Verbals
Is it a VERB or a VERBAL??
• Telling the difference
between a verb and a
verbal is not done by
looking only at the word
it...
Is it a VERB or a VERBAL??
• Examples:
– Waxed
– Flowing
– Playing
– Sleeping
• These can be verbs or
verbals depending up...
Is it a VERB or a VERBAL??
• Examples:
– Our helpers waxed the floors.
– The waxed floors were
slippery and dangerous.
Is it a VERB or a VERBAL??
• Examples:
– Water was flowing over the
rocks in the stream.
– Flowing water carries a great
d...
Basic Information on Verbals
• Verbals are verb forms
(words that look like verbs
or could be verbs in other
sentences) th...
Basic Information on Verbals
• There are three different
kinds of verbals:
– Infinitive
– Participle
– Gerund
• Each verba...
Infinitives
• An infinitive has three
possible functions:
– As a noun
– As an adjective
– As an adverb
• It is a form of a...
Infinitives Used As Nouns
• Subject: To understand required
maturity and acceptance. To sleep is
the only thing Eli wants ...
Unlike gerunds, infinitives
can also act as adjectives
and adverbs.
• Adjective: The teacher assigned us too
many problems to solve. (modify
problems)
Wherever Melissa goes, she always bring...
Identifying Infinitives
Identify the infinitive in each sentence. Then,
label each as subject, direct object, predicate
no...
Prepositional Phrase or Infinitive?
• A prepositional phrase always ends
with a noun or pronoun. An infinitive
always ends...
Distinguish between infinitives
and prepositional phrases.
1. Would you try to explain?
2. Give an explanation to
Jane.
3....
Infinitive Phrases
• He hated to discuss
emotions. (DO)
• Wilbur’s family likes to rise
early. (DO)
• To join the drama cl...
Participles
• Verb forms that are used as
adjectives are called
participles.
• They will have two forms:
– Present (ending...
Participles
• Examples:
– Smoking gun
– Snoring spouse
– Broken window
– Elected official
– Streaming video
– Buzzing nois...
Participles
• Participles can appear in
several places in the
sentence, but they are
most commonly found
describing / modi...
Participles
• Most participle phrases will
have commas setting them
off. This is especially true
when they open a
sentence...
Examples:
Jumping high, Brent hit his
head on the ceiling.
The chemist, blinded by
smoky fumes, stumbled.
Scanning the boo...
Gerunds
• A gerund looks a lot like a
participle because it ends
in “-ing.”
• However, the gerund is
going to be used as a...
• Gerunds are defined as the
-ing form of a verb. They
have several functions.
1. Used as subjects and
complements
• Skiin...
2. Used as objects following
prepositions and
prepositional expressions
•Thanks for tending my
children.
•The job consists...
3. Used as objects following
certain verbs.*
•The children enjoyed watching
the parade.
•Ms. Terrell avoided paying her
ta...
Gerunds
• Examples:
– Chewing gum in class is not
allowed. (subject)
– I liked eating at the new
restaurant. (direct objec...
Practice:
• You will be shown ten
sentences with a word or
phrase underlined.
• Identify the word or
phrases as:
– Infinit...
Practice:
1. Sleeping soundly in his
bed, Ron was not going
to be disturbed by
anyone in his house.
2. I wanted to try out...
Practice:
4. The warm fuzzy kitten,
meowing loudly in the
hallway, was a nuisance.
5. We tried shooting with the
NBA’s new...
Practice:
7. Charging wildly down the
street, the bulls tried to
crush the citizens of
Pamplona.
8. Cheating on a final ex...
Practice:
10. On the sixth day of Xmas,
my true love gave to me
six geese a-laying, five
gold rings, four calling
birds, t...
SURPRISE, SURPRISE, SURPRISE!!
• Now that you can identify
these verbals, you have
the great privilege of going
on to the ...
DIAGRAMMING!!
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Verbals (infinitives, participles, gerunds)

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  • In the first sentence, the word is being used as a verb to tell what action is being done. In the other one, the word still looks like a verb, but it is being used as an adjective
  • The same thing is true here as in the other example. The second sentence shows the verb working as an adjective instead of a verb.
  • Students need to learn the parts of speech. The subject is STUDENTS. The verb is NEED. The infinitive TO LEARN is the object of the verb. Therefore, it is a noun.
  • Present participles can function as nouns—the subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, objects of prepositions, and subject complements in sentences.
  • Verbals (infinitives, participles, gerunds)

    1. 1. Verbals
    2. 2. Is it a VERB or a VERBAL?? • Telling the difference between a verb and a verbal is not done by looking only at the word itself. • You have to see how the word is being used. • In both cases, the word looks like a verb, but if it’s used as something other than a verb…it’s a VERBAL
    3. 3. Is it a VERB or a VERBAL?? • Examples: – Waxed – Flowing – Playing – Sleeping • These can be verbs or verbals depending upon how they are used in the sentence.
    4. 4. Is it a VERB or a VERBAL?? • Examples: – Our helpers waxed the floors. – The waxed floors were slippery and dangerous.
    5. 5. Is it a VERB or a VERBAL?? • Examples: – Water was flowing over the rocks in the stream. – Flowing water carries a great deal of potential energy.
    6. 6. Basic Information on Verbals • Verbals are verb forms (words that look like verbs or could be verbs in other sentences) that are used as one of the following: – Noun – Adjective – Adverb • A verbal can never be the verb of the sentence.
    7. 7. Basic Information on Verbals • There are three different kinds of verbals: – Infinitive – Participle – Gerund • Each verbal has a specific purpose and use in a sentence.
    8. 8. Infinitives • An infinitive has three possible functions: – As a noun – As an adjective – As an adverb • It is a form of a verb that generally appears with the word ‘to’ and acts as a noun, adjective, or adverb.
    9. 9. Infinitives Used As Nouns • Subject: To understand required maturity and acceptance. To sleep is the only thing Eli wants after his long day of work. • Direct Object: I hate to go. • Predicate Noun: Our best chance of winning against our enemy is to pray. • Object of the Preposition: I was about to eat when the guests arrived. • Appositive: You have only one choice, to go.
    10. 10. Unlike gerunds, infinitives can also act as adjectives and adverbs.
    11. 11. • Adjective: The teacher assigned us too many problems to solve. (modify problems) Wherever Melissa goes, she always brings a book to read in case she has a long wait. (modify book) There are jobs to be done. (modify jobs) • Adverb: They struggled to resist. (modify struggled) Some people are unable to adjust. (modify unable) He always plays to win. (modify plays) Infinitives Used As Modifiers
    12. 12. Identifying Infinitives Identify the infinitive in each sentence. Then, label each as subject, direct object, predicate noun, object of the preposition, appositive, adjective, or adverb. 1.Worried by my decision, I decided to sleep. 2. To build was the architect’s fondest dream. 3. The teacher assigned us too many pages to read. 4. My mother likes to eat. 5. They were reluctant to dance.
    13. 13. Prepositional Phrase or Infinitive? • A prepositional phrase always ends with a noun or pronoun. An infinitive always ends with a verb. Prepositional Phrase Infinitive The soldier listened to the command. When I am in New York, I go to a shop. A general’s purpose in the army is to command. When I am in New York, I like to shop.
    14. 14. Distinguish between infinitives and prepositional phrases. 1. Would you try to explain? 2. Give an explanation to Jane. 3. Our trip to China was filled with surprises. 4. After working so hard, he wanted to rest. 5. To believe took considerable faith.
    15. 15. Infinitive Phrases • He hated to discuss emotions. (DO) • Wilbur’s family likes to rise early. (DO) • To join the drama club is Kyle’s greatest dream. (subject) • I have an assignment to finish before tomorrow.
    16. 16. Participles • Verb forms that are used as adjectives are called participles. • They will have two forms: – Present (ending in “-ing”) – Past (ending in “-ed” or “- en”) • These contain action, but they are not used as verbs in the sentence.
    17. 17. Participles • Examples: – Smoking gun – Snoring spouse – Broken window – Elected official – Streaming video – Buzzing noise – Winning touchdown – Walking track
    18. 18. Participles • Participles can appear in several places in the sentence, but they are most commonly found describing / modifying the subject. • Participle phrases are always used as adjectives.
    19. 19. Participles • Most participle phrases will have commas setting them off. This is especially true when they open a sentence and modify the subject. – Running at full speed, the back raced twenty yards for a score. – Crying loudly, the baby wanted some attention.
    20. 20. Examples: Jumping high, Brent hit his head on the ceiling. The chemist, blinded by smoky fumes, stumbled. Scanning the book, Ann spotted the answer. The box wrapped in orange is for you.
    21. 21. Gerunds • A gerund looks a lot like a participle because it ends in “-ing.” • However, the gerund is going to be used as a noun. • Gerunds will show up as subjects, direct or indirect objects or objects of prepositions.
    22. 22. • Gerunds are defined as the -ing form of a verb. They have several functions. 1. Used as subjects and complements • Skiing is my favorite sport. • Hiking can be very strenuous. • Seeing is believing.
    23. 23. 2. Used as objects following prepositions and prepositional expressions •Thanks for tending my children. •The job consists of typing, filing, and answering the phone.
    24. 24. 3. Used as objects following certain verbs.* •The children enjoyed watching the parade. •Ms. Terrell avoided paying her taxes until it was too late. •Gerunds can sometimes take objects of their own: •Roland is afraid of making mistakes. •Sandy is considering leaving New York.
    25. 25. Gerunds • Examples: – Chewing gum in class is not allowed. (subject) – I liked eating at the new restaurant. (direct object) – Without running very hard I won the race. – Abusing the warm fuzzy kitten is not allowed in this class. (subject)
    26. 26. Practice: • You will be shown ten sentences with a word or phrase underlined. • Identify the word or phrases as: – Infinitive – Participle – Gerund
    27. 27. Practice: 1. Sleeping soundly in his bed, Ron was not going to be disturbed by anyone in his house. 2. I wanted to try out for the lacrosse team this spring. 3. The rushing waters of the Colorado River were great for rafting.
    28. 28. Practice: 4. The warm fuzzy kitten, meowing loudly in the hallway, was a nuisance. 5. We tried shooting with the NBA’s new basketball and found it to be challenging. 6. To run a mile in less than four minutes is nearly impossible.
    29. 29. Practice: 7. Charging wildly down the street, the bulls tried to crush the citizens of Pamplona. 8. Cheating on a final exam in English is not an advisable solution to not studying. 9. To sleep, perchance to dream.
    30. 30. Practice: 10. On the sixth day of Xmas, my true love gave to me six geese a-laying, five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves and a partridge in a pear tree.
    31. 31. SURPRISE, SURPRISE, SURPRISE!! • Now that you can identify these verbals, you have the great privilege of going on to the next great step in verbals……..
    32. 32. DIAGRAMMING!!

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