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Dendropedagogical Approach


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  • 1. Tree-ring tools designed for teaching dendrochronology to visually impaired students - Dendropedagogical approach - Osamu Kobayashi*1 Yoko Takei*2 Wakana Umakoshi*3 *1 The University Forest, Ehime University *2 School for the Visually Impaired, University of Tsukuba *3 Hashikurayamaso, Ikeda Hakuaikai Social Welfare Corp.
  • 2. The role of dendrochronology in environmental science Dendrochronology is successfully revealing past history of environmental changes. Dendrochronology contributed in raising academic/public awareness to changes in the global environment. 7th ICD 2006 International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB 2000) Kobayashi et al http://www.ngdc.noaa. gov/paleo/treering.html
  • 3. Tree rings are… multidisciplinary teaching tools For example…. Tree rings can… Wood anatomy Tree physiology Forest ecology Forest dynamics Global changes 7th ICD 2006 Kobayashi et al Micro Macro/Local Global
  • 4. The role of dendrochronology in environmental education Scouting Direct influence Young scientists Getting Public Funded! (Individuals) Dendrochronologists Government Authorities 7th ICD 2006 DENDRO-PEDAGOGY Kobayashi et al Rubino D.L. and MacCarthy, B.C. (2002)
  • 5. Dendropedagogical Tools Difficult when applying the tools to teach dendrochronology to visual impaired "Try Skeleton Plotting for Yourself!” 7th ICD Paul R. Sheppard (1998) 2006 Kobayashi et al
  • 6. Development of embosed tree rings that can be comprehended by tactile senses 7th ICD 2006 Kobayashi et al
  • 7. Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.) 7th ICD 2006 Kobayashi et al
  • 8. Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc.) 7th ICD 2006 Kobayashi et al
  • 9. Redvein maple (Acer rufinerve Sieb. et Zucc.) 7th ICD 2006 Kobayashi et al
  • 10. Vertical samples (needle traces) 7th ICD 2006 Kobayashi et al
  • 11. Curriculum Four classes with a total of 12 junior high and 16 high school students. Time spent for each class was 110 minutes. Following topics took place in class… Grasping the outer appearance of a tree. Understanding the inside appearance of the tree. Imagine how tree ring looks like. Observing tree rings trough tactile senses. Where does the tree ring come from? Are the number of rings same from the bottom to the top? What makes the difference in the widths of tree rings ? What tree rings tell 7th ICD 2006 Kobayashi et al
  • 12. Student s findings 1 Ring widths 7th ICD The height of the bulge at latewood 2006 Kobayashi et al Stiffness and weight (wood density)
  • 13. Sorting the disks to the heights where it was sampled Students must recognize Not a big deal ! 7th ICD The diameter of the disk Too easy for them 2006 Kobayashi et al The number of rings
  • 14. Listen carefully…. Tree-ring music profiles From WHITE MOUNTAINS MASTER CHRONOLOGY PILO 604 CALIFORNIA BRISTLECONE PINE 03724-11810 -5141 1962 C. W. FERGUSON, EDMUND SCHULMAN, H. C. FRITTS Obtained from ITRDB Listening to the period -5000 to 4801 7th ICD 2006 Kobayashi et al
  • 15. Principles of transferring RW into music notes Periods of continuous wide rings Rapid growth --> High pitch and fast phonetic value Periods of continuous narrow rings Slow growth --> Low pitch and slow phonetic value 7th ICD 2006 Kobayashi et al
  • 16. Dated Audiological crossdating ? UnDated 7th ICD 2006 Kobayashi et al
  • 17. Future aims To enhance their knowledge in dendrochronology and environmental science in general… Practical ring-width measurement Experiencing cross-dating Skeleton plot making Understanding micro-scale tree-ring structures 7th ICD 2006 Kobayashi et al
  • 18. Challenging issues in the field of dendropedagogy Methodology of teaching suitable dendrochronology in each development stage Kindergarten Elementary school Junior high school Higher education Social communities Evaluation of the impact Knowledge transfer Technical transfer changes in the consciousness of environmental issues. 7th ICD Along with developing valuation methods 2006 Kobayashi et al