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MALARIA• Malaria is an infectious Click to edit Master disease caused by a text styles parasite Plasmodium, ◦ Second level which infects red blood Third level cells. Fourth level Fifth level• It is caused by the vector Female ANOPHELES which mainly bites in the nights ( from Dusk to Dawn )
SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS Click to edit Master text styles• Fever, chills, muscle aches, ◦ Second level and headache. Third level Fourth level• Cycles of chills, fever, and Fifth level sweating that repeat every one, two, or three days are typical.• Mostly normal between fever spikes
Dengue• Caused by the Vector Aedes Egypti which bites in the daytime• Causes fever, chills, headache, pain upon moving the eyes, and low backache. Painful aching in the legs and joints.• Major Rash ( Glove and Stocking distribution )
Dengue• 3 Types – Dengue fever – Dengue shock syndrome – Dengue Hemorrhagic fever• Could be simple on one hand but could be fatal on the other• Usually a Biphasic illness characterised by severe dehydration
Chikungunya• Chikungunya is a viral disease Click to edit Master spread by the Aedes Egypti text styles mosquito which also causes ◦ Second level Dengue. Third level Fourth level• Chikungunya symptoms Fifth level include severe debilitating persistent joint pain, body rash, headache and fever.
Leptospirosis• It is an infectious disease caused by a type of bacteria called a spirochete.• Leptospirosis can be transmitted by many animals such as rats, skunks, opossums, raccoons, foxes, and other vermin.• It is transmitted though contact with infected soil or water.• The soil or water is contaminated with the waste products of an infected animal.• People contract the disease by either ingesting contaminated food or water or by broken skin and mucous membrane (eyes, nose, sinuses, mouth) contact with the contaminated water or soil.
Typhoid Mary• Mary Mallon, now known as Typhoid Mary, seemed a healthy woman when a health inspector knocked on her door in 1907, saying that she was the cause of several typhoid outbreaks.• Since Mary was the first "healthy carrier" of typhoid fever in the United States, she did not understand how someone not sick could spread disease -- so she tried to fight back• After a trial and then a short run from health officials, Typhoid Mary was recaptured and forced to live in relative seclusion upon North Brother Island off New York.
Typhoid• Typhoid fever is a common worldwide bacterial disease, transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person, which contain the bacterium Salmonella enterica• The name of "typhoid" comes from the neuropsychiatric symptoms common to typhoid and typhus• The infected person may be normal in the 1st week and then may become toxic, have an altered mentation and would have unbroken fever
Diarrhea• Infections that can cause diarrhea usually are spread by ingesting food or water or touching objects contaminated with stool.• It is usually caused by E.coli or sometimes is caused by viruses• May lead to profuse dehydration, sepsis , MODS and death if not treated promptly
Hepatitis• Transmitted thru’ contaminated water and A/E food• Incubation period around 2 weeks• Mild fever and then profuse vomiting and distaste at the sight of food• Usually self limiting but may sometimes cause life – threatening fulminant hepatic failure especially pregnant women. ( E > A )
Safety Tips Vector control• Early detection, reporting and Rx of initial cases of malaria, dengue etc.• Biological control – Use of fish larvae, personal measures such as repellants, creams, nets etc.• Community participation and control – Avoid water or sewage to accumulate in the surroundings• Chemical control – Insecticide sprays, malathion fogging etc
Safety Tips Food & Water control• Avoid non veg food and animal milk as animals might be at risk from drinking contaminated water• Avoid eating raw veggies, salads and fruits• Cook and grill your food before eating• Avoid eating outside food or drinking water especially from road side vendors• Boil water and milk before drinking• Always wash your hands thoroughly before cooking food or after using the toilet• Do not keep cuts and wounds open