jejomar Binay  Senate President: Franklin Drilon  House Speaker: Feliciano Belmonte, Jr.  Chief Justice: Maria Lourdes Sereno  Legislature: Congress  Upper house: Senate  Lower house: House of Representatives
  6. 6. Politics of the Philippines: Introduction  The political system of the Philippines functions in an organized structure of a presidential, representative, and democratic republic in which the president serves as both the head of state and the head of government within a pluriform multi-party structure; this structure centers on three separate and self-governing, yet mutually dependent branches: the legislative, the executive branch, and the judicial branch.  The government exercises executive power under the president’s leadership; legislative power is vested in both the government and the two-chamber Congress (the upper chamber, the Senate, and the lower chamber, the House of Representatives); judicial power is vested in the courts with the Supreme Court of the Philippines as the most supreme judicial body.  Every three years (from 1992), an independent Commission on Elections governs elections; held every second Monday of May, the victors in the elections are sworn in on the subsequent June 30.  Local government units from the provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays exercise local government.  Whereas most regions lack political power, and exist only for government purposes, self-governing regions have extended powers more than the local government units.  Local government units are allowed self-governing, but a significant part of their budget is a result of distribution from the national government, placing their true self-governing in question.
  7. 7. Benigno Aquino III  Born February 8, 1960 in Manila; also known as Noynoy Aquino or Pnoy.  15th and current President of the Philippines since June 30, 2010.  Is a fourth-generation politician: his great-grandfather, Servillano “Mianong” Aquino, was a delegate to the Malolos Congress; his grandfather, Benigno Aquino, Sr., was the Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines from 1943-1944; his parents were President Corazon Aquino and Senator Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino, Jr.  Is a member of the Liberal Party, in which he has served in a number of posts, including Secretary General and VP for Luzon; is also the Liberal Party’s Chairman.  Completed his Bachelor of Arts major in Economics from Ateneo de Manila University in 1981 and subsequently joined his family in their exile in the United States; returned to the Philippines in 1983 not long after his father was killed, holding several posts working in the private sector.  Was elected to the House of Representatives as Representative of the 2nd district of Tarlac province in 1998; was re-elected to the House in 2001 and 2004.  Was elected to the Senate in the 14th Congress of the Philippines in 2007, having been ineligible from running for re-election to the House due to term limits.  Following his mother’s death on August 1, 2009, many people called for him to run for president.  On September 9, 2009, he formally announced he would be a nominee in the 2010 presidential election that was held on May 10, 2010.  One June 9, 2010, the Congress of the Philippines declared him the winner of the 2010 presidential election.  Was sworn in as the 15th President of the Philippines by Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Conchita Carpo-Morales at the Quirino Grandstand in Rizal Park in Manila on June 30, 2010; succeeded Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.  Was named one of the 100 Most Influential People in the World by Time magazine in 2013.  Even though the President’s formal home is the Malacañang Palace, he lives in the Bahay Pangarap (House of Dreams), situated within the Palace grounds.
  8. 8. Jejomar Binay  Born November 11, 1942 in Paco, Manila; also known as Jojo Binay or VPBinay.  15th and current VP of the Philippines since June 30, 2010.  Was previously the Mayor of Makati City twice: 1986-1998 and 2001-2010.  Also serves in the posts of President of the United Nationalist Alliance (UNA), President of Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (PDP- Laban), Chairman of Asia-Pacific Region Scout Committee, and President of the Boy Scouts of the Philippines.
  9. 9. Franklin Drilon  Born November 28, 1945 in Iloilo City, Iloilo; is the oldest son of Cesar Drilon, Sr. and Primitiva Magtunao.  27th and current President of the Philippines since July 22, 2013; also served as the 22nd President from July until November 2000 and the 24th President from 2001-2006.  Currently serves his third term in the Senate, and his third term as Senate President.  Also serves as the Chairman of the Liberal Party and a Senior Counsel of the ACCRA Law Offices.  Received his elementary schooling at the Baluarte Elementary School in Molo, Iloilo, Iloilo; graduated in 1957.  Completed his secondary education at the U.P. – Iloilo College (now University of the Philippines High School in Iloilo) in 1961.  Attended college at the University of the Philippines, where he originally pursued a Bachelor of Arts in 1965.  At the University of the Philippines, he worked as the associate editor of the Philippine Collegian, serving as councilor of the U.P. Student Council; some of his classmates were future political figures Miriam Defensor Santiago and Ronaldo Zamora.  Finished his Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) at the U.P. College of Law in 1969; took the bar examination the same year, finishing with the third best score; additionally served as an associate lawyer to the Sycip, Salazar, Luna, Manalo & Feliciano Law Offices (now SyCip Salazar Hernandez & Gatmaitan) in 1969.  Moved to the Angara, Abello, Concepcion, Regala & Cruz Law Offices (ACCRALAW) in 1974; currently serves there as Senior Counsel.  Was subsequently promoted to partner in 1975, co-managing partner in 1981, and managing partner in 1986; was also a Bar Examiner on Labor and Social Legislation in the 1979 and 1984 bar examinations.  Also became the VP and Governor of the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and the VP, Board Member and Treasurer of the Personnel Management Association of the Philippines (PMAP).
  10. 10. Feliciano Belmonte, Jr.  Born October 2, 1936 in Manila; was born to judge Feliciano Belmonte, Sr. and Luz Raciomo.  Member of the Philippine House of Representatives, representing the Fourth District of Quezon City; is also the 23rd and current Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines since July 26, 2010; also served as the 20th Speaker of the House of Representatives from January until June 2001.  Was also the 9th Mayor of Quezon City from 2001-2010.  Attended grade school in Baguio City, acquiring his high school diploma at the San Beda College in Manila.  Completed law at the Lyceum of the Philippines University; was a reporter at the Manila Chronicle while in law school; reported on the police beat and events at the Philippine Commission on Elections.  Started his government service as the presidential staff subordinate of President Diosdado Macapagal; also worked as a special subordinate for the Commissioner of Customs, and as a manager subordinate at the Central Bank of the Philippines.  Was assigned by President Corazon Aquino in 1986 to supervise several economically struggling government-run companies.  Became President and General Manager of the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) and the Manila Hotel and chairman of the National Reinsurance Corportation of the Philippines.  Also represented the government as a member of the board of directors of the San Miguel Corportation and the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT); more significantly, he assumed the post of President and Chief Executive Officer of Philippine Airlines, at the time wholly run by the Philippines’ government.
  11. 11. Maria Lourdes Sereno  Born July 2, 1960 in Manila.  24th and current Chief Justice of the Philippines since August 25, 2012.  Became the second youngest and the first woman to preside over the judiciary upon her election at age 52.  Was nominated Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines in August 2010, making her the first nominee to the High Court by President Benigno Aquino III.  Was at the time the youngest nominee to the Supreme Court since Manuel Moran in 1945, but was exceeded by Marvic Leonen in 2012 at the age of 49; is also the 13th woman nominated as a Supreme Court Justice.  On August 24, 2012, President Aquino declared his nomination of Justice Sereno as the new Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; she replaced Renato Corona, who was voted out of office in May 2012 following her conviction in an impeachment trial.  Is due to retire in 2030 (when she will turn 70), following 20 years in office (18 years as Chief Justice), in accordance with the conditions of the 1987 Constitution.
  12. 12. Politics of the Philippines: Major political parties  Two dominating parties:  Liberal Party (governing party)  United Nationalist Alliance (largest opposition party)  Four major parties:  People Power-Christian Muslim Democrats (Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats, Lakas)  Nationalist Party (Nacionalista Party, NP)  Nationalist People’s Coalition, NPC  National Unity Party, NUP
  13. 13. Liberal Party  The governing political party and a liberal party in the Philippines; was founded as a breakaway Liberal group from the Nacionalista Party on November 24, 1945 by former senators Senate President Manuel Roxas, Senate President Pro- Tempore Elpidio Quirino, and former 9th Senatorial District Senator José Avelino.  Currently the governing party after Benigno Aquino III’s election victory as the President of the Philippines.  Control the House of Representatives, though it is a participant in a coalition agreement in the Senate; per se, it is the second-oldest political party in the Philippines in relation to establishment, and the oldest existing political party in the Philippines.  Has been led by people including Manuel Roxas, Elpidio Quirino, Diosdado Macapagal, and Benigno Aquino, Jr.
  14. 14. United Nationalist Alliance  Political multi-party electoral alliance in the Philippines.  Replaced the ex-United Opposition (UNO) coalition for the forthcoming 2013 midterm elections and the 2016 presidential elections.  The acronym UNA is a pun on una (Tagalog for first), compared to UNO (Spanish for the number one).  The Pwerasa ng Masang Pilipino (PMP, led by ex- President Joseph Estrada) and the Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bryan (PDP-Laban, led by VP Jejomar Binay) signed a coalition agreement on April 4, 2012 for the 2013 elections, founding the United Nationalist Alliance (UNA).  The two parties were previously partners in the United Opposition in the 2007 Senate election; Estrada and Binay were running mates in the 2010 presidential election.  Aquilino Pimentel III, PDP-Laban president, has said that the UNA’s senatorial slate is now over twelve members and is in the procedure of decreasing; he also mentioned reservations on the addition of Juan Miguel Zubiri, of whom he had won an election demonstration subsequent to the 2007 election.
  15. 15. Manila
  16. 16. The End / ang Pagtatapos