The Cold War definition of Eastern Europecorresponded to the Soviet Union and itssatellite countries: Albania, Bulgaria,Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary,Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia. The Soviet Union and its communist allieswere members of the Warsaw Pact,excluding neutral Yugoslavia and Albania,which withdrew from the Warsaw Pact inthe 1960s after it broke with the SovietUnion. The communist states in Eastern Europewere also referred to as the Second World.
Albania Armenia (not on map) Azerbaijan (not on map) Belarus Bosnia & Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Estonia Georgia (not on map) Hungary Latvia Lithuania Republic of Macedonia Moldova Montenegro Poland Romania Russia Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Ukraine
As noted on slide 4 (see accompanying map),the classification of Eastern Europe used in theCold War is used to define post-CommunistEastern Europe. While these states transitioned to capitalism ordemocracy (or social democracy) in the late1980s/early 1990s, they still fall within thepoorest countries in the world. Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary,Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia,and Slovenia are full member states of theEuropean Union and NATO. Albania and Croatia are full members of NATO;Croatia is due to join the EU on July 1, 2013,and Albania is currently an EU applicant.
The largest language family of Eastern Europeis the Slavic languages, spoken to a largeextent in Central Europe, Eastern Europe,Northern Asia, and the Balkans (see map fordetails). West Slavic languages (sea green) are spokenin Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia; East Slaviclanguages (dark green) are spoken in Belarus,Russia, and Ukraine; South Slavic languages(blue green) are spoken in Bosnia &Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Republic ofMacedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia. The smaller language families include theBaltic languages (in Latvia and Lithuania), theFinno-Ugric languages (in Estonia andHungary), and the Romance languages (inMoldova and Romania). Only in Azerbaijan is a Turkic languagespoken; only in Georgia is a Caucasianlanguage spoken. The respective languages of Albania andArmenia form their own language families.
Eastern Europe is roughly divided betweenWestern and Eastern Christianity; the majorWestern branches practiced in EasternEurope are Roman Catholicism (in Croatia,Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania,Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia) andProtestantism (in Estonia and Latvia). Orthodox Christianity is followed by themajority of the population in various Slaviccountries (Belarus, Bulgaria, Republic ofMacedonia, Montenegro, Russia, Serbia,and Ukraine) and in a few non-Slaviccountries (Georgia, Moldova, andRomania). Islam is the largest religion in Albania,Azerbaijan, and Bosnia & Herzegovina. Armenia has its own church, the ArmenianApostolic Church.
Baltic states◦ Estonia◦ Latvia◦ Lithuania Eastern Europe◦ Armenia◦ Azerbaijan◦ Belarus◦ Czech Republic◦ Georgia◦ Hungary◦ Moldova◦ Poland◦ Slovakia◦ Ukraine Southern Europe / Balkans◦ Albania◦ Bosnia & Herzegovina◦ Bulgaria◦ Croatia◦ Republic of Macedonia◦ Montenegro◦ Romania◦ Serbia◦ Slovenia Eurasia◦ Russia