Allergy & asthma

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Allergies arise when immune system reacts to foreign body.

The immune system produces substances known as antibodies that protect us from unwanted invaders which could make us sick or cause an infection. When one comes into contact with the allergen, the response of the immune system can inflame skin, sinuses, airways or digestive system.

The severity of allergies varies from one person to another and can range from trivial irritation to a potentially life threatening emergency. While most allergies cannot be cured, a number of treatments can assist get rid of allergy symptoms

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Allergy & asthma

  1. 1. Allergy & Asthma a slide show Dr Asha Pherwani Consultant PD Hinduja National Hospital
  2. 2. Allergy – a multi-headed monster
  3. 3. Up to the 19th century Few cases of allergic cold Increasing rapidly More in the westernized countries
  4. 4. Allergic diseases • Disturbing to the patient • Occassionally fatal • Alarming facts * observation of new allergies * nuts, soya, latex, gelatin and other • What is allergy?
  5. 5. When the body encountes an allergen An allergen is a protein different from the body
  6. 6. The body reacts Favourable result ---immunity
  7. 7. If the body over-reacts----harmful allergy
  8. 8. Serum IgE levels are high in allergies IgE attaches itself to mast cells
  9. 9. Atopic dermatitis
  10. 10. The one airway theory
  11. 11. Tell tale signs of allergy
  12. 12. Rhinitis Very common AR in children May predicit asthma
  13. 13. Allergic cold
  14. 14. Eye lid allergy
  15. 15. Drug allergyDrug allerg: Isonex (SJ) / methotrexate
  16. 16. Insulin allergy
  17. 17. Pressure urticaria
  18. 18. Contact dermatitis
  19. 19. Nickel allergy Nicke / copper allergy
  20. 20. Insect allergy
  21. 21. What does this slide project ? House dust mite
  22. 22. Pollen allergy
  23. 23. pollens Rage weed Chrysanthemum POLLENS
  24. 24. Food Reactions A diverse spectrum
  25. 25. Food reactions Immunological IgE Non-IgE T cells, macrophages Non-immunological Drugs dose dependent Enzyme deficiencies Food poisoning- Toxic
  26. 26. Prevalence of food allergy • IgE mediated allergy • 1-2.5% of adults • 6-8% of children
  27. 27. Systems not only restricted to GIT • Gastrointestinal • Respiratory • Skin • Cardiovascular • General-Anaphylaxis
  28. 28. • General • Itching, tingling, swelling lips, mouth • Tongue & Throat swelling • Angio-oedema (swelling, puffiness) • Nausea • Vomiting • Diarrhoea • Abdominal pain, cramps • Colic , reflux Rrespiratory Throat tightness Wheezing, asthma Shortness of breath Repetitive coughing Cyanosis- turning blue Nasal congestion Runny nose Cough
  29. 29. • Skin reactions • Pruritus – itching • Flushing • Urticaria – rash • Angio-oedema- tissue swelling • Eczema/dermatitis • Itchy eyes and ears • Hypotension • Shock • Syncope- fainting • Arrhythmia • Chest pain
  30. 30. Most common allergenic foods • Milk • Wheat • Egg • Soy • Peanut • Tree nuts • Fish & shellfish • Any foods can theoretically trigger allergies
  31. 31. Cross-reactions may occur • Wheat and other grains • Soy and other legumes • Cow’s milk & horse, sheep, goat’s milk • Different tree nuts • Nuts and peanuts • Pollen & some fruit • Latex and avocado, kiwi, chestnut, banana • Otal allergy syndrome
  32. 32. Anaphylaxis –food induced Foods most commonly implicated • Eggs • Wheat • Milk • Peanuts • Fish • Shellfish • Nuts Celery Seeds Legumes Guar gum Rice Many others
  33. 33. pets Pet allergy
  34. 34. Exercise induced Anaphylaxis • Anaphylaxis occurring after exercise, when certain foods are eaten prior or after exercising • Common culprits: Wheat,cereals, celery, fruit,vegetables, shellfish
  35. 35. • Watch out for: “may contain” • It only takes a minute grain to react • Nuts/egg/ sea food life time allergies • Cold. Ice • Food addtives & preservatives • Caffeined in foods, medication, tea, coffee Coca-Cola, nausea and tremors. • Salicylates • Induce urticaria, asthma and nasal polyps to develop • Curry powder, dried herbs, vegetable and fruit skins, tea and almonds
  36. 36. Food Intolerances • Enzyme deficiencies • Food poisoning • Intestinal fermentation • Food aversions • Pharmacological reactions- reactions to chemicals in foods or additives. Reactions are dose dependent and can be cumulative.
  37. 37. Do the right thing • Don’t just restrict your freedom of eating a wide variety of foods • Do seek professional help to investigate the symptoms you have • The cause may not always be what you think! • Remember- it can take up to 36-48 hours for some reactions to develop – even longer in some conditions
  38. 38. Hoarse voice - anaphylaxis
  39. 39. Epipen (Inj adrenaline)
  40. 40. FIRES IN THE GARBAGE • 1. DECOMPOSING WASTE MATTER • 2. MAN MADE FOR RECYCLABLE MATERIAL (30% OF GARBAGE IN CAIRO) environment
  41. 41. genes pregnancy smoking viral infections in infancy small baby
  42. 42. The skin Prick test
  43. 43. SPTs / patch tests
  44. 44. Skin prick tests
  45. 45. COLD URTICARIA Cold urticaria – 2 cases
  46. 46. Deficiency of C1 estarse inhibiyor deficincy Patients Angioed Neck swelling Died of meningitis at 1ge 15-16 y Life span 40-45 y
  47. 47. 2 causes *Muslces *inflammation Asthma – hyper-reactive air ways
  48. 48. Chronic wheeze
  49. 49. SPTs
  50. 50. IgE / AEC
  51. 51. Growth in asthma
  52. 52. No Inhalers Without spacers
  53. 53. Spacers
  54. 54. A wiff of air
  55. 55. Thank you

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