PGCLT(HE)
New Directions in…
Technology Enhanced Learning
(TEL)

Wayne Barry

LTEU
Learning and Teaching Enhancement Unit
What is Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL)?

“understanding, creating, and
exploiting digital technologies
for learning…” ...
UK Policy: A “techno-romance”?

estimated

£6bn
since 1997

National Strategy for Information Technology (1980)
Microelect...
CCCU: The Institutional Perspective

GOAL 1:
To deliver an accessible, innovative and
flexible curriculum
“Students and th...
CCCU: The TELT Strategy

VISION:
The Strategy envisages that by 2015
CCCU will be experiencing:
“New and existing programm...
Rise of the...

Digital Natives?
Net Gen?
Millennials?
Homo Zappiens?
Generation Y?








born after 1982
have gr...
The Digital Learner

Constantly connected to information and each other, students
don’t just consume information. They cre...
TEL: So, where’s the evidence?

“How does technology enhance learning – what is the ‘value
added’?

What learning is being...
Session Activity 1
how are you using technology to support
learning & teaching?
The “Student Journey”
#0: Pre-Enrolment
•

Bridging materials to ease transitions
- Provide an online open “taster” board with information and a...
#1: Induction
•

Spiralling induction activities
- Adopt a more blended approach of online and physical activities in orde...
#2: Administration
•

Communication
-

-

•

Department / Programme teams making use of online announcements, blogs and so...
#3: Progression
•

Academic Writing
-

-

•

Help students with academic writing and teach them about plagiarism using Tur...
#4: Engagement
•

Student Participation (Individual / Group)
-

-

•

Using Participant Response Systems, like Qwizdom, to...
#5: Retention
•

Data Analysis
- Enable tracking of learning materials or units to see if students need further
help / ass...
#6: Scholarship
•

Information Literacy
-

•

Research
-

•

Develop a personal “digital library” that pull in RSS feeds f...
Session Activity 2
demo of software & tools
Using Technology: A Few Helpful Pointers #1
•

If your course is fully online/at a distance have
introductory information ...
Using Technology: A Few Helpful Pointers #2
•

However, if your course is mostly delivered on campus,
make best use of thi...
Th
e

cabinet
of

DANGEROUS IDEAS

Image: “Card Catalogue Drawers” by Jason Pearce. Creative Commons licence CC BY-NC-SA -...
#1: Mobile Apps

Mobile apps are the fastest growing
dimension of the mobile space in higher
education right now, with imp...
#2: Tablet Computing

Tablet computing presents new
opportunities to enhance learning
experiences in ways simply not possi...
#3: Augmented Reality (AR)

Augmented reality refers to the layering
of information over a view or
representation of the n...
#4: Personal Learning Environments (PLEs)

Personal learning environments
(PLEs) refer to the personal
collections of tool...
#5: Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)

MOOCs are an attempt to create open access
online courses that provide no constra...
#6: Google Glass

Surgeons are currently using the
headset to send a video stream of a
surgical procedure to students: "It...
#7: 3D Printing
One of the most significant aspects of
3D printing for education is that it
enables more authentic explora...
#8: Flipped Classroom
The flipped classroom model is
becoming increasingly popular in higher
education institutions becaus...
#9: Gamification
Educational gameplay has proven to
foster engagement in critical thinking,
creative problem-solving, and ...
#10: Learning Analytics (LA)
Learning analytics is developing rapidly in
higher education, where learning is
happening mor...
Where Are You Now Eh?

Image: “The Signpost” by Tom@Where. Creative Commons licence CC BY-NC - http://www.flickr.com/photo...
Some Question…

Image: “Question Mark” by djking. Creative Commons licence CC BY-NC-SA - http://www.flickr.com/photos/djki...
Bennett, S., Maton, K., & Kervin, L. (2008). “The ‘digital natives’ debate: A critical review of the evidence”. British Jo...
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New Directions in Technology Enhanced Learning

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This presentation was part of a bespoke Postgraduate Certificate in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education (PGCLT(HE)) at Canterbury Christ Church University on the 12th February 2014. The presentation considers how technology can be used to support, facilitate and mediate learning at different stages within the student learning journey. Furthermore, the presentation looks at the current and emergent technologies that are just over the horizon and the impact these may have in the future of education.

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  • Department for Education and Skills. (2003). Towards a unified e-learning strategy. London: DfES. Available at: https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/DfES-0455-2003.pdf [Accessed 6.11.2012].Selwyn, N. (2002). “Learning to Love the Micro: The Discursive Construction of 'Educational' Computing in the UK, 1979-89”. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 23(3), pp. 427-443. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1393436 [Accessed 11.10.2012].
  • Jones, C. & Shao, B. (2011). The Net Generation and Digital Natives: Implications for Higher Education. York: Higher Education Academy. Available at: http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/evidencenet/next-generation-and-digital-natives [Accessed 9.10.2012].Oblinger, D.G. & Oblinger, J.L. (Eds). (2005). Educating the Net Generation. Colorado: EDUCAUSE. Available at: http://www.educause.edu/educatingthenetgen [Accessed 27.10.2011].Prensky, M. (2001). “Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants”. On the Horizon, 9(5). Available at: http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf [Accessed 27.10.2011].
  • Bennett, S. Bishop, A., Dalgarno, B., Waycott, J. & Kennedy, G. (2012). “Implementing Web 2.0 technologies in higher education: A collective case study”. Computers & Education, 59(2), pp. 524-534. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.12.022 [Accessed 19.9.2012].Lorenzo, G., Oblinger, D. & Dziuban, C. (2006). “How choice, co-creation, and culture are changing what it means to be net savvy”. EDUCAUSE Quarterly, 30(1). Available at: http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI3008.pdf [Accessed 9.10.2012].
  • New Directions in Technology Enhanced Learning

    1. 1. PGCLT(HE) New Directions in… Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) Wayne Barry LTEU Learning and Teaching Enhancement Unit
    2. 2. What is Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL)? “understanding, creating, and exploiting digital technologies for learning…” (ESRC, 2006) created using wordle.net Source: HEFCE. (2009). A revised approach to HEFCE's strategy for e-learning. HEFCE Publication 12/2009. Bristol: HEFCE.
    3. 3. UK Policy: A “techno-romance”? estimated £6bn since 1997 National Strategy for Information Technology (1980) Microelectronics in Education Programme (MEP) (1981-1985) - £23m Micros for Schools Scheme (1981-1984) - £16m Training & Vocational Education Initiative (TVEI) (1983-1997) - £1bn New Technology for Better Schools (1987) IT in Schools Strategy (1987-1993) - £90m Teaching & Learning Technology Programme (TLTP) (1992-1996) - £75m Superhighways for Education (1995) Connecting the Learning Society (1997) New Opportunities Funding (NOF) (1999-2002) - £300m National Grid for Learning (NGfL) (1998-2006) - £1.6bn Higher Ambitions (2010) Higher Education: Students at the Heart of the System (2011) e-Learning is important because it can contribute to all the government's objectives for education - to raising standards, improving quality, removing barriers to learning, and, ultimately, ensuring that every learner achieves their full potential. (DfES, 2003) Image: “The Palace of Westminster” by Alexis Birkill. Creative Commons licence CC BY-NC-SA - http://www.flickr.com/photos/abirkill/380954083/
    4. 4. CCCU: The Institutional Perspective GOAL 1: To deliver an accessible, innovative and flexible curriculum “Students and the student experience are at the centre of this Strategic Plan and define its ambitions. We will offer a flexible and innovative curriculum that responds quickly to changes within and beyond the University. We will provide local access to a high quality university experience through a distributed campus network and enhanced capability for blended and distance learning.” Image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/heywayne/4191212802/ Source: Canterbury Christ Church University. (2011). Strategic Plan 2011-2015. Canterbury: Canterbury Christ Church University.
    5. 5. CCCU: The TELT Strategy VISION: The Strategy envisages that by 2015 CCCU will be experiencing: “New and existing programmes equipped with tools which extend engagement in HE through providing opportunities for more open, flexible, work and home-based learning, enabling students and staff, inside and outside the campus network, to determine where, when and how they participate in the learning community.” Image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/heywayne/4191212802/ Source: Canterbury Christ Church University. (2012). Technology Enhanced Learning & Teaching Strategic 2012-2015. Canterbury: Canterbury Christ Church University.
    6. 6. Rise of the... Digital Natives? Net Gen? Millennials? Homo Zappiens? Generation Y?        born after 1982 have grown up with digital technology prefer visual information are social and prefer to work collaboratively are able to multi-task have zero-tolerance for slow access to information suggests that their brains have physically changed – – – are able to think and process information differently have hypertext-like minds cannot tolerate step-by-step instruction Image: “Baby Sees The iPad Magic” by Steve Paine. Creative Commons licence CC BY-ND - http://www.flickr.com/photos/umpcportal/4581962986/
    7. 7. The Digital Learner Constantly connected to information and each other, students don’t just consume information. They create - and re-create - it. With a do-it-yourself, open source approach to materials, students often take existing material, add their own touches, and republish it. Bypassing traditional authority channels, selfpublishing - in print, image, video, or audio - is common. (Lorenzo, Oblinger & Dziuban, 2006) Image: “Divide: Bip” by monsieurlam. Creative Commons licence CC BY-NC-SA - http://www.flickr.com/photos/monsieurlam/634568128/
    8. 8. TEL: So, where’s the evidence? “How does technology enhance learning – what is the ‘value added’? What learning is being enhanced and in what ways – is the enhancement quantitative and/or qualitative? A more fundamental question is whether there is a generally accepted view of what constitutes learning in higher education and of how it can be enhanced?” “To date there has been an over-emphasis on technological manifestations and this has led to the omission of pedagogical considerations” Image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/julie-king/3634487121/ Source: Price, L. & Kirkwood, A. (2010). “Technology enhance-learning – where’s the evidence?”. Proceedings from ascilite, Sydney, Australia, 2010.
    9. 9. Session Activity 1 how are you using technology to support learning & teaching?
    10. 10. The “Student Journey”
    11. 11. #0: Pre-Enrolment • Bridging materials to ease transitions - Provide an online open “taster” board with information and activities to give prospective students with a realistic picture of what being a student in Higher Education is like. - Discussion boards, instant messaging (chat) and forums to help develop a sense of belonging and community. • Open Day follow-ups - Follow-up with an online presence, such as a Departmental or Programme / Module Facebook page or similar social network presence to create a sense of community. - Use micro-blogging sites such as Twitter to point prospective students to activities, events and resources concerning your department / programme. - Keep prospective students “warm” by emailing them about your various online channels and encouraging them to join in and take part. Image: “Crumpled Paper” by chiaralily. Creative Commons licence CC BY - http://www.flickr.com/photos/chiaralily/6599331429/
    12. 12. #1: Induction • Spiralling induction activities - Adopt a more blended approach of online and physical activities in order to be less content heavy in a short space of time running from L3/L4 to L6. Could include programme resources; “talking head” videos (via Kaltura) of staff & students; discussion board for questions; web links to resources & services (both internal & external); and social networking sites for community building. • Diagnostic Testing - Use online testing tools like CLIC Learn’s Test Manager or QuestionMark to test for literacy, numeracy, learning styles and ICT skills – depending on student scores, they can be directed to a range of online / offline resources and services (e.g. The Graduate Skills website). • Prior Knowledge / Wider Experience - Use tools like CLIC Learn’s Survey Manager or Bristol Online Surveys (BOS) to capture wider student experience such as social activities; use and perception of campus outside of timetabled classes; accommodation; travel arrangements; work experience. • “Welcome” materials - HoDs, Programme / Module leaders can record short podcasts or video clips (via Kaltura) welcoming new students to the University and to their courses. Can offer “top tips” Image: “Crumpled Paper” by students on how to settle into University life from existing chiaralily. Creative Commons licence CC BY - http://www.flickr.com/photos/chiaralily/6599331429/
    13. 13. #2: Administration • Communication - - • Department / Programme teams making use of online announcements, blogs and social networking services to keep students informed about developments and opportunities within their course(s). Encourage students to personalise the Notifications Dashboard feature within CLIC Learn so that they can be informed and alerted to different events that are happening (e.g. assignment due) via a range of communication channels (e.g. e-mail, mobile, SMS, Twitter) e-Submission & e-Feedback - • Tutorials - • Using CLIC Learn’s Assignment Manager or Turnitin, students can hand in their assignments electronically and remotely. Furthermore, students can receive online feedback via Turnitin’s GradeMark tool, again this can be accessed electronically and remotely. Thus ensuring student work is received in a timely manner and could allow the tutor to feedback in a timely manner, ensuring that the students pick up their feedback. Arranging student tutorials using online scheduling tool www.doodle.com, by sending student a specific web address either through the VLE’s announcements feature or email. Tutorials can be conducted online using Blackboard Collaborate or Skype. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) - Provide a mechanism for students to ask questions about the course or assignment (that don’t feature in the Programme / Module handbook) using a discussion board or wiki to collect questions and answer them (these could also be answered by students as well) Image: “Crumpled Paper” by chiaralily. Creative Commons licence CC BY - http://www.flickr.com/photos/chiaralily/6599331429/
    14. 14. #3: Progression • Academic Writing - - • Help students with academic writing and teach them about plagiarism using Turnitin. Provide students with an opportunity to submit draft copies of their assignments and receive feedback in the form of an “Originality Report” which are supported with in-class induction and online resources. Enhance learner development and learner autonomy through the use of blogs to encourage regular reflection (with possible feedback from tutors and/or peers), fluency of writing and develop academic writing and referencing skills. Learning & Teaching Resources - • Personal Development Planning - • Provide students with a range of learning and teaching materials that could be developed using podcasts, video clips, audioslides, lecture capture, open educational resources (OERs), off-air recordings (e.g. www.bobnational.net) and learning objects (using Wimba Create via MS Word) Help students to develop understanding of employability and the personal, social, academic, reflective and professional skills required as well as devising an accurate evidence base for evolving employability attributes and skills using blogs (for reflective writing, journals and learning logs), e-portfolio (e.g. PebblePad) (for collecting and presenting evidence), and Wimba Create (via MS Word, for presenting evidence). Digital / Information Literacy - Provide opportunities for students to use a range of tools, methodologies and technologies, understanding how and when to use them and being critically reflective of Image: “Crumpled Paper” by chiaralily. Creative Commons licence CC BY - http://www.flickr.com/photos/chiaralily/6599331429/
    15. 15. #4: Engagement • Student Participation (Individual / Group) - - • Using Participant Response Systems, like Qwizdom, to create more interactivity in a large group classroom as well as offering formative feedback and enables the tutor to correct or repair any misconceptions or misunderstandings around topic areas. Using Interactive Whiteboards in conjunction with other interactive materials, such as a wiki, simulation software or mind mapping software (like Inspiration) to collate or test ideas and theories. Formative Assessment - • Feedback / Feed-Forward - • Develop (compulsory) regular online formative assessments within the module to encourage student engagement with both the curriculum and the VLE using CLIC Learn’s Test Manager or QuestionMark to help re-enforce what students are learning or need to learn. Provide timely (regular) feedback / feed-forward to students through a variety of channels: course-based blog; class / group podcasts; class / group audioslides; or video. Problem / Inquiry Based Learning - Students working in groups can use a range of technologies to begin to solve problems, such as using mobile, wireless technologies, wikis, mind mapping software, online bibliographical databases, instant messaging software (like Skype), discussion boards, sharing online calendars to arrange meetings, etc. Image: “Crumpled Paper” by chiaralily. Creative Commons licence CC BY - http://www.flickr.com/photos/chiaralily/6599331429/
    16. 16. #5: Retention • Data Analysis - Enable tracking of learning materials or units to see if students need further help / assistance. (e.g. CLIC Learn’s Statistics Tracking option). Could be used to inform tutors about topics and areas for concern, by looking at students’ usage. Furthermore, by examining the timing of interests when students tend to access and engage with the content (i.e. pre-assessment periods). - Use CLIC Learn’s Performance Dashboard and Early Warning System tools to track students engagement with the course, learning materials, discussion board activities and/or online formative tests. Can be used to predict any issues around student retention and use information to plan a course of action to remedy the situation. • Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) - Students being able to access a range of digital tools using their personal devices for making notes; reading articles around a topic; posting questions or comments • Blended Learning Class / Study Guide - Using CLIC Learn’s Learning Unit feature or Wimba Create (via MS Word) to develop an interactive pre-class study guide that leads students through a series of key points, activities, and graded assignments designed to help better prepare them for eachPaper” by chiaralily. Creative highlighting -key texts and class session Commons licence CC BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/chiaralily/6599331429/ Image: “Crumpled
    17. 17. #6: Scholarship • Information Literacy - • Research - • Develop a personal “digital library” that pull in RSS feeds from academic journals (using www.journaltocs.hw.ac.uk), online magazines, newspapers and blogs that keep students to keep up-to-date with their subject discipline. Students could use free tools like www.netvibes.com and Feedly in order to develop their personal learning environments (PLE). Data Collection and Analysis - • Have students make use of online bibliographical databases, such as LibrarySearch, to find articles and sources of information to help them read around a topic or prepare them for an assignment. Using online referencing systems, like RefWorks, to collect references (can also be collected automatically using Google Scholar) and use the online version of “Cite Them Right” to teach students how to reference properly. Student could use SurveyMonkey or Google Forms to collective quantitative data and Skype to conduct interviews and produce ready-made transcripts. Analysis of the results can be conducted in many ways: MS Excel, Minitab and SPSS for quantitative data and MS Word or NVivo for qualitative. External sites like Wordle and ManyEyes allows users to produce much more visual representation of data. Debate, Discussions and Dissemination - Student can practice debating and discussing ideas through different mediums like blogs, wikis, discussion boards, instant messaging (e.g. Skype), micro-blogging services (e.g. Twitter) and Blackboard Collaborate. Image: “Crumpled Paper” by chiaralily. Creative Commons licence CC BY - http://www.flickr.com/photos/chiaralily/6599331429/
    18. 18. Session Activity 2 demo of software & tools
    19. 19. Using Technology: A Few Helpful Pointers #1 • If your course is fully online/at a distance have introductory information and “ice-breaker” activities on using the technologies and online resources provided at outset of course • Provide students with a self assessment for them to gauge their on online learning skills and pointers as to where to get help • Structure and “chunk” online info/activities in a way this is easily navigable • Put milestones and motivators in place • Provide opportunities for feedback on progress • Ensure that use of video, audio and images are accessible and conform to copyright regulations • Make students participate and collaborate in the online environment • Make the online environment “organic” with both staff and student contributing as the course proceeds Image: “Blackboard Backgrounds for PowerPoint” by PPT Backgrounds. License: Free - http://www.pptbackgrounds.net/blackboard-backgrounds.html
    20. 20. Using Technology: A Few Helpful Pointers #2 • However, if your course is mostly delivered on campus, make best use of this time for discussion, collaboration and activity and use technology to deliver content to support learning and teaching • Ensure any online tools are still introduced to students • That online resources and activities are still well structured, accessible, signposted, etc. Image: “Blackboard Backgrounds for PowerPoint” by PPT Backgrounds. License: Free - http://www.pptbackgrounds.net/blackboard-backgrounds.html
    21. 21. Th e cabinet of DANGEROUS IDEAS Image: “Card Catalogue Drawers” by Jason Pearce. Creative Commons licence CC BY-NC-SA - http://www.flickr.com/photos/jasonpearce/4327191474/
    22. 22. #1: Mobile Apps Mobile apps are the fastest growing dimension of the mobile space in higher education right now, with impacts on virtually every aspect of informal life, and increasingly, every discipline in the university ... Higher Education Institutions are now designing apps tailored to educational and research needs across the curriculum (The NMC Horizon Report - HE Edition, 2012) Image: “Rubik Apps” by César Poyatos. Creative Commons licence CC BY-NC-SA - http://www.flickr.com/photos/cpoyatos/5791320785/
    23. 23. #2: Tablet Computing Tablet computing presents new opportunities to enhance learning experiences in ways simply not possible with other devices ... Higher Education Institutions are seeing them not just as an affordable solution for one-to-one learning, but also as a feature-rich tool for field and lab work, often times replacing far more expensive and cumbersome devices and equipment. (The NMC Horizon Report - HE Edition, 2012) Image: “iPad with Dandelion” by Jared Earle. Creative Commons licence CC BY-NC-ND - http://www.flickr.com/photos/jaredearle/4675262184/
    24. 24. #3: Augmented Reality (AR) Augmented reality refers to the layering of information over a view or representation of the normal world, offering users the ability to access placebased information in ways that are compellingly intuitive. Augmented reality brings a significant potential to supplement information delivered via computers, mobile devices, video, and even the printed book. (The NMC Horizon Report - HE Edition, 2011)
    25. 25. #4: Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) Personal learning environments (PLEs) refer to the personal collections of tools and resources a person assembles to support their own learning — both formal and informal. The conceptual basis for PLEs has shifted significantly in the last year, as smartphones, tablets, and apps have begun to emerge as a compelling alternative to browser based PLEs and e-portfolios (The NMC Horizon Report – K-12 Edition, 2012) Image: “Personal Learning Environment” by Janson Hews. Creative Commons licence CC BY-NC - http://www.flickr.com/photos/24823508@N04/6992313131/
    26. 26. #5: Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) MOOCs are an attempt to create open access online courses that provide no constraints on class size. In contrast to open courseware, MOOCs are self managed by groups of learners and teachers and run over a defined period of time, typically 6-12 weeks. MOOCs are open to all, have no formal entry requirements, and can provide a framework for ‘badge’ based recognition ... MOOCs can be purely informal offerings, or opportunities for independent learning aligned to a formal course, or semi-formal courses offered by an institution for informal certification. (Innovating Pedagogy: OU Report 1, 2012) Image: “e-Learning and Digital Culture” by Coursera / University of Edinburgh. - https://www.coursera.org/course/edc
    27. 27. #6: Google Glass Surgeons are currently using the headset to send a video stream of a surgical procedure to students: "It gave them a live view of what I could see, through my eyes and my perspective" "Surgery involves a lot of intricate procedures and so it’s very important that students can see exactly what you’re doing. This doesn’t just open up possibilities for surgery, there are also opportunities for nursing and paramedic students". (The Guardian: Extreme Learning, 2.5.2014) Image: “Google Glass at Center for Total Health 32212” by Ted Eytan. Creative Commons licence CC BY-SA - http://www.flickr.com/photos/taedc/10422904405/
    28. 28. #7: 3D Printing One of the most significant aspects of 3D printing for education is that it enables more authentic exploration of objects that may not be readily available to universities. For example, anthropology students at Miami University can handle and study replicas of fragile artifacts, like ancient Egyptian vases, that have been scanned and printed at the university’s 3D printing lab. As 3D printing gains traction in higher education, universities are beginning to create dedicated spaces to nurture creativity and stimulate intellectual inquiry around this emerging technology. (The NMC Horizon Report - HE Edition, 2014) Image: “Sintermask - fabbster - 3D-printer v02” by Creative Tools. Creative Commons licence CC BY - http://www.flickr.com/photos/33907867@N02/8121256663/
    29. 29. #8: Flipped Classroom The flipped classroom model is becoming increasingly popular in higher education institutions because of how it rearranges face-to-face instruction for professors and students, creating a more efficient and enriching use of class time. For faculty, this often requires carefully creating or selecting the homework materials that are most relevant for a particular lesson. These can take the form of self-recorded video lectures and screencasts, a curated set of guiding links, or a variety of open educational resources (OER). Jorum, based out of the University of Manchester, for example, is a free online educational repository for thousands of resources searchable by subject, author, or keywords. (The NMC Horizon Report - HE Edition, 2014) Image: “Learning Cycles of the Flipped Classroom” by Sarah Gilbert. http://melearningsolutions.com/speaking/flipped-classrooms-handout/
    30. 30. #9: Gamification Educational gameplay has proven to foster engagement in critical thinking, creative problem-solving, and teamwork — skills that lead to solutions for complex social and environmental dilemmas. Digital simulations are another method being used widely to reinforce conceptual applications in mock real world scenarios ... The simulated environment challenges learners to develop and execute an effective, business savvy strategy, and provides the tools to address product line breadth, operations, outsourcing, pricing, and corporate social responsibility among other considerations. (The NMC Horizon Report - HE Edition, 2014) Image: “Minecraft” by kawaiinicole. Creative Commons licence CC BY-NC-SA - http://www.flickr.com/photos/kawaiinicole/9705908512/
    31. 31. #10: Learning Analytics (LA) Learning analytics is developing rapidly in higher education, where learning is happening more within online and hybrid environments. It has moved closer to mainstream use in higher education in each of the past three years. Sophisticated webtracking tools are already being used by leading institutions to capture precise student behaviours in online courses, recording not only simple variables such as time spent on a topic, but also much more nuanced information that can provide evidence of critical thinking, synthesis, and the depth of retention of concepts over time. As behaviour-specific data is added to an evergrowing repository of student-related information, the analysis of educational data is increasingly complex, and many statisticians and researchers are working to develop new kinds of analytical tools to manage that complexity. (The NMC Horizon Report - HE Edition, 2014) Image: “Blackboard Analytics” by Blackboard, Inc. - http://www.blackboard.com/Platforms/Analytics/Products/Blackboard-Analytics-for-Learn.aspx
    32. 32. Where Are You Now Eh? Image: “The Signpost” by Tom@Where. Creative Commons licence CC BY-NC - http://www.flickr.com/photos/tomsen/2899175607/
    33. 33. Some Question… Image: “Question Mark” by djking. Creative Commons licence CC BY-NC-SA - http://www.flickr.com/photos/djking/8578067721/
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