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The Effects Model Also known as the hypodermic syringe model. Theorises about what the media does to its audience.
The Effects Model Uses terminology such as ‘mass media’ and ‘mass communication’, this emphasises the size.
The Effects Model This theory implies that the media’s implied meaning is injected into a single mass audience. This gives the potential for the audience to be duped or taken in.
The Effects Model Grebner and Gross (1976) Researched audience in the USA Stated that the more tv watched, the viewers had a more fearful attitude to the world outside home. Blamed programmes such as America’s Most Wanted, real life crime dramas and media exaggeration of events and people such as terrorism.
Stuart Hall – Encoding/DecodingDominant Reading Viewer recognises the preferred or offered meaning and broadly agrees with it.
Stuart Hall – Encoding/DecodingOppositional Reading The dominant reading is recognised but rejected for cultural, political or ideological reasons.
Stuart Hall – Encoding/DecodingNegotiated Reading The reader accepts, rejects or refines elements of the programme in light of previously held views.
Stuart Hall – Encoding/Decoding Dominant – ‘flag waving patriot who responds to George Bush’s latest speech’. Oppositional – ‘the pacifist who understands the speech but rejects it’. Negotiated – ‘the viewer who agrees with the need for a response to Sept. 11th but doesn’t agree to the military means announced’. Taken from ‘The Media Student’s Book’