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Politics of Tajikistan

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  • 1. Politics of TajikistanBenedict (Viktor) Gombocz
  • 2. Geography of Tajikistan Central Asia, west of China, south ofKyrgyzstan Area:◦ Total: 143,100 sq km◦ Country comparison to the world: 96◦ Land: 141,510 sq km◦ Water: 2,590 sq km Area – comparative: Slightly smallerthan Wisconsin Land boundaries:◦ Total: 3,651 sq km◦ Border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
  • 3. Physical Map of Tajikistan
  • 4. Religion in Tajikistan The biggest religion in CentralAsia, Islam, was brought to the region by theArabs in the 7th century; since then, Islam hasbecome a central part of Tajikistan’s culture. The official religion in Tajikistan since 2009is the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam, makingTajikistan the only ex-Soviet state with anofficial religion. Despite largely ineffective attempts tosecularize society, the post-Soviet period hasbeen marked by an increase in religiouspractice. The majority of Tajiks belong to the Sunnibranch of Islam; a smaller group adheres tothe Shia branch of Islam. Russian Orthodoxy is the most commonlyfollowed minority religion, despite a largeshrink of the Russian minority in the early1990s. Some other small Christian minorities alsoenjoy some freedom of worship. Tajikistan also has a small Jewish population.
  • 5. Religion statistics Sunni Muslim 85% Shia Muslim 5% Other 10% (2003 est.)
  • 6. Tajikistan’s political system:Background Tajikistan’s politics function in a structure of a presidential republic;the President is the head of state and head of government, and of amulti-party structure. Legislative power is vested in both the exeuctive branch and the twoparliament chambers.
  • 7. Tajikistan’s political system:Government Capital (and largest city): Dushanbe Official languages: Tajik◦ Recognized regional languages: Russian Demonym: Tajik Government: Dominant-party unitarysemi-presidential state President: Emomalii Rahmon Prime Minister: Oqil Oqilov Legislature: Supreme Assembly Upper house: National Assembly Lower house: Assembly ofRepresentatives
  • 8. Tajikistan’s political system:Executive branchMain office holdersPowers of the President and thePrime Minister Office: President◦ Name: Emomalii Rahmon◦ Party: HDKT◦ Since: 6 November 1994 Office: Prime Minister◦ Name: Oqil Oqilov◦ Party: HDKT◦ Since: 20 December 1999 Directly elected, the president serves as both the head of state and thehead of government. The president nominates the PM and all government members, withparliamentary approval; Tajikistan is hence a presidential republic. Tajikistan held a constitutional referendum on 22 June 2003 and the 2003Constitution, among other amendments, set the term limits of thepresidency to two seven-year terms. Emomalii Rahmon’s election to the office of president in 2006 counts as hisfirst seven-year term under the 2003 Constitution; theoretically, he may bere-elected for a second term in 2013, that second term ending in 2020. In this geographically divided nation, the ritual post of PM is usually held byan individual from the north to nominally balance President EmomaliiRahmon’s southern roots. In 2004, the executive branch fell under the ruling power’s control, withnominations by Rahmon leaving the opposition having only five percent ofkey government posts; this event followed the termination of the 1997peace guarantee that the United Tajik Opposition (UTO) would control aminimum of 30 percent of top government posts. Before the 2006 election, the Council of Ministers, which conducts thepresident’s decisions, comprised two Deputy PMs, 19 ministers, ninecommission heads, and several ex-officio members; subsequent to thatelection, Rahmon eliminated 10 ministries and five state commissions andre-nominated Oqil Oqilov as PM. Rahmon is also said to have collected considerable informal power bymeans of patronage.
  • 9. Tajikistan’s political system:Legislative branch The bicameral Supreme Assembly (Majlisi Oli) comprises the63-seat Assembly of Representatives (Majlisinamoyandagon), which convenes year-round (fromNovember through the end of June); the 33-seat NationalAssembly (Majlisi milli) meets at least twice every year. The September 1999 Constitution brought forth the bicamerallegislature; before that, Tajikistan had a unicamerallegislature. The members of the Assembly of Representatives areselected through direct popular election for a five-year term;of that assembly’s 63 members, 22 are elected by party, inproportion to the number of votes gained by every partywinning a minimum of five percent of total votes, and theremaining members are elected from single-memberconstituencies. In the National Assembly, three-fourths of the members areselected by the representatives of the local representativeassemblies (majlisi) in the nation’s four major administrativedivisions and in the cities secondary directly to centralgovernment; all of those subnational jurisdictions is permittedequal representation. The president directly nominates the remaining members. Following the 2005 elections, the pro-government People’sDemocratic Party maintained control of both houses ofparliament, taking 52/63 seats in the Assembly ofRepresentatives. In 2006, 11 women sat in the Assembly of Representatives;five sat in the National Assembly. Opposition groups in the Supreme Assembly have brokenwith pro-government members concerning some matters.
  • 10. Tajikistan’s political system:Judicial branch The constitution provides for an independent judiciary. The highest court is the Supreme Court; other high courts consist of the Supreme EconomicCourt and the Constitutional Court, which determines questions of constitutionality. With the legislature’s consent, the president nominates the judges of these three courts. In addition, there is a Military Court. The judges of all courts are nominated to ten-year terms. Whereas the judiciary is technically independent, the executive branch and criminalorganizations have a significant effect on judicial tasks. Corruption of judges, who are badly paid and badly instructed, is usual. The court structure has local, district, regional, and national levels; each higher court serves asan appellate court for the level beneath. Appeals of court decisions are uncommon because the public usually does not trust the judicialstructure. Constitutional guarantees to the right to a lawyer and to a prompt and public trial are regularlydisregarded. The Soviet period assumption of the defendant’s responsibility is still in effect. Criminal investigations are carried out by the procurator’s office. Excluding instances of national security, trials are heard by juries.
  • 11. Tajikistan’s political system:Administrative divisions Tajikistan is made up of four administrativedivisions: the provinces (viloyat) of Sughd andKhatlon, the self-governing province (viloyatimukhtor) of Gorno-Badakhshan (Tajik: ViloyatiMukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon), and the Regionof Republican subordination (RaionyRespublikanskogo Podchineniya from theRussian, or in Tajik: Ноҳияҳои тобеи ҷумҳурӣ;previously known as Karotegin Province). The capital of Sughd is Khujand (previouslyLeninabad); the capital of Khatlon isQurghonteppa (previously Kurgan-Tyube); thecapital of Gorno-Badakhshan is Khorugh(previously Khorog). The national capital, Dushanbe, is additionally theadministrative center of the Region of RepublicanSubordination. Each region is split into a number of districts(Tajik: ноҳия, nohiya or raion), which in turn aresubdivided into jamoats (village-level autonomousentities). From 2008, there were 58 districts and 367jamoats in Tajikistan; additionally, subregionalentities comprised 17 towns and 54 urban-typesettlements (Tajik: шаҳрак).
  • 12. Tajikistan’s political system:Provincial and local government Local government is split into representative and executive branches. The assembly (majlis) of people’s deputies (elected locally to a five-yearterm) is the representative branch in provinces, towns, and districts. The executive power in provinces, towns, and districts is vested in the leaderof local administration, directly nominated by the President, by the localmajlis’ consent.
  • 13. Tajikistan’s political system:Electoral system Suffrage is universal for citizens aged 18 and older. A new election law that was passed in 2004 has been met with global criticism for its limitingnominee registration requirements. Election calls for an absolute majority of votes; if no nominee achieves a majority, a secondround is held between the top two vote obtainers. By controlling the Central Election Commission, the Rahmon has obtained influence overregistering parties, the holding of referenda, and election processes. In 1999 and 2003, referenda of doubtful fairness made constitutional modifications thatincreased Rahmon’s hold on authority. Global spectators also uncovered large indiscretions in the manner of the 1999 presidentialelection; in that election, only one opposition nomine was allowed registration, and the mediawas censored. While six parties took part in the subsequent 2000 and 2005 parliamentaryelections, spectators in both instances reported state intervention with the procedure and withopposition nominees’ media access. Rahmon effortlessly won re-election in November 2006, with 79 percent of the vote againstfour little-known challengers; once again, global monitors concluded that the election was notfair. Three big opposition parties (the Democratic Party, the Islamic Rebirth Party, and the SocialDemocratic Party) refused to participate in that election.
  • 14. Tajikistan’s political system:Major parties People’s Democratic Party ofTajikistan (55) Islamic Renaissance Party ofTajikistan (2) Communist Party of Tajikistan (2) Agrarian Party (2) Party of Economic Reforms ofTajikistan (2)
  • 15. Emomalii Rahmon Born 5 October 1952 in Kulob. Has served as Tajikistan’s head of statesince 1992, and as the 3rd and currentPresident since 1994. Also the 1st and current Chairman of thePeople’s Democratic Party of Tajikistansince 10 December 1994. Served as Chairman of the SupremeAssembly of the Republic of Tajikistanfrom 20 November 1992-16 November1994. Faced a civil war in the early years of hispresidency; up to 100,000 peopleperished. Began his third term in office in 2006. His presidency has been dealt with inunsympathetic terms, primarily due toviolations of human rights, and bribery.
  • 16. Oqil Oqilov Born 2 February 1944 in Khujand. 7th and current PM of Tajikistan since20 December 1999. Member of the People’s DemocraticParty of Tajikistan.
  • 17. People’s Democratic Party ofTajikistan Statist, secular political party in Tajikistan. Currently the governing party; led by thecurrent President of Tajikistan, EmomaliiRahmon. Won 74% of the popular vote and 52/63seats during the 27 February and 13March 2005 legislative elections (widelybelieved to have been manipulated inRahmon’s favour by observers). This was an increase from the 2000elections, during which they acquired64.9% of the vote and 38 seats. Obtained 71.69% of the popular vote and45/63 seats during the last legislativeelections. Its headquarters are located in the Palaceof Unity in Dushanbe.
  • 18. Communist Party of Tajikistan Far-left political party in Tajikistan. Won 13.97% of the popular vote and4/63 seats in the 2005 parliamentaryelection. Affiliated with the Communist Party ofthe Soviet Union of Oleg Shenin.
  • 19. Dushanbe
  • 20. The End