Chiltan hazarganji national park balochistan pakistan


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about the conservational purposes of wild life of pakistan

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Chiltan hazarganji national park balochistan pakistan

  1. 1. Presented To: Mam Iqra Presented By: Qurat-ul-ain Roll No 25 Ammara Tehreem Roll No 24 Class: BS-Zoology 5th Semester (R) DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA
  4. 4. MEANINGS OF HAZARGANJI Hazarganji literally means "Of a thousand treasures". In the folds of these mountains, legend has it, that, there are over a thousand treasures buried, reminders of the passage of great armies down the corridors of history. The Bactrian, Scythians, Mongols and then the great migrating hordes of Pashtuns, all passed this way.
  5. 5. FACT FILE Geographical Location 30'17'N-67*13‘E Physical Location 20 south-west of Quetta in the province of Baluchistan Total Area Date Established Best Time to Visit 15,555 hectares 1980 March to September
  6. 6. WILD LIFE
  7. 7. This park was primarily establised to provide refuge to the endangered Chiltan wild goat or Markhor. In the 1950s it was said to exceed 1,200, but in November 1970 the population was estimated to number about 200, based on a total count of 107 individuals. At present the total population of the Chiltan wild goat is estimated to be about 800. The Suleiman markhor is also present in the northern part of the Chiltan Range and a few urial still survive on the western slopes between 1,500m and 2,100m. Carnivores include Stripped hyaena and Red fox.
  8. 8. Mammals in the park include--Chiltan wildgoat or Markhor (T), Suleiman Markhor (T), Urial sheep (Gad) (V), Indian wolf (R), Stripped hyena (V), Leopard (?), Caracal (?), Jackal (C), Red fox (C), Porcupine (C) and Desert hare (C). Note: T=Threatened, V=Vulnerable, R=Rare,
  10. 10. APEARANCE The females of Chiltan Wild Goats are reddish-grey in color with a dark brown mid-dorsal stripe from shoulder to rump and creamy-white legs bearing conspicuous dark brown pattern on the fore part of the shank with a white knee (carpal) patch, and the dark brown spreading around the base of the fetlock. The males, as they reach their third or fourth winter, have an increasing amount of white and grey hairs in the mid dorsal and shoulder regions. Some adult males show varying amounts of black hairs on the lower chest or sternum.
  11. 11. DIET They browse the leaves and bushes as well as small shrubs and forbes. REPRODUCTION Gestation Period=160 days Mid Oct-early April Twins appear to occur quite frequently THREATS IN WILD The Chiltan Wild Goat is endemic to Pakistan and is listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red Data book. Recent population estimates done by WWF-Pakistan in 1997 have put the number of the Chiltan Goat at around 800.
  13. 13. APEARANCE The Markhor have straight spiral horns. The grizzled light brown to black coat is smooth and short in summer, growing longer and thicker in winter. Males have long hair on the chin, throat, chest, and shanks, while females have smaller fringes. The lower legs have a black and white pattern. The tightly curled, corkscrew-like horns are present in both sexes, starting close together at the head, but spreading towards the tips. In males, they can grow up to 160 cm /64 inches long, and up to 25 cm / 10 inches in females. HABITAT The Markhor mainly inhabits the sparsely wooded mountainous regions in Northern and Western Pakistan, at an elevation of 6003,600 m / 1,900-11,500 ft.They also found in areas of Gilgit and Azad Kashmir. The only good population is in the Kargah Nullah and
  14. 14. DIET Grasses, leaves. The name markhor is derived from the Persian mar, a snake, and khor, eating. This is a very peculiar name, as they are vegetarians, though they have been known to kill snakes. REPRODUCTION Gestation Period: 135-170 days. Young per Birth: 1 or 2, rarely 3. Mating occurs during winter, with the subsequent births occurring from late April to early June. Sexual Maturity: At 1830 months. THREATS IN WILD THREATENED by IUCN list since the mid-1980s when fewer than 100 animals were thought to be present. In 1994 the markhor population was estimated to be approximately 700 animals (Johnson 1997), and in 1997 the population was estimated to be approximately 1,300 animals (Frisina et al. 1998). This population increase has been due to a virtual elimination of unauthorized hunting that has been accomplished through a private conservation initiative, the Torghar Conservation Project (the Project), which was started in 1985.
  15. 15. URIAL
  16. 16. APEARANCE The face is generally greyish, the long slender legs and belly are creamy-white and the body fur is a reddish-grey colour. There is no extensive white area in the caudal region. The tail is always the same color as the dorsal hair and lacks any longer hair or terminal tuft. The iris is pale yellowish-grey with the retina contracting to a horizontal slot. The horns in mature of mature rams are comparatively slender and angular. HABITAT In Baluchistan and Waziristan, the Urial inhabits the gentler slopes of the higher mountain ranges and will occur up to 2,750m(9,000ft). Diet: Their preferred food is grasses. They will in time of fodder scarcity, browse the leaves of Acacia Modesta and sometimes pink mucilaginous fruits.
  17. 17. Reproduction: Gestation Period: 150-180 days. Young per Birth: Single or occasional twin lambs being born in mid-April to early May in Punjab and often as early as late March in Kirthar Range in Sind. Rut: Rams show no sign of sexual interest or rut until their third autumn when they are two and a half years of age. Sexual Maturity: At 4-5 years. Life Span: 10-11 years. THREATS IN WILD Around 1900 the Ladakh urial used to be a common animal of northern Pakistan. According to SCHALLER (1976) < 1,000 animals were left in Pakistan. HESS (1997 and 1999, in litt.) estimated only 200 - 400 individuals for 1983 -1988. In 1992 a total of 57 urial was estimated by NWFP Forest Department. The total estimated for the Northern Areas for 1993 was 400 - 500 urial (G.TAHIR, Wildlife Wing, Northern Areas Forest Dept., in litt. to G. RASOOL). There are probably < 600 Ladakh urial in total in Pakistan. (HESS et al. 1997, after NWFP 1992, SCHALLER 1976 and G. TAHIR in litt. to G. RASOOL). According to Rasool (1999, in litt.) the previous estimated population has now dropped down to 200 - 300 urial in the whole of the Northern Areas of Pakistan. Vulnerable By IUCN
  19. 19. Appearance: A large, powerful animal, the striped hyena is covered in pale tan to greyish fur, which is usually quite shaggy. Black stripes slide down its sides in a vertical arrangement, and the muzzle/face is usually dark with a black throat patch on the underside of the neck. From the nape of its neck down to the rump, the back is covered by a thick, erectile mane. This mane can be raised to make the hyena look quite large. There is not much difference between the sizes of the male and female. Habitat Striped hyenas inhabit open country, as well as the forests of India and the seashore, scavenging on dead animals which wash up from the sea. The hyenas are mainly active at night, resting by day under protruding
  20. 20. DIET Prey includes mammalian carrion, as well as the goats, sheep, donkeys, and horses of northern herdsmen, which tends to bring the hyenas into conflict with humans. They will also eat insects, small animals such as mice, and fruit. REPRODUCTION Females tend to come into sexual maturity at about 2-3 years usually there are only 2 cubs. THREATS IN WILD While the striped hyena has no natural predators, it does often come into conflict with humans. Striped hyenas have been known to kill humans, especially children, and they are often poisoned and trapped for preying on livestock or raiding farms. Some of their body parts are also believed to have medicinal value. Striped hyenas have also become endangered through habitat loss.
  21. 21. INDIAN WOLF
  22. 22. APEARANCE Fur colour ranges from greyish-red to reddish-white with black tips. The dark, V-shaped stripe over the shoulders is much more pronounced. Thin fur in summer though the hair on their backs remains long even in summer. The winter coat is long. HABITAT The distributional range of Indian wolves extends from south of the Himalayas in India and Pakistan, through Afghanistan, DIET Indian wolves typically prey on antelopes, rodents, and hares. . Red deer, wild boar, golden jackal, ibex, fallow deer, chamois, and roe deer are also significant food sources
  23. 23. REPRODUCTION They tend to breed from mid-October to late December. The cubs are born blind with floppy ears and a white mark on their chests which disappears with age. THREATS IN WILD The Indian wolf, because it takes children and preys on livestock, has long been hunted, though it is protected as an endangered species In India, wolves are mainly found outside of protected reserves and feed mainly on domestic animals, such as goats or sheep.
  24. 24. PORCUPINE
  25. 25. APEARANCE Are the third largest members of the rodent family that are covered with spines or quills. A porcupine has about 30,000 quills on its back, sides, and tail. The quills are sharp, stiff hairs. A porcupine uses them for defense. If an enemy attacks, the porcupine strikes with its quilled tail. The quills from a porcupine’s body also stick into the skin of an attacker if it gets too close. When the attacker pulls away, the quills stay stuck to its body. This is very painful for the attacker and can even be deadly. HABITAT porcupine species live in Africa, Europe, and Asia. These animals usually live on the ground and can inhabit deserts, grasslands, and forests. They usually sleep during the day, in burrows, rocky crevices, hollow logs, or trees.
  26. 26. DIET They eat shoots, leaves, fruits, grains, and the inner bark of trees. Where numerous, porcupines cause much damage to trees and crops. REPRODUCTION Porcupines have no specific breeding season, however, they have only one litter per year. The average life span of a porcupine is 5 to 7 years in the wild and up to 21 years in captivity. THREATS IN WILD Some porcupines are 'threatened', however most species are abundant and classed as 'Least Concern'. Porcupines are only occasionally eaten in western culture, but are very popular in Southeast Asia, particularly Vietnam, where the prominent use of them as a food source has contributed to significant declines in their populations
  27. 27. CARACAL CAT
  28. 28. APEARANCE The caracal is a medium sized cat Although the caracal is considered a small cat compared to other wild cats, it is among the heaviest and fastest. Caracals have a narrow black line that extends from their eyes to their nose. The colour of their fur ranges from reddish brown, grey to a light sandy colour. The name of this cat comes from the Turkish word 'karakulak' which means 'black ears' and black ears are a characteristic feature of the caracal. Habitat The caracals habitat is mainly scrubland forests, dry steppes, semi deserts, woodlands and savannas.
  29. 29. Diet Caracals are strict carnivores and have very strong jaws. Caracals typically hunt at night during the summer and during the day in colder seasons. They either hunt solitary or paired. Their combination of strength, speed and agility makes the caracal a formidable predator. Reproduction Caracals mate during the whole year and individuals pair up only to breed. Caracals reach sexual maturity at between 6 - 24 months. The life span of a caracal in the wild is around 12 years and 17 years in captivity. THREATS IN WILD Caracals are classed as 'Least Concern' by the IUCN. Caracals are sometimes kept as pets and can easily adapt to a human environment. Caracals are often killed for suspected predation on small livestock. They are also hunted for their fur and meat.
  31. 31. APEARANCE The Common Jackal has a shorter and heavier appearance and has a sandy coloured coat. Common Jackals are also known as Golden Jackals, Asiatic Jackals and Oriental Jackals. Habitat The Common Jackal is generally found in deserts, steppes and semi-arid deserts Diet Diet consists of small mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles .Jackals are nocturnal, omnivorous scavengers. With their long legs and curved canine teeth, they are well adapted for hunting. Hunt larger prey such as antelope, gazelles and livestock but normally hunt alone or in pairs.
  32. 32. Reproduction Jackals are monogamous, meaning they mate for life. they reach sexual maturity between 1 and 2 years of age. Jackals have a life span of between 10 and 12 years. THREATS IN WILD Jackals are not a threatened species and are classed as 'Least Concern' by the IUCN.
  33. 33. Red Fox
  34. 34. APEARANCE The red fox has orangish-red fur on its back, sides and head. It has white fur under its neck and on its chest. It has a long bushy tail tipped in white. Habitat The red fox makes its home in wooded areas, prairies and farmland. Diet The red fox eats a wide variety of foods. It is an omnivore and its diet includes fruits, berries and grasses. It also eats birds and small mammals like squirrels, rabbits and mice
  35. 35. REPRODUCTION THREATS IN Red foxes breed from late December until the end of March, with most matings taking place in January and February. Both sexes are sexually mature at 10 months, although they may not breed until yearlings. The red fox has a potential life span of 15 years but few wild foxes WILD survive more than 4 to 6 years. Adult red foxes have few natural predators. Many carnivorous animals including larger birds of prey may kill the young. Diseases, rather than predators, or hunters and trappers who take this species for its pelt, appear to keep populations depressed. Although the red fox is a vector of rabies, canine distemper and, especially, sarcoptic
  36. 36. Birds
  37. 37.  The Houbara Bustard is a small to mid-sized bustard.  The sexes are similar.  It breeds in deserts and other very arid sandy areas and is largely resident within its range.  Two to four eggs are laid on the ground. It hardly ever uses its voice.  This species is omnivorous, taking seeds, insects and other small creatures.  In Pakistan, the Houbara Bustard is regarded as the provincial bird of Balochistan (Pakistan).  Houbara continue to be hunted each year in Pakistan with 25 permits by the government issued for the 2011-12 hunting season, each permit allowing one hundred birds to be hunted by the permit holder.
  38. 38. Griffon Vulture
  39. 39. It is a typical Old World vulture in appearance, with a very white head, very broad wings and short tail feathers.  Like other vultures, it is a scavenger, feeding mostly from carcasses of dead animals which it finds by soaring over open areas, often moving in flocks. It establishes nesting colonies in cliffs that are undisturbed by humans while coverage of open areas and availability of dead animals within dozens of kilometers of these cliffs is high. The maximum lifespan recorded for the Griffon Vulture is 41.4 years, for a specimen in captivity
  40. 40. Egyptian Vulture EN-IUCN: 2008 It has an unmistakable appearance, possessing white plumage with some black feathers in the wings and tail and a yellow to orange face (in which the coloration shifts during breeding seasons). The Egyptian vulture is usually found nesting on rock ledges. The estimated world population of Egyptian vultures is between 10,000 and 100,000 individuals, and the number is said to be declining due to poison being entered into the food chain within its range, lead poisoning from gun shots, electrocution by power lines, and disease.
  41. 41. honey buzzard Honey-buzzards are found throughout the Old World, where they feed on a diet of bees, wasps, and honey, which the birds steal from the hives of the insects.  The female lays two white, brown-spotted eggs per clutch, which are incubated for a period of 30 days. The honey-buzzard has a pointed, decurved bill, and a unique (among birds of prey) patch between eyes and bill, which is covered with scalelike, rather than large, bristly feathers. It has powerful toes and strong claws.
  42. 42. Laggar Falcon The Laggar Falcon (Falco jugger) is a mid-sized bird of prey which occurs in the Indian subcontinent from extreme south-east Iran, south-east Afghanistan, Pakistan, through India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and north-west Myanmar. Near threatend
  43. 43. PEREGRINE FALCON Conservation Status: Least Concern
  44. 44. KESTREL The name kestrel, (from French crécerelle, derivative from crécelle i.e. Ratchet) is given to several different members of the falcon genus, Falco. Kestrels are most easily distinguished by their typical hunting behaviour which is to hover at a height of around 10–20 metres (33–66 ft) over open country and swoop down on prey, usually small mammals, lizards or large insects. Other falcons are more adapted to active hunting on the wing. In addition, kestrels are notable for usually having much brown in their plumage.
  45. 45. INDIAN SPARROW HAWK It is a small raptor (26–30 cm long) and like most other Accipiter hawks, this species has short rounded wings and a narrow and somewhat long tail. Adults are whitish on the underside with fine rufous bars while the upperparts are grey. The lower belly is less barred and the thighs are whitish. Males have a red iris while the females have a less red (yellowish orange) iris and brownish upperparts apart from heavier barring on the underparts. The females are slightly larger.
  46. 46. EUROPEAN BEE EATER This is a bird which breeds in open country in warmer climates. Just as the name suggests, bee-eaters predominantly eat insects, especially bees, wasps and hornets whi ch are caught in the air by sorties from an open perch. Before eating its meal, a European Bee-eater removes the sting by repeatedly hitting the insect on a hard surface. It eats some 250
  47. 47. EUROPEAN NIGHTJAR The European Nightjar, Eurasian Nightjar or just Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus) is the only representative of the nightjar family of birds in most ofEurope and temperate Asia It is a late migrant, seldom appearing before the end of April or beginning of May
  48. 48. ORPHEAN WARBLER This is one of the largest species of typical warblers. The adult males have a plain grey back. The bill is long and pointed and the legs black. The male has a dark grey head, black eye mask and white throat. The iris is white. Females and immatures have a paler head and reddish underparts; their grey back has a brownish tinge. The iris is dark in young birds. This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range
  49. 49. Blue Rock Thrush Blue Rock Thrush breeds in open mountainous areas, usually higher than the breeding zone of the related Common Rock Thrush. It nests in rock cavities and walls, and usually lays 3-5 eggs. An omnivore, the Blue Rock Thrush eats a wide variety of insects and small reptiles in addition to berries and seeds. This is a starling-sized bird, 21–23 cm in length with a long slim bill. The male Blue Rock Thrush sings a clear, melodious call that is similar to, but louder than the call of the Rock Thrush. The Blue Rock Thrush is Malta's national bird and is shown on the Lm 1 coins that was
  50. 50. Long-billed Pipit BROWN ROCK PIPIT This is a medium-large pipit, 16-17.5 cm long, but is an undistinguished looking species on the ground, mainly sandy grey above and whitish or pale buff below.
  51. 51. Stonechat Both sexes have distinctively short wings, shorter than those of the more migratory The male's song is high and twittering like a Dunnock. Both sexes have a clicking call like stones knocking together