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Politics of the Philippines

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  • 1. Benedict (Viktor) Gombocz
  • 2. Philippines: Geography  Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam  Area:  Total: 300,000 sq km  Country comparison to the world: 73  Land: 298,170 sq km  Water: 1,830 sq km  Area – comparative: slightly larger than Arizona  Land boundaries: 0 km  Coastline: 36,289 km
  • 3. Philippines: Religion  Religion in the Philippines comprises an extensive range of spiritual faiths, such as Catholics, Iglesia ni Cristo, Aglipayans, Protestants, Muslims, Buddhists, Atheist s, Agnostics, animists, and Hindus.  It is important not as a theoretical belief system, but as a host of experiences: customs and adjurations that allow for stability in life, shared unity, and honorable point for existence.  Spiritual associations belong to the system of essential kinship ties, patron-client bonds, and other relationships outside of the nuclear family.  Christianity and Islam have been applied to early rituals and acculturated.  The unique spiritual blends that have resulted, when merged with the strong personal faith of Filipinos, have led the way to various and assorted revivalist movements.  Usually characterized by anti-modern favoritism, supernaturalism, and authoritarianism in the individual of a charming messianic figure, these associations have drawn thousands of Filipino people, in particular areas like Mindanao, which have been subjected to tremendous pressure of reform during a short period of time.  Many have been recruited in these movements, due to an improved sense of society and community.  Like the very observable examples of flagellation and reenacted crucifixion in the Philippines, such movements may have few shared beliefs with organised Christianity or Islam.  In contrast, in the strongly personalistic Philippine sacred perspective, there are less aberrations and more excessive examples of religion keeping is important function in society.
  • 4. Philippines: Religion statistics (2000 census)  Catholic 82.9% (Roman Catholic 80.9%, Aglipayan 2%)  Muslim 5%  Evangelical 2.8%  Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%  Other Christian 4.5%  Other 1.8%  Unspecified 0.6%  None 0.1%
  • 5. Philippines: Government  Capital: Manila  Largest city: Quezon City  Official languages: Filipino, English  Recognized regional languages: Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilokano, Pampa ngo, Pangasinense, Tagalog, Waray  Optional languages: Spanish, Arabic  Demonym: Filipino  Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic  President: Benigno Aquino III  Vice President: Jejomar Binay  Senate President: Franklin Drilon  House Speaker: Feliciano Belmonte, Jr.  Chief Justice: Maria Lourdes Sereno  Legislature: Congress  Upper house: Senate  Lower house: House of Representatives
  • 6. Politics of the Philippines: Introduction  The political system of the Philippines functions in an organized structure of a presidential, representative, and democratic republic in which the president serves as both the head of state and the head of government within a pluriform multi-party structure; this structure centers on three separate and self-governing, yet mutually dependent branches: the legislative, the executive branch, and the judicial branch.  The government exercises executive power under the president’s leadership; legislative power is vested in both the government and the two-chamber Congress (the upper chamber, the Senate, and the lower chamber, the House of Representatives); judicial power is vested in the courts with the Supreme Court of the Philippines as the most supreme judicial body.  Every three years (from 1992), an independent Commission on Elections governs elections; held every second Monday of May, the victors in the elections are sworn in on the subsequent June 30.  Local government units from the provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays exercise local government.  Whereas most regions lack political power, and exist only for government purposes, self-governing regions have extended powers more than the local government units.  Local government units are allowed self-governing, but a significant part of their budget is a result of distribution from the national government, placing their true self-governing in question.
  • 7. Benigno Aquino III  Born February 8, 1960 in Manila; also known as Noynoy Aquino or Pnoy.  15th and current President of the Philippines since June 30, 2010.  Is a fourth-generation politician: his great-grandfather, Servillano “Mianong” Aquino, was a delegate to the Malolos Congress; his grandfather, Benigno Aquino, Sr., was the Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines from 1943-1944; his parents were President Corazon Aquino and Senator Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino, Jr.  Is a member of the Liberal Party, in which he has served in a number of posts, including Secretary General and VP for Luzon; is also the Liberal Party’s Chairman.  Completed his Bachelor of Arts major in Economics from Ateneo de Manila University in 1981 and subsequently joined his family in their exile in the United States; returned to the Philippines in 1983 not long after his father was killed, holding several posts working in the private sector.  Was elected to the House of Representatives as Representative of the 2nd district of Tarlac province in 1998; was re-elected to the House in 2001 and 2004.  Was elected to the Senate in the 14th Congress of the Philippines in 2007, having been ineligible from running for re-election to the House due to term limits.  Following his mother’s death on August 1, 2009, many people called for him to run for president.  On September 9, 2009, he formally announced he would be a nominee in the 2010 presidential election that was held on May 10, 2010.  One June 9, 2010, the Congress of the Philippines declared him the winner of the 2010 presidential election.  Was sworn in as the 15th President of the Philippines by Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Conchita Carpo-Morales at the Quirino Grandstand in Rizal Park in Manila on June 30, 2010; succeeded Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.  Was named one of the 100 Most Influential People in the World by Time magazine in 2013.  Even though the President’s formal home is the Malacañang Palace, he lives in the Bahay Pangarap (House of Dreams), situated within the Palace grounds.
  • 8. Jejomar Binay  Born November 11, 1942 in Paco, Manila; also known as Jojo Binay or VPBinay.  15th and current VP of the Philippines since June 30, 2010.  Was previously the Mayor of Makati City twice: 1986-1998 and 2001-2010.  Also serves in the posts of President of the United Nationalist Alliance (UNA), President of Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (PDP- Laban), Chairman of Asia-Pacific Region Scout Committee, and President of the Boy Scouts of the Philippines.
  • 9. Franklin Drilon  Born November 28, 1945 in Iloilo City, Iloilo; is the oldest son of Cesar Drilon, Sr. and Primitiva Magtunao.  27th and current President of the Philippines since July 22, 2013; also served as the 22nd President from July until November 2000 and the 24th President from 2001-2006.  Currently serves his third term in the Senate, and his third term as Senate President.  Also serves as the Chairman of the Liberal Party and a Senior Counsel of the ACCRA Law Offices.  Received his elementary schooling at the Baluarte Elementary School in Molo, Iloilo, Iloilo; graduated in 1957.  Completed his secondary education at the U.P. – Iloilo College (now University of the Philippines High School in Iloilo) in 1961.  Attended college at the University of the Philippines, where he originally pursued a Bachelor of Arts in 1965.  At the University of the Philippines, he worked as the associate editor of the Philippine Collegian, serving as councilor of the U.P. Student Council; some of his classmates were future political figures Miriam Defensor Santiago and Ronaldo Zamora.  Finished his Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) at the U.P. College of Law in 1969; took the bar examination the same year, finishing with the third best score; additionally served as an associate lawyer to the Sycip, Salazar, Luna, Manalo & Feliciano Law Offices (now SyCip Salazar Hernandez & Gatmaitan) in 1969.  Moved to the Angara, Abello, Concepcion, Regala & Cruz Law Offices (ACCRALAW) in 1974; currently serves there as Senior Counsel.  Was subsequently promoted to partner in 1975, co-managing partner in 1981, and managing partner in 1986; was also a Bar Examiner on Labor and Social Legislation in the 1979 and 1984 bar examinations.  Also became the VP and Governor of the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and the VP, Board Member and Treasurer of the Personnel Management Association of the Philippines (PMAP).
  • 10. Feliciano Belmonte, Jr.  Born October 2, 1936 in Manila; was born to judge Feliciano Belmonte, Sr. and Luz Raciomo.  Member of the Philippine House of Representatives, representing the Fourth District of Quezon City; is also the 23rd and current Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines since July 26, 2010; also served as the 20th Speaker of the House of Representatives from January until June 2001.  Was also the 9th Mayor of Quezon City from 2001-2010.  Attended grade school in Baguio City, acquiring his high school diploma at the San Beda College in Manila.  Completed law at the Lyceum of the Philippines University; was a reporter at the Manila Chronicle while in law school; reported on the police beat and events at the Philippine Commission on Elections.  Started his government service as the presidential staff subordinate of President Diosdado Macapagal; also worked as a special subordinate for the Commissioner of Customs, and as a manager subordinate at the Central Bank of the Philippines.  Was assigned by President Corazon Aquino in 1986 to supervise several economically struggling government-run companies.  Became President and General Manager of the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) and the Manila Hotel and chairman of the National Reinsurance Corportation of the Philippines.  Also represented the government as a member of the board of directors of the San Miguel Corportation and the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT); more significantly, he assumed the post of President and Chief Executive Officer of Philippine Airlines, at the time wholly run by the Philippines’ government.
  • 11. Maria Lourdes Sereno  Born July 2, 1960 in Manila.  24th and current Chief Justice of the Philippines since August 25, 2012.  Became the second youngest and the first woman to preside over the judiciary upon her election at age 52.  Was nominated Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines in August 2010, making her the first nominee to the High Court by President Benigno Aquino III.  Was at the time the youngest nominee to the Supreme Court since Manuel Moran in 1945, but was exceeded by Marvic Leonen in 2012 at the age of 49; is also the 13th woman nominated as a Supreme Court Justice.  On August 24, 2012, President Aquino declared his nomination of Justice Sereno as the new Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; she replaced Renato Corona, who was voted out of office in May 2012 following her conviction in an impeachment trial.  Is due to retire in 2030 (when she will turn 70), following 20 years in office (18 years as Chief Justice), in accordance with the conditions of the 1987 Constitution.
  • 12. Politics of the Philippines: Major political parties  Two dominating parties:  Liberal Party (governing party)  United Nationalist Alliance (largest opposition party)  Four major parties:  People Power-Christian Muslim Democrats (Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats, Lakas)  Nationalist Party (Nacionalista Party, NP)  Nationalist People’s Coalition, NPC  National Unity Party, NUP
  • 13. Liberal Party  The governing political party and a liberal party in the Philippines; was founded as a breakaway Liberal group from the Nacionalista Party on November 24, 1945 by former senators Senate President Manuel Roxas, Senate President Pro- Tempore Elpidio Quirino, and former 9th Senatorial District Senator José Avelino.  Currently the governing party after Benigno Aquino III’s election victory as the President of the Philippines.  Control the House of Representatives, though it is a participant in a coalition agreement in the Senate; per se, it is the second-oldest political party in the Philippines in relation to establishment, and the oldest existing political party in the Philippines.  Has been led by people including Manuel Roxas, Elpidio Quirino, Diosdado Macapagal, and Benigno Aquino, Jr.
  • 14. United Nationalist Alliance  Political multi-party electoral alliance in the Philippines.  Replaced the ex-United Opposition (UNO) coalition for the forthcoming 2013 midterm elections and the 2016 presidential elections.  The acronym UNA is a pun on una (Tagalog for first), compared to UNO (Spanish for the number one).  The Pwerasa ng Masang Pilipino (PMP, led by ex- President Joseph Estrada) and the Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bryan (PDP-Laban, led by VP Jejomar Binay) signed a coalition agreement on April 4, 2012 for the 2013 elections, founding the United Nationalist Alliance (UNA).  The two parties were previously partners in the United Opposition in the 2007 Senate election; Estrada and Binay were running mates in the 2010 presidential election.  Aquilino Pimentel III, PDP-Laban president, has said that the UNA’s senatorial slate is now over twelve members and is in the procedure of decreasing; he also mentioned reservations on the addition of Juan Miguel Zubiri, of whom he had won an election demonstration subsequent to the 2007 election.
  • 15. Manila
  • 16. The End / ang Pagtatapos