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The film industry new

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  • 1. The Film Industry
  • 2. AIMS • To understand the focus for the Audience and Institutions section of your January Exam • To understand the structure of a Media Triangle • To understand the different sectors of the film industry KEY TERMS Audience Institution Production Subsidiary Distribution Marketing Exhibition Horizontal Integration Vertical Integration Convergence Synergy
  • 3. THE EXAM Section B: Institutions and Audiences Candidates should be prepared to understand and discuss the processes of production, distribution, marketing and exchange as they relate to contemporary media institutions, as well as the nature of audience consumption and the relationships between audiences and institutions. In addition, candidates should be familiar with: •the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice; •the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing; •the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and exchange; •the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences; •the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences; •the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions; •the ways in which the candidates’ own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour. This unit should be approached through contemporary examples in the form of case studies based upon one of the specified media areas.
  • 4. MEDIA TRIANGLES Institution Target Audience Media Text Who has producedthe media text Whatthey have produced Who it is producedfor.
  • 5. THE FILM PROCESS PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION EXHIBITION There are three distinct areas of the film industry. Each one of these could be viewed as a type of media institution. What would you expect to happen at each stage?
  • 6. • Production involves the creation of the media product and is the responsibility of the PRODUCTION COMPANY • This includes all pre-production, production & post-production processes. • Before that the writer/director/producer must find finance for a film – which may come from one or many production companies (a co- production) Figment Films is the productioncompany who made Trainspotting. Channel 4 (film 4) financed the film
  • 7. •Film distributors are responsible for prints and marketing: PRINTS – producing physical copies of a film for cinema/home release and finding the exhibitors/retailers to sell the film MARKETING – raising audience awareness and anticipation of a new release •A distributor may: -Be a part of the same parent company as the production company -Have a long term arrangement with a production company and provide financial assistance for many of their productions -Provide financial assistance for a single film by a production company -Acquire a film after it has completed production •A film will likely have different distributors for: -Releases in different countries -Cinema Release -Home-Video Release Miramaxdistributed Trainspotting and bought the rights for $750,000– in your case study look carefullyat how it was marketed and distributed.
  • 8. • Exhibition is divided into two sections: - Cinema – the distributor is paid by the cinema for a copy of the film - Home – the distributor is paid by the company who is selling the film for a copy • A film’s success is often decided on the amount of money it makes during it’s cinema release. This is known as the Box Office Takings • Home Exhibition is becoming an increasing valuable and varied source for distributors to increase profits. WHAT METHODS OF HOME EXHIBITION CAN WE THINK OF? FilmFour made its reputation with films such as Trainspotting in 1996, which made £23m at the box office but cost only £2.4m and was the highest grossing British film in 1996. However,it was far more successful on DVD, spawning numerous versions and special editions Why would this film be more successful on DVD than in the cinema?
  • 9. HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL INTEGRATION PRODUCTION Often a single parent company will own multiple companies in the film industry. This is divided into two types of ownership: PRODUCTION PRODUCTION HORIZONTAL The parent company owns multiple companiesat the same stage of the film industry. A smaller company,owned by the parentis a subsidiary. VERTICAL The parent company owns multiple companiesacross differentstages of the film industry. What are the advantagesfor a parent companyof each type of ownership? EXHIBITION DISTRIBUTION For example Walt Disney also owns: •Miramax Films •Hollywood Pictures •Pixar Animation For example Warner Bros owns: •Warner Bros Studios (Production) •Warner Bros (Distribution) •Used to own Warner Bros Cinemas in the UK (Exhibition
  • 10. SORTING OUT KEY TERMS Ownership of institution How the way the company is owned effects the type of films it produces. Cross Media Convergence The use of multiple media forms by a media company to increase the awareness of or possible audience for a media product. For example, the BBC show Eastenders on their TV channels, then make them available on the internet through BBC iPlayer for a further seven days. A single company will often own all of the media forms. Synergy When two or more institutions promote their products on one media text. Business deals are created between institutions who stand to benefit from reaching the same audience at the same time. Product placement in films (where for example, James Bond might be denoted wearing an Omega watch) and the promotion of stars and their songs through TV advertisements for other products are good examples. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R22qigXhFjk New Media Technology The emergence of digital, computerized, or networked information and communication technologies in the later part of the 20th century. Most technologies described as "new media" are digital. This is simply a quicker, smaller, more efficient and compressed form of data-storage when compared with older analogue methods. Proliferation of content An increase in the number of films being made over the last 30 years
  • 11. Technological convergence The combination of a variety of different digital technologies into one piece of hardware e.g. a PC which can show DVDs, digitally edit, using a camera take video footage and using the internet, download films Production How films are made in terms of appeal to audience, effect of ownership and technologies used Distribution In the film business, the term "distribution" refers to the marketing and circulation of movies in theatres, and for home viewing (DVD, Video-On-Demand, Download, Television etc). This will usually be through a cinema first and then onto DVD and download, although some films are released straight to DVD. Marketing The process of creating and raising audience awareness of a new film. It is part of the responsibility of the distributor, along with circulation, after they have acquired a film. The objective of film marketing is to stand out in an environment that is competing very fiercely for the audience’s money. This does not simply mean against other film campaigns, but the marketing of any other product too. Split into three sections – advertising, publicity and promotion. Exhibition Exhibition is the retail branch of the film industry. It could relate to public cinema exhibition or private home exhibition through DVD or downloads. SORTING OUT KEY TERMS
  • 12. RECAP What do the following terms mean in relation to the film industry? • Production • Subsidiary • Distribution • Marketing • Exhibition • Horizontal Integration • Vertical Integration • Convergence • Synergy
  • 13. POSSIBLE QUESTION TOPICS Relationship between institution and audience in a media industry Effect of New Media Technology on institutions and audiences in a media industry OR These are the areas that the exam question is most likely to ask you to discuss. HOWEVER it is possible that the question may ask you to apply your knowledge in a slightly different way, so you must be prepared to adapt your answer to the question. The question will be broad, allowing you to discuss a variety of issues relating to your case study.
  • 14. RESEARCH TASK - THE LIFE OF A FILM -SUBMIT AS A POWERPOINT -STARTING POINT FOR RESEARCH SHOULD BE IMDB.COM – USE COMPANY CREDITS SECTION 1. YOUR FILM (DARK KNIGHT RISES OR TOY STORY 3 OR THE HOBBIT OR THE AMAZING SPIDER-MAN (2012 VERSION)) Provide a brief synopsis of your film’s story Include some of your film’s marketing materials (trailers, posters, cast interviews etc.) 2. PRODUCTION What was your film’s production budget? Which Production Company (s) provided the finance? What other films have the company (s) produced? 3. DISTRIBUTION Who are your films theatrical distributors? How many countries has it been distributed in and what are they? Who are your films home distributors? How many countries has it been distributed in and what are they 4. EXHIBITION What was your film’s box office takings? Would you expect it to be shown at The Tyneside Cinema or in a Multiplex likeThe Gate or Vue? Why? Which formats is your film available on for home exhibition? 5. HORIZONTAL & VERTICAL INTEGRATION Is your film’s production company a subsidiary of a larger company (Horizontally Integrated)? Are there any signs of horizontal integration between your film’s production company (s) and distributor(s)?
  • 15. RECAP What do the following terms mean in relation to the film industry? • Production • Subsidiary • Distribution • Marketing • Exhibition • Horizontal Integration • Vertical Integration
  • 16. • Look at the website for The Dark Night Rises or Avengers Assemble • Are there multiple websites? If so, how are they different? • What do they offer audiences? • Be specific and go into detail – what kind of features do they have to attract an audience – what kind of links do they have? • If you have time, look at the viral marketing campaign. • Google it and give examples of HOW viral marketing was used and the types of partners who were involved.
  • 17. • How was digital convergence use to market and promote the Dark Knight Rises? use digital technology to viral marketing? • Websites – what they offered/why more than one; viral marketing; use of social networking sites; how did the campaign get people involved. The basic psychology behind this is to give fans the impression they are members of an elite group and/or that they have some kind of say in events – in essence, you’re giving them a sense of ‘onwership’ so they’ll be more likely to go and see the film… • How could audiences access these features? • There are any number of Youtube videos the DKR use of viral marketing to help you with this and give you excellent examples; equally, there are plenty of links if you google!