Innovation in National Libraries - Enablers and Obstacles 14112013


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Research into theory and practice in innovation National Libraries. Comprises: the public sector perspective; innovation theory; factors that determine the operational capacity for innovation and results of field testing. Presentation to defend final thesis at the Executive Master Public and Non Profit Management at TiasNimbas Business School 14 November 2013

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  • The enabling conditions for knowledge creation and sharing from Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995)
    The microfoundations of the dynamic capabilities of an organization defined by Teece (2007, 2012)
    The structural elements of the hybrid organizational design defined by Mintzberg (1979) and (Tushman & O’Reilly, 1999)
    The antecedents and barriers for open innovation found by West & Bogers (2013)
    The elements of the open innovation maturity framework defined by Enkel, Bell, & Hogenkamp, (2011)
    The mechanisms that make the ambidextrous organization work found by Tushman & O Reilly (1996)
    The discovery skills that make up the Innovators DNA of Dyer, Gregersen, & Christensen (2009)
    The future work skills of Davies, Fidler, & Gorbis (2011)
  • Innovation in National Libraries - Enablers and Obstacles 14112013

    1. 1. Innovation in National Libraries – Enablers and Obstacles Presentation Master Thesis Executive MPM Hildelies Balk, 14 november 2013
    2. 2. Innovation in National Libraries In this presentation • • • • • • • • • Background and challenges Research Question What is innovation? Two perspectives Model Field research Definite model Conclusion and recommendations
    3. 3. Innovation in National Libraries National Libraries • Unique responsibility in the conservation and presentation of a country’s cultural heritage. Tasks: • collect and preserve the national documentary heritage • ensure permanent access to the knowledge and culture of the past and present. • develop central services and take a leading role in the library and information sector in their country(Poll 2008).
    4. 4. Innovation in National Libraries Recent Developments: 1990-2010 New tasks include: • • • • preservation of digital heritage archiving of new media such as web sites conversion of (historical) printed material into digital full text range of web services And current users expect no less: that which is not digital, is virtually invisible
    5. 5. Innovation in National Libraries 2013: A few of the current challenges • • • • • • • Big data Disruptive technologies Changes in users and expectations Digital scholarship Unpredictable government and funding bodies Changing market → private parties challenge monopoly of libraries new forms of online education → libraries innovate in response → successful innovation seems rare. What works, what are barriers?
    6. 6. Innovation in National Libraries Research Question What factors determine the organizational capacity for successful innovation in a national library? Objectives 1.Build a (skeleton) model to assess the innovation capacity of a national library, illustrated with real life examples 2.Secondary: stimulate the (continued) sharing of good practice in innovation among national libraries
    7. 7. Innovation in National Libraries What is innovation? (1) • • • • • • • Classic definition originates in private sector (Schumpeter, 1947): ‘a process of creative destruction in which new combinations of existing resources are achieved’’ Purpose : to ensure competetive advantage Innovation in the context of the organization (Lam, 2006): ‘the creation or adoption of an idea or behaviour new to the organization’ Character of innovation is radical, step-change as opposed to improvement or incremental change Innovation in the context of a national library: public sector
    8. 8. Innovation in National Libraries What is innovation? (2) Public sector context • Public Value (Moore 1995): • What the public values • What adds value to the public sphere • Delivery of public value is dependent on legitimacy: users, stakeholders, public at large (authorizing environment) • Changes in environment → need for innovation (Hartley,2011) • Purpose of innovation: continued legitimacy and public value → Definition in this thesis: Successful innovation in a public institution is: the creation or adoption of an idea or behaviour new to the organization with continued and/or added public value as outcome
    9. 9. Innovation in National Libraries Two perspectives • • Purpose of the thesis is to study organizational innovation in a public sector setting Most of the (empirical) research into innovation and how organizations manage this process has been done in the context of the private sector
    10. 10. Innovation in National Libraries Public Value concepts Why, when, what constraints (Rashman, Withers, & Hartley, 2009 Benington & Moore, 2011, Hartley,2011) 1.Need to manage both continued delivery of public value and (radical) change; processes for Quality,continious improvement and innovation simultaneously InnovationTheory Supporting concepts from private sector • Dynamic Capabilities : Combining the fostering of core competencies and implementation of radically new ideas; processes for handling both continuous improvement and innovation (Teece, 2007, 2012) • Hybrid Structure ‘Skunkworks’: Combining stable organization with units for radical innovation (Tushman & O’Reilly, 1999) • The Ambidextrous Organization: managing the opposing forces of continuity and change (Tushman & O Reilly, 1996)
    11. 11. Innovation in National Libraries Public Value concepts Theory Why, when, what constraints 2. Adapt to (authorizing) environment: pressure for learning in organizations 3. Share risk and add value: Coproduction with partners 4.Legitimacy, sharing knowledge and cost efficiency: longer term partnerships, networks and alliances 5.Public value created through use, legitimacy: co-creation with users Innovation Supporting concepts from private sector • The Knowledge Creating Company (Nonaka and Takeuchi,1995): enabling innovation through knowledge creation and sharing within the organization and in communities of practice • The Open Innovation Paradigm (Chesbrough, 2003): ‘Not all the smart people work for us’ → emphasis on use of external knowledge to innovate Develop innovation in networks, spin out what you do not use • Democratizing Innovation (Von Hippel, 2005) with users and user communities → e.g. open source communities, digital scholarship
    12. 12. Innovation in National Libraries Model 5 Propositions on innovation in Public Value perspective 42 Factors that determine the operational capacity for the delivery of public value through innovation: Organizational learning and knowledge creation Organizational design Processes Leadership and culture Collaboration Capacity
    13. 13. Innovation in National Libraries Knowledge and organizational learning Internal •Intention •Autonomy of professionals •Active role for middle management •Fluctuation and creative chaos •Redundancy •Requisite variety •Sharing tacit knowledge •Communities of practice •Learning from failure External •Innovation budget, •‘Slack’ resources •Absorptive capacity •Incentives for innovation •centres for innovation •High performance in the past (barrier) •‘Not invented here’ as a barrier
    14. 14. Innovation in National Libraries Organizational design • • • Hierarchical ‘machine’ bureaucracy (barrier) Pure adhocracy Mix of adhocracy and bureaucracy , ‘Hybrid’ organization e.g. ‘skunkworks’: seperate units that innovate outside regular (IT) infrastructure and workflow but foster strong (informal) ties
    15. 15. Innovation in National Libraries Processes • • • • • Best practice project management portfolio management; making clear choices, change routines continuous asset orchestration and renewal, use of analytical methodologies (e.g. investment choices) continuous redesign of routines
    16. 16. Innovation in National Libraries Leadership and culture Leadership •can steer both stability and radical change; •calibrate sensing and seizing of opportunities • tolerance to ambiguity and uncertainty •independency •supportive of innovation •Leaders ‘inventors’ themselves •diversity of top management team Culture •Inventiveness, openness, curiosity •Trust, collaboration •Encouragement of risk-taking •tolerance to failure •novel and adaptive thinking
    17. 17. Innovation in National Libraries Collaboration Capacity • • • • • Partnership capacity Networking capacities Understanding user communities Virtual collaboration skills Boundary spanners
    18. 18. Innovation in National Libraries Empirical research: Testing the Model in the field of National Libraries 1. Model discussed in Focusgroup of 15 library managers/professionals across EU 2. → Model adapted 3. Structured Interviews with 6 managers in 4 national libraries: a. Propositions: relevance b. Factors: relevance c. Factors: sharing practice d. Ranking factors both at cluster and at factor level → Definite Model
    19. 19. Innovation in National Libraries Results •Propositions all accepted as relevant to national libraries, with some moderations •Clusters ranked •Factors ranked: • Must • Nice to have • Can do without •Practice shared
    20. 20. Innovation in National Libraries Definite Model: factors only ‘must have’ . 1.Leadership and Culture Leadership can steer both stability and radical change tolerance to ambiguity and uncertainty diversity of top management team Culture Inventiveness, openness, curiosity 2.Processes portfolio management; making clear choices, ‘not doing everything’ 3. Knowledge and organizational learning Intention: strategy communicated and embraced by all Requisite variety: diversity of teams Innovation budget, transaction budget Learning from failure (e.g. post-project reviews) Absorptive capacity for external knowledge 4.Collaboration Capacity Partnership capacity Understanding user communities (e.g. open source, digital humanities) Networking capacities 5. Organizational Design Mix of adhocracy and bureaucracy , ‘Hybrid’ organization
    21. 21. Innovation in National Libraries Practice shared: examples • ‘ There is an active role for middle management [in innovation] but it is to not get in the way.’ • ‘One of the new vice directors in our library came from the private sector. He brought a lot of important things, especially for the future of the library, because he is much more marketorientated, much orientated on the users of the library’ • ‘I think the interesting difference with before is that there have always been technical people in libraries, but they've been sort of tucked away in the IT function, and now you need them everywhere’
    22. 22. Innovation in National Libraries Conclusions and recommendations • • • Model confirmed as relevant and useful for assessing the innovation capacity in their library discussion of the factors led to the expected sharing of practice around these factors Model not mature enough for comparative research Recommendations: • Use model for self evaluation • Use model for sharing innovation practice among peer organizations
    23. 23. Innovation in National Libraries RQ: What factors determine the capacity for innovation of a national library? and forget about design The Library Innovation Engine
    24. 24. Innovation in National Libraries Sharing to be continued in an Open manner through other channels www.