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  • 1. Audience Reception Theory
  • 2. The Effects Model Also known as the hypodermic syringe model. Theorises about what the media does to its audience.
  • 3. The Effects Model Uses terminology such as ‘mass media’ and ‘mass communication’, this emphasises the size.
  • 4. The Effects Model This theory implies that the media’s implied meaning is injected into a single mass audience. This gives the potential for the audience to be duped or taken in.
  • 5. The Effects Model Grebner and Gross (1976) Researched audience in the USA Stated that the more tv watched, the viewers had a more fearful attitude to the world outside home. Blamed programmes such as America’s Most Wanted, real life crime dramas and media exaggeration of events and people such as terrorism.
  • 6. Stuart Hall – Encoding/DecodingDominant Reading Viewer recognises the preferred or offered meaning and broadly agrees with it.
  • 7. Stuart Hall – Encoding/DecodingOppositional Reading The dominant reading is recognised but rejected for cultural, political or ideological reasons.
  • 8. Stuart Hall – Encoding/DecodingNegotiated Reading The reader accepts, rejects or refines elements of the programme in light of previously held views.
  • 9. Stuart Hall – Encoding/Decoding Dominant – ‘flag waving patriot who responds to George Bush’s latest speech’. Oppositional – ‘the pacifist who understands the speech but rejects it’. Negotiated – ‘the viewer who agrees with the need for a response to Sept. 11th but doesn’t agree to the military means announced’. Taken from ‘The Media Student’s Book’