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French Revolution

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Detailed Presentation of French Revolution.

Detailed Presentation of French Revolution.

Published in: Education, Spiritual

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  • Death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David © Alexander Burkatovski/CORBIS
  • Where is Europe? Where is France?
  • Students should try to think up their own list of causes.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The French Revolution, 1789-1799
    • 2. Map of Atlantic Revolutions: Where is Europe? France?
    • 3. One approach to studying historyCausesProcessConsequences
    • 4. What were the causes of theFrench Revolution? QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • 5. Causes of the French RevolutionThe Enlightenment  Ideas:  Liberty  Equality  Reason  Progress Philosophes:  Locke defended private property, limited sovereignty and fair government  Voltaire attacked noble privileges and the Church’s authority
    • 6. Causes (continued)The American Revolution,1775-1783:  showed the ideas of Enlightenment in action  French soldiers (i.e. Lafayette) who helped came home inspired  Put Louis XVI in deep debt
    • 7. Causes (continued)French Economy was failing  National debt: four billion livres  50 percent of government’s income went to interest on debt  no central bank or paper currency  Inefficient and uneven taxation system (varied by region and estate)
    • 8. Causes (continued)Feudal system Estate System outdated posed many difficulties to rising middle class of Third Estate difficult to move upward in QuickTimeª and a society, unless very rich TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Less well-off commoners resented the inequality of the three estates
    • 9. Causes (continued)Louis XVI Good intentions ‘Enlightened’ Weak-willed Indecisive Marie-Antoinette allowed “to dispense patronage amongst friends”
    • 10. Causes (continued)Peasants’ situationunbearable  ‘web of obligations’  obviously unfairly overtaxed  Noble hunting privileges  Land-starved  Subsistence farmers
    • 11. Causes (continued)Harvest failures in1787-1788:  less food  higher prices  businesses failed  unemployment in cities QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • 12. Periodization of the FrenchRevolutionModerate stage: 1789–1792Radical stage: 1792–1794The Directory: 1794–1799Napoleon: 1799–1815
    • 13. Outbreak of the RevolutionTHE SPARK: Fiscal crisis forced Louis XVI tocall the Estates-General, summer, 1788 (firsttime since 1614) The three estates elected delegates:  First Estate represented about 100,000 clergymen  Second Estate represented about 400,000 noble men and women  Third Estate represented about 24.5 million people
    • 14. Outbreak (contd.) Main disagreement: representation  Should the estates vote by estate or by individual?  Third Estate argued that all delegates should sit together and vote as individuals  Third Estate demanded as many delegates as the First and Second Estates combined: “Doubling the Third”  Louis opposed, then changed his position
    • 15. Who were the Third Estatedelegates?Represented theoutlook of the elite25 percent lawyers43 percentgovernment officialsStrong sense ofcommon grievanceand common purpose(cahiers dedoleances)
    • 16. Outbreak (contd.) May 5, 1789: Estates General convened at Versailles June 17, 1789: the delegates of the Third Estate declared themselves to be the National Assembly
    • 17. the Oath of the Tennis Court(June 20, 1789) QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • 18. Outbreak (Contd.)  Public attention to the events in Paris was high  Price of bread soared  Rumors circulated that Louis was about to stage a coup d’état  Parisian workers (sans-culottes) organized a militia of volunteers
    • 19. Outbreak (Contd.) July 14, 1789: the Storming of the Bastille  Bastille was symbol of royal authority  Its fall symbolized of the people’s role in revolutionary change
    • 20. The Storming the Bastille QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • 21. Outbreak (Contd.) The Great Fear  Rumors that the king’s armies were on their way  Peasants attacked and burned manor houses  Destroyed manor records
    • 22. The Great Fear QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • 23. ResponseAugust 4, 1789: National Assembly voted toabolish all noble and other privileges  Church tithe  the corvée  hunting privileges  tax exemptions and monopolies  Obliterated the remnants of feudalism
    • 24. Declaration of the Rights of Man and theCitizen (August 26, 1789; issued in Sept.)
    • 25. The National Assembly and theliberal revolution The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen  Declared natural rights  Private property  Liberty, security, and resistance to oppression  Declared freedom of speech, religious toleration, and liberty of the press to be inviolable  Equality before the law
    • 26. The masses take theinitiative: October Days Brought on by economic crisis Parisian women marched to Versailles (October 5) and demanded to be heard
    • 27. The masses take theinitiative: October Days
    • 28. The masses take theinitiative: October Days Women demanded Louis and his family return to Paris Women with the help of the National Guard forced Louis (and the National Assembly) to move to Paris
    • 29. Women and the revolutiono General participation in the Revolution o Took leading roles in mass actions o Joined clubs, demonstrations, and debates o Women as citizenso Olympe de Gouges, Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Citizen (1791) o Women should have the same rights as men
    • 30. Religion and the revolutionThe most divisive issue  National Assembly confiscated church property (November 1789)  The Civil Constitution of the Clergy (July 1790)  Bishops and clergy subject to the laws of the state  Salaries to be paid from public treasury  Church reforms polarized France  Many resented the privileged position of the church  Parish church an institution of great local importance