MEANINGS OF HAZARGANJI
Hazarganji literally means "Of a
thousand treasures". In the folds of
these mountains, legend has it, that,
there are over a thousand treasures
buried, reminders of the passage of great
armies down the corridors of history.
The Bactrian, Scythians, Mongols and
then the great migrating hordes of
Pashtuns, all passed this way.
20 south-west of Quetta in the
province of Baluchistan
Best Time to Visit
March to September
This park was primarily establised to provide refuge to
the endangered Chiltan wild goat or Markhor. In the
1950s it was said to exceed 1,200, but in November
1970 the population was estimated to number about
200, based on a total count of 107 individuals. At
present the total population of the Chiltan wild goat is
estimated to be about 800. The Suleiman markhor is
also present in the northern part of the Chiltan Range
and a few urial still survive on the western slopes
between 1,500m and 2,100m. Carnivores include
Stripped hyaena and Red fox.
Mammals in the park include--Chiltan
wildgoat or Markhor (T), Suleiman Markhor
(T), Urial sheep (Gad) (V), Indian wolf (R),
Stripped hyena (V), Leopard (?), Caracal (?),
Jackal (C), Red fox (C), Porcupine (C) and
Desert hare (C).
The females of Chiltan Wild Goats are reddish-grey in color
with a dark brown mid-dorsal stripe from shoulder to rump and
creamy-white legs bearing conspicuous dark brown pattern on
the fore part of the shank with a white knee (carpal) patch, and
the dark brown spreading around the base of the fetlock. The
males, as they reach their third or fourth winter, have an
increasing amount of white and grey hairs in the mid dorsal
and shoulder regions. Some adult males show varying amounts
of black hairs on the lower chest or sternum.
They browse the leaves and bushes as well as small shrubs and
Gestation Period=160 days
Mid Oct-early April
Twins appear to occur quite frequently
THREATS IN WILD
The Chiltan Wild Goat is endemic to Pakistan and is listed as
critically endangered in the IUCN Red Data book.
Recent population estimates done by WWF-Pakistan in 1997
have put the number of the Chiltan Goat at around 800.
The Markhor have straight spiral horns. The grizzled light brown to
black coat is smooth and short in summer, growing longer and thicker
in winter. Males have long hair on the chin, throat, chest, and shanks,
while females have smaller fringes. The lower legs have a black and
white pattern. The tightly curled, corkscrew-like horns are present in
both sexes, starting close together at the head, but spreading towards
the tips. In males, they can grow up to 160 cm /64 inches long, and up
to 25 cm / 10 inches in females.
The Markhor mainly inhabits the sparsely wooded mountainous
regions in Northern and Western Pakistan, at an elevation of 6003,600 m / 1,900-11,500 ft.They also found in areas of Gilgit and Azad
Kashmir. The only good population is in the Kargah Nullah and
Grasses, leaves. The name markhor is derived from the Persian mar, a
snake, and khor, eating. This is a very peculiar name, as they are
vegetarians, though they have been known to kill snakes.
Gestation Period: 135-170 days. Young per Birth: 1 or 2, rarely 3.
Mating occurs during winter, with the subsequent births
occurring from late April to early June. Sexual Maturity: At 1830 months.
THREATS IN WILD
THREATENED by IUCN list
since the mid-1980s when fewer than 100 animals were thought to be present. In 1994 the
markhor population was estimated to be approximately 700 animals (Johnson 1997), and in
1997 the population was estimated to be approximately 1,300 animals (Frisina et al. 1998).
This population increase has been due to a virtual elimination of unauthorized hunting that
has been accomplished through a private conservation initiative, the Torghar Conservation
Project (the Project), which was started in 1985.
The face is generally greyish, the long slender legs and belly are creamy-white
and the body fur is a reddish-grey colour. There is no extensive white area in
the caudal region. The tail is always the same color as the dorsal hair and lacks
any longer hair or terminal tuft. The iris is pale yellowish-grey with the retina
contracting to a horizontal slot. The horns in mature of mature rams are
comparatively slender and angular.
In Baluchistan and Waziristan, the Urial inhabits the gentler slopes of the
higher mountain ranges and will occur up to 2,750m(9,000ft).
Diet: Their preferred food is grasses. They will in time of fodder scarcity,
browse the leaves of Acacia Modesta and sometimes pink mucilaginous fruits.
Gestation Period: 150-180 days. Young per Birth: Single or occasional twin lambs being
born in mid-April to early May in Punjab and often as early as late March in Kirthar
Range in Sind. Rut: Rams show no sign of sexual interest or rut until their third autumn
when they are two and a half years of age. Sexual Maturity: At 4-5 years. Life Span: 10-11
THREATS IN WILD
Around 1900 the Ladakh urial used to be a common animal of northern Pakistan.
According to SCHALLER (1976) < 1,000 animals were left in Pakistan. HESS (1997 and
1999, in litt.) estimated only 200 - 400 individuals for 1983 -1988. In 1992 a total of 57 urial
was estimated by NWFP Forest Department. The total estimated for the Northern Areas for
1993 was 400 - 500 urial (G.TAHIR, Wildlife Wing, Northern Areas Forest Dept., in litt. to
G. RASOOL). There are probably < 600 Ladakh urial in total in Pakistan. (HESS et al.
1997, after NWFP 1992, SCHALLER 1976 and G. TAHIR in litt. to G. RASOOL).
According to Rasool (1999, in litt.) the previous estimated population has now dropped
down to 200 - 300 urial in the whole of the Northern Areas of Pakistan. Vulnerable By IUCN
A large, powerful animal, the striped hyena is covered in pale tan to
greyish fur, which is usually quite shaggy. Black stripes slide down
its sides in a vertical arrangement, and the muzzle/face is usually
dark with a black throat patch on the underside of the neck. From
the nape of its neck down to the rump, the back is covered by a
thick, erectile mane. This mane can be raised to make the hyena
look quite large. There is not much difference between the sizes of
the male and female.
Striped hyenas inhabit open country, as well as the forests of India and
the seashore, scavenging on dead animals which wash up from the sea.
The hyenas are mainly active at night, resting by day under protruding
Prey includes mammalian carrion, as well as the goats, sheep, donkeys,
and horses of northern herdsmen, which tends to bring the hyenas into
conflict with humans. They will also eat insects, small animals such as
mice, and fruit.
Females tend to come into sexual maturity at about 2-3 years
usually there are only 2 cubs.
THREATS IN WILD
While the striped hyena has no natural predators, it does often come into
conflict with humans. Striped hyenas have been known to kill humans,
especially children, and they are often poisoned and trapped for preying
on livestock or raiding farms. Some of their body parts are also believed
to have medicinal value. Striped hyenas have also become endangered
through habitat loss.
Fur colour ranges from greyish-red to reddish-white with black
tips. The dark, V-shaped stripe over the shoulders is much more
pronounced. Thin fur in summer though the hair on their backs
remains long even in summer. The winter coat is long.
The distributional range of Indian wolves extends from south of
the Himalayas in India and Pakistan, through Afghanistan,
Indian wolves typically prey on antelopes, rodents, and hares. .
Red deer, wild boar, golden jackal, ibex, fallow deer, chamois,
and roe deer are also significant food sources
They tend to breed from mid-October to late December. The
cubs are born blind with floppy ears and a white mark on
their chests which disappears with age.
THREATS IN WILD
The Indian wolf, because it takes children and
preys on livestock, has long been hunted, though
it is protected as an endangered species In India,
wolves are mainly found outside of protected
reserves and feed mainly on domestic animals,
such as goats or sheep.
Are the third largest members of the rodent family that are covered
with spines or quills.
A porcupine has about 30,000 quills on its back, sides, and tail.
The quills are sharp, stiff hairs. A porcupine uses them for
defense. If an enemy attacks, the porcupine strikes with its
quilled tail. The quills from a porcupine’s body also stick into the
skin of an attacker if it gets too close. When the attacker pulls
away, the quills stay stuck to its body. This is very painful for the
attacker and can even be deadly.
porcupine species live in Africa, Europe, and Asia. These
animals usually live on the ground and can inhabit deserts,
grasslands, and forests. They usually sleep during the day, in
burrows, rocky crevices, hollow logs, or trees.
They eat shoots, leaves, fruits, grains, and the inner bark of
trees. Where numerous, porcupines cause much damage to
trees and crops.
Porcupines have no specific breeding season,
however, they have only one litter per year. The
average life span of a porcupine is 5 to 7 years in
the wild and up to 21 years in captivity.
THREATS IN WILD
Some porcupines are 'threatened', however most species are
abundant and classed as 'Least Concern'.
Porcupines are only occasionally eaten in western culture,
but are very popular in Southeast Asia, particularly Vietnam,
where the prominent use of them as a food source has
contributed to significant declines in their populations
The caracal is a medium sized cat
Although the caracal is considered a small cat compared to other wild cats, it
is among the heaviest and fastest. Caracals have a narrow black line that
extends from their eyes to their nose. The colour of their fur ranges from
reddish brown, grey to a light sandy colour. The name of this cat comes from
the Turkish word 'karakulak' which means 'black ears' and black ears are a
characteristic feature of the caracal.
The caracals habitat is mainly scrubland forests, dry steppes, semi
deserts, woodlands and savannas.
Caracals are strict carnivores and have very strong jaws. Caracals typically
hunt at night during the summer and during the day in colder seasons. They
either hunt solitary or paired. Their combination of strength, speed and agility
makes the caracal a formidable predator.
Caracals mate during the whole year and individuals pair up only to breed.
Caracals reach sexual maturity at between 6 - 24 months. The life span of a
caracal in the wild is around 12 years and 17 years in captivity.
THREATS IN WILD
Caracals are classed as 'Least Concern' by the IUCN. Caracals are sometimes
kept as pets and can easily adapt to a human environment. Caracals are often
killed for suspected predation on small livestock. They are also hunted for their
fur and meat.
The Common Jackal has a shorter and heavier
appearance and has a sandy coloured coat.
Common Jackals are also known as Golden
Jackals, Asiatic Jackals and Oriental Jackals.
The Common Jackal is generally found in
deserts, steppes and semi-arid deserts
Diet consists of small mammals, birds, amphibians and
reptiles .Jackals are nocturnal, omnivorous scavengers. With
their long legs and curved canine teeth, they are well adapted
for hunting. Hunt larger prey such as antelope, gazelles and
livestock but normally hunt alone or in pairs.
Jackals are monogamous, meaning they mate for life. they
reach sexual maturity between 1 and 2 years of age.
Jackals have a life span of between 10 and 12 years.
THREATS IN WILD
Jackals are not a threatened species and are
classed as 'Least Concern' by the IUCN.
The red fox has orangish-red fur on its back, sides and
head. It has white fur under its neck and on its chest. It
has a long bushy tail tipped in white.
The red fox makes its home in wooded areas,
prairies and farmland.
The red fox eats a wide variety of foods. It is an
omnivore and its diet includes fruits, berries and
grasses. It also eats birds and small mammals
like squirrels, rabbits and mice
Red foxes breed from late December until the end of
March, with most matings taking place in January and
February. Both sexes are sexually mature at 10 months,
although they may not breed until yearlings. The red fox
has a potential life span of 15 years but few wild foxes
WILD survive more than 4 to 6 years.
Adult red foxes have few natural
predators. Many carnivorous animals
including larger birds of prey may kill
the young. Diseases, rather than
predators, or hunters and trappers who
take this species for its pelt, appear to
keep populations depressed. Although
the red fox is a vector of rabies, canine
distemper and, especially, sarcoptic
The Houbara Bustard is a small to mid-sized bustard.
The sexes are similar.
It breeds in deserts and other very arid sandy areas and is largely
resident within its range.
Two to four eggs are laid on the ground. It hardly ever uses its
This species is omnivorous, taking seeds, insects and other small
In Pakistan, the Houbara Bustard is regarded as the provincial bird
of Balochistan (Pakistan).
Houbara continue to be hunted each year in Pakistan with 25
permits by the government issued for the 2011-12 hunting season,
each permit allowing one hundred birds to be hunted by the permit
It is a typical Old World vulture in appearance, with
a very white head, very broad wings and short tail
Like other vultures, it is a scavenger, feeding mostly
from carcasses of dead animals which it finds by
soaring over open areas, often moving in flocks. It
establishes nesting colonies in cliffs that are
undisturbed by humans while coverage of open areas
and availability of dead animals within dozens of
kilometers of these cliffs is high.
The maximum lifespan recorded for the Griffon
Vulture is 41.4 years, for a specimen in captivity
It has an unmistakable appearance, possessing white
plumage with some black feathers in the wings and tail
and a yellow to orange face (in which the coloration
shifts during breeding seasons).
The Egyptian vulture is usually found nesting on rock
The estimated world population of Egyptian vultures
is between 10,000 and 100,000 individuals, and the
number is said to be declining due to poison being
entered into the food chain within its range, lead
poisoning from gun shots, electrocution by power
lines, and disease.
Honey-buzzards are found throughout the Old
World, where they feed on a diet of bees,
wasps, and honey, which the birds steal from
the hives of the insects.
The female lays two white, brown-spotted
eggs per clutch, which are incubated for a
period of 30 days.
The honey-buzzard has a pointed, decurved
bill, and a unique (among birds of prey) patch
between eyes and bill, which is covered with
scalelike, rather than large, bristly feathers. It
has powerful toes and strong claws.
The Laggar Falcon (Falco
jugger) is a mid-sized bird of
prey which occurs in the Indian
subcontinent from extreme
south-east Iran, south-east
Afghanistan, Pakistan, through
India, Nepal, Bhutan,
Bangladesh and north-west
Conservation Status: Least Concern
The name kestrel, (from French crécerelle,
derivative from crécelle i.e. Ratchet) is given
to several different members of
the falcon genus, Falco. Kestrels are most
easily distinguished by their typical hunting
behaviour which is to hover at a height of
around 10–20 metres (33–66 ft) over open
country and swoop down on prey, usually
small mammals, lizards or large insects.
Other falcons are more adapted to active
hunting on the wing. In addition, kestrels are
notable for usually having much brown in
INDIAN SPARROW HAWK
It is a small raptor (26–30 cm long) and like
most other Accipiter hawks, this species has
short rounded wings and a narrow and
somewhat long tail. Adults are whitish on the
underside with fine rufous bars while the
upperparts are grey. The lower belly is less
barred and the thighs are whitish. Males
have a red iris while the females have a less
red (yellowish orange) iris and brownish
upperparts apart from heavier barring on
the underparts. The females are slightly
EUROPEAN BEE EATER
This is a bird which breeds in open
country in warmer climates. Just as
the name suggests, bee-eaters
predominantly eat insects,
especially bees, wasps and hornets whi
ch are caught in the air by sorties from
an open perch. Before eating its meal,
a European Bee-eater removes the
sting by repeatedly hitting the insect
on a hard surface. It eats some 250
The European Nightjar, Eurasian
Nightjar or just Nightjar (Caprimulgus
europaeus) is the only representative of
the nightjar family of birds in most
ofEurope and temperate Asia
It is a late migrant, seldom appearing
before the end of April or beginning of
This is one of the largest species of typical
warblers. The adult males have a plain grey
back. The bill is long and pointed and the
legs black. The male has a dark grey head,
black eye mask and white throat. The iris is
white. Females and immatures have a paler
head and reddish underparts; their grey
back has a brownish tinge. The iris is dark in
This species has an extremely large range,
and hence does not approach the thresholds
for Vulnerable under the range
Blue Rock Thrush
Blue Rock Thrush breeds in open
mountainous areas, usually higher than the
breeding zone of the related Common Rock
Thrush. It nests in rock cavities and walls,
and usually lays 3-5 eggs. An omnivore, the
Blue Rock Thrush eats a wide variety
of insects and small reptiles in addition to
berries and seeds.
This is a starling-sized bird, 21–23 cm in
length with a long slim bill.
The male Blue Rock Thrush sings a clear,
melodious call that is similar to, but louder
than the call of the Rock Thrush.
The Blue Rock Thrush is Malta's national
bird and is shown on the Lm 1 coins that was
BROWN ROCK PIPIT
This is a medium-large pipit, 16-17.5 cm
long, but is an undistinguished looking
species on the ground, mainly sandy grey
above and whitish or pale buff below.
Both sexes have distinctively short
wings, shorter than those of the more
The male's song is high and twittering
like a Dunnock. Both sexes have a
clicking call like stones knocking