Politics of Egypt


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Politics of Egypt

  1. 1. Benedict S. Gombocz
  2. 2.  The political system of Egypt is based on republicanism, with a semi-presidential system.  The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, which dissolved the parliament and suspended the constitution, took executive power after the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 and President Hosni Mubarak’s resignation.  A coup d’état in 2013 that deposed Mohamed Morsi led to the selection of Adly Mansour as the acting President of Egypt.
  3. 3.  Government: Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic  Acting President: Adly Mansour  Acting Prime Minister: Ibrahim Mahlab  Legislature: House of Representatives (dissolved)
  4. 4.  The president, under the new guidelines of the March 2011 referendum, is limited to two four-year terms, with the Judiciary as the supervisor of the elections.  The president has to nominate a deputy; a committee will outline a new constitution after the parliamentary election.  Candidates need to give 30,000 signatures from a minimum of fifteen provinces, 30 members of a chamber of the legislature, or appointment by a party claiming at least one seat in the legislature.  A commission was supposed to outline a new constitution to replace the pre-revolutionary constitution, followed by presidential elections, after the newly elected People’s Assembly and Maglis al-Shura convened in March 2012, but the 2012 Egyptian presidential election nevertheless took place in the absence of a revised constitution.  The military council, which assumed power early in 2011, promised a fair and civilian vote.  The first round of the presidential election occurred on 23 and 24 May 2012; a run-off round followed on 16 and 17 June, which was won by Mohamed Morsi of the Freedom and Justice Party, and he was sworn in on 30 June 2012.  On 3 July 2013, Egypt’s constitution was suspended, overthrowing Morsi.  The Chief Justice of Egypt will hold power during the transition period and will set a date for early presidential elections.
  5. 5.  The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, often known as the Military Council, came to power after the 11 February 2011 resignation of President Hosni Mubarak; it was led by Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi.  The council was meant to be transitional so it could hand over its state powers to the president following May 2012 presidential election.  The council has substantial power; according to at least one source, it has unilaterally issued a constitutional statement in which it granted itself legislative and judicial powers to “basically decide what the law is.”
  6. 6.  According to the Constitution of Egypt, political parties are permitted.  However, religious political parties are forbidden because they would not respect the law of non-intervention of religion in politics, and that religion needs to remain active in the private sphere to tolerate all views.  Political parties sympathizing with militia formations or having an agenda that goes against the constitution and its standards, or undermining the country’s strength (such as national agreement between Egyptian Muslims and Egyptian Christians) are also prohibited.  There are over 40 registered political parties in Egypt as of 2012; the seven largest of these are the Freedom and Justice Party, the al-Nour Party, the New Wafd Party, the Free Egyptians Party, the Justice Party, the Wasat Party, and the Egyptian Social Democratic Party.
  7. 7.  Candidates ◦ Mohamed Morsi (olive green)  Party: Freedom and Justice  Popular vote: 13,230,131  Percentage: 51.73% ◦ Ahmed Shafik (magenta)  Party: Independent  Popular vote: 12,347,380  Percentage: 48.27%
  8. 8.  Born 23 December 1945 in Cairo.  Acting President of Egypt and a judge who leads the Supreme Constitutional Court.  Was named president after the Egyptian coup d’état of July 2013 that were precipitated against his predecessor, Mohamed Morsi; it was later announced by Egypt’s military and many other figures, both secular and religious, including the Grand Imam of al-Azhar (Ahmed el-Tayeb), the Coptic Pope (Tawadros II), and Mohamed ElBaradei that President Morsi had been forced from power, nominating, until such time that an election could be held, Mansour.  Morsi, regardless, did not recognize his removal as legitimate and still retained that only he could be seen as the real President of Egypt.  Assumed office in front of the Supreme Constitutional Court on 4 July 2013.
  9. 9.  Born in 1949.  Acting PM of Egypt since 1 March 2014; previously served as the Minister of Housing.  Was a member of the Politics Committee of the National Democratic Party; the governing party was dissolved following the overthrow of President Hosni Mubarak in 2011.  Hazem el-Beblawi was named acting PM, while Mahlab was nominated Minister of Housing.  Was charged with forming a provisional government after el-Bablawi’s government, in a surprising move, resigned.  He declared that his government would “work together to restore security and safety to Egypt and crush terrorism in all corners of the country."  He also promised to reorganize the economy.  Declared, the day after he took office, that security is the primary concern and ordered an end to demonstrations and strikes.  Is married and speaks two other languages: English and French.
  10. 10.  Islamist political party.  Won more seats than any other party in the 2011 parliamentary election; its ex-chairman, Mohamed Morsi, won the 2012 presidential election.  Technically independent, but has strong ties to the Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt, the biggest and best-organized of Egypt’s political groups.  Won 47.2% of all seats in the country’s lower house of parliament during the 2011-2012 Egyptian parliamentary election; two other Islamist parties, Al-Nour and Al- Wasat, won 24.7 and two percent, respectively.  Both the FJP and Al-Nour, a Salafist party, have since rejected supposed plans to politically unify.  Initially said it would not nominate a candidate for the 2012 Egyptian presidential election, but nonetheless did; they first nominated Muslim Brotherhood leader Khairat al-Shater, and later, Morsi.  The provisional government considers the Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist group, leaving the FJP’s status uncertain.  Will be allowed to run in the 2014 parliamentary election if it breaks with the Muslim Brotherhood.  On 15 April 2014, the Alexandria Court for Urgent Matters outlawed current and past members of the Muslim Brotherhood from running in the parliamentary elections.
  11. 11.  One of the political parties founded after the 2011 Egyptian Revolution.  Has an ultra-conservative Islamist idealogy that believes in applying strict Sharia law.  Has been portrayed as the Salafi Call Society’s political arm, and “by far the most prominent” of the numerous new Salafi parties in Egypt, which it has exceeded by an asset of its “long organizational and administrative experience” and “charismatic leaders”.  Led the Islamist Bloc in the 2011-2012 Egyptian parliamentary elections, during which it won 7,534,266 votes out of a total 27,065,135 accurate votes (27.8%).  The Islamist Bloc, which the Al-Nour was a participant of, took 127 of 498 parliamentary seats counted, second to the Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party.  The Al-Nour Party itself took 111 of the 127 seats.  Increasingly distanced itself from Mohammad Morsi’s Brotherhood government after January 2013; joined the opposition in the coup of July 2013 that overthrew Morsi.