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An Introduction to Microinsurances

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An introductory presentation on microinsurances as a way to reduce poverty and vulnerabilities. Covers …

An introductory presentation on microinsurances as a way to reduce poverty and vulnerabilities. Covers
1. general principles and approaches of microninsurances, including the linkage to poverty reduction and vulnerability; and
2. the value chains, actors and networks involved in making microinsurances work.

Held at a summer school on Development Policy at the University of Cologne in September 2009 (http://www.lateinamerika.uni-koeln.de/summerschool2009.html). It targets students with a general knowledge of development economics and politics (but without prior knowledge of microinsurances). In the seminar, the presentation was the frame for work sessions on microinsurance case studies (from CGAP), texts from the Microinsurance Compendium and a one-day country workshop on Colombia to which Jenny Hennig, GTZ, gave an additional input. Details on the course are available on request to martin.herrndorf@oikos-international.org.

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  • 1. Microinsurances: From Vulnerabilities to Business Models? Martin Herrndorf oikos PhD Fellow, Universität St.Gallen Institute of Management [email_address] +41(0)76 263 2601 | +49(0)163 431 1374 Seminar Summer School “Entwicklungspolitik” 31 August – 5 September 2009 University of Cologne Teaching and Research Center Latin America
  • 2. Seminar Microinsurances
    • Thursday: Ideas, Principles and Actors
    • Presentation 1: Ideas and principles
    • Group Session 1: Case studies – selected projects
    • Presentation 2: Actors and networks
    • Group Session 2: Micro-insurance actors in focus
    • Friday: Actors and Networks on the country level
    • Group Session 3: Country research ‘Colombia’
    • Presentation 3: Jenny Hennig, GTZ
    • Group Session 4: Strategies for microinsurances
    • Final presentations
  • 3. Introduction Seminar Microinsurances Presentation 1: Microinsurances: Ideas and Principles
  • 4. Introduction Seminar Microinsurances Vulnerabilities and the demand for microinsurances
  • 5. Poverty as a dynamic challenge always poor| Usually poor| Churning poor| Occasionally poor | Never poor Always poor Usually poor Churning poor Occasionally poor Never poor Present Status Status 10 Years Ago Situation unchanged Hulme, D, and A Shepherd. 2003. “Conceptualizing Chronic Poverty”. World Development 31:403-23. Improvement of situation  Poverty Reduction   Worsening of situation No cases
  • 6. Poverty as a dynamic challenge Hulme, D, and A Shepherd. 2003. “Conceptualizing Chronic Poverty”. World Development 31:403-23.
  • 7. The cause of poverty dynamics Income gained Hulme, D, and A Shepherd. 2003. “Conceptualizing Chronic Poverty”. World Development 31:403-23. Income lost Formal employment Remittances Children have (urban) income Inheritance Public subsidies Death of household head Long sickness Business start-up Bad investment House burned down Land washed away Drug addiction always poor| Usually poor| Churning poor| Occasionally poor | Never poor Always poor Usually poor Churning poor Occasionally poor Never poor Present Status Status 10 Years Ago
  • 8. Microinsurances as a protection mechanism Churchill, Craig, ed. 2006. Protecting the Poor: A Microinsurance Compendium International Labour Office (ILO), Munich Re Foundation.
  • 9. Different social security mechanisms Churchill, Craig, ed. 2006. Protecting the Poor: A Microinsurance Compendium International Labour Office (ILO), Munich Re Foundation. Self-insurance Informal group-based mechanisms Formal (micro-)insurance Social protection Money lenders (Family) savings Welfare Associations Funeral Associations Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCAs) Partnerships between insurers and MFIs Public provision / pensions In case of „death“: Diversifying income sources Building social capital Ex-ante reduction of vulnerability
  • 10. Feasibility of microinsurances Roth, Jim, Michael J. McCord, and Dominic Liber. 2007. The Landscape of Microinsurance in the World’s 100 Poorest Countries . Appleton, WI: The MicroInsurance Centre, LLC. Lives affected Diffi-culty Risk Life insurance An ideal and simple risk to insure, with proven demand and impact, easy to scale ***** ** * Accidental death and dismemberment insurance A simple risk, with proxy health elements, but providing incomplete protection ***** *** ** Healthcare cost indemnity insurance Long-term, risky, complex, subject to abuse and fraud, historically many failures *-***** ***** **** Health savings vehicles Support and financial discipline for routine expenses, no help for major events *-***** * * Defined benefit health (major medical, hospital, critical illness) Contribution towards healthcare costs or associated losses for major healthcare events *-***** **** *** Agricultural (property) insurance Risk management is a crucial component of agricultural development ***** **** ***
  • 11. Consumer demand for microinsurances
  • 12. Effects – health micro-insurance Adapted from Blanchard-Horan, 2006 , In: Roth, Jim, Michael J. McCord, and Dominic Liber. 2007. The Landscape of Microinsurance in the World’s 100 Poorest Countries . Appleton, WI: The MicroInsurance Centre, LLC.
  • 13. Introduction Seminar Microinsurances Definitions and Principles
  • 14. Microinsurances - definition „ Microinsurance is the protection of low-income people against specific perils in exchange for regular premium payments proportionate to the likelihood and cost of the risk involved” Churchill, Craig ed. 2006. Protecting the Poor: A Microinsurance Compendium International Labour Office (ILO), Munich Re Foundation.
  • 15. Microinsurances - principles
    • Same general principle as ‘normal’ insurance
    • But different target group: The poor!
    • Double benefit:
      • New, untapped market for businesses
      • Protection of the poor against risks: Vulnerability
    • Different operational principles
    Churchill, Craig ed. 2006. Protecting the Poor: A Microinsurance Compendium International Labour Office (ILO), Munich Re Foundation.
  • 16. Microinsurance principles Churchill, Craig ed. 2006. Protecting the Poor: A Microinsurance Compendium International Labour Office (ILO), Munich Re Foundation. Principles Key Question Relevant to the risks of low-income households What do we know about the risks the poor face? As inclusive as possible
        • How can we reach the greatest number of poor people?
    Affordable premiums
        • How much can the poor pay, when, in which form?
    Grouping for efficiencies
        • How can we overcome transaction costs in rural and dispersed markets?
    Clearly defined and simple rules and restrictions
        • How can everybody (even illiterates) understand the product offer?
    Easily accessible claims documentation requirements
        • How can the poor claim insurance payments quickly?
    Strategies to overcome the wariness of customers
        • How can ignorance of insurance as a principle be overcome?
  • 17. Introduction Seminar Microinsurances Supply of Microinsurances
  • 18. Access to financial services
  • 19. Number of microinsurance providers Roth, Jim, Michael J. McCord, and Dominic Liber. 2007. The Landscape of Microinsurance in the World’s 100 Poorest Countries . Appleton, WI: The MicroInsurance Centre, LLC.
  • 20. Microinsurances – total lives covered Roth, Jim, Michael J. McCord, and Dominic Liber. 2007. The Landscape of Microinsurance in the World’s 100 Poorest Countries . Appleton, WI: The MicroInsurance Centre, LLC. Region Life Health Accident & Disability Property & Index Americas 7,545,057 445,876 105,000 600 Africa 2,036,141 3,053,778 1,603,000 1,600,000 Asia 54,158,332 31,697,038 39,180,508 34,557,434 Total 63,739,530 35196692 40888508 36158034
  • 21. Access to microinsurances in Latin America Roth, Jim, Michael J. McCord, and Dominic Liber. 2007. The Landscape of Microinsurance in the World’s 100 Poorest Countries . Appleton, WI: The MicroInsurance Centre, LLC.
  • 22. The context for microinsurances Roth, Jim, Michael J. McCord, and Dominic Liber. 2007. The Landscape of Microinsurance in the World’s 100 Poorest Countries . Appleton, WI: The MicroInsurance Centre, LLC. Macro | The Enabling Environment Meso | Financial Infrastructure Micro | Business Models Commercial & mutual insurers, agents, brokers, intermediaries Actuaries, auditors, technical support, adjusters, insurance claims register, information technology Policy, legislation, regulation, supervision
  • 23. Market development for microinsurances Qureshi, Zahid, and Dirk Reinhard. 2008. “Making Insurance Work for the Poor”. 4th International Microinsurance Conference 2008
  • 24. Introduction Seminar Microinsurances Presentation 2: Microinsurances: Actors and Networks
  • 25. Introduction Seminar Microinsurances The Micro-Insurance Value Chain
  • 26. Value chain for insurances
  • 27. Changes in the value chain Qureshi, Zahid, and Dirk Reinhard. 2008. “Making Insurance Work for the Poor”. 4th International Microinsurance Conference 2008
  • 28. Work distribution – a pyramid model Reinsurer Insurer Insurer Insurer Channel Channel Channel Client Client Client Covered Life Covered Life Covered Life ‚ A few‘ ‚ Dozens‘ ‚ Thousands‘ ‚ Millions‘ ‚ Millions more‘
  • 29. Work distribution Qureshi, Zahid, and Dirk Reinhard. 2008. “Making Insurance Work for the Poor”. 4th International Microinsurance Conference 2008
  • 30. Microinsurances – product design tasks Micro-Insurance Product Design (Example: Health)
    • Product manufacturing
    • Define benefit package
    • Identify providers
    • Pricing for sustainability
    • Controls for fraud, moral hazard, adverse selection
    • Product sales
    • Information provision
    • Underwriting
    • Product servicing
    • Assistance with claims
    • Manage relationship with care providers
    • Long-term relationship with clients
    • Product servicing
    • Maintenance of long-term stability
    • Financial management
    • Risk monitoring & management (reinsurance)
    Churchill, Craig ed. 2006. Protecting the Poor: A Microinsurance Compendium International Labour Office (ILO), Munich Re Foundation.
  • 31. Value creation through local education Michael Anthony, Allianz SE, Presentation at Utopia Conference, Berlin Explain insurances and risks covered to the heads of village. To raise understanding and awareness about micro-insurances, mass rallies are being held by Care and local NGO. Village officials explain and discuss the concept of insurance with members of the village. During these awareness campaigns a puppet theatre and microinsurance song are shown to explain insurance. 1 2 3 4
  • 32. Introduction Seminar Microinsurances Actors and Approaches
  • 33. Key differences between the actors in the field Financial Performance Social Mission Large & Global Small & Local Weak / distanced Strong / embedded Primary interest / logic Scope of operations Outreach to the poor High / standardised Low / informal Operational & financial capacity High / stable Low / instable Risk-pooling capacity / reserves
  • 34. Introduction Seminar Microinsurances Actors and Approaches Insurance Companies
  • 35. Base of the Pyramid – A new paradigm Poor / extremely poor ‘Base of the Pyramid’ = 4 billion customers? Traditional business focus Neglected markets Middle class High income Inclusive business? Anwara Begum, Grameen 'telephone lady' (Credit: Nurjahan Chaklader) Based on Prahalad, C. K., and Allen L. Hammond. 2002. “What Works: Serving the Poor, Profitably”. Harvard Business Review 4-11.
  • 36. Why poverty markets? Reasons for insurers Churchill, Craig ed. 2006. Protecting the Poor: A Microinsurance Compendium International Labour Office (ILO), Munich Re Foundation. Internal factors External factors
    • Corporate social responsibility
    • Risk diversification
    • Securing or growing revenue
    • Push for new markets and innovative products
    • Growing competition in traditional markets
    • Shrinking margins in traditional markets
    • Regulatory requirements
    • Political and activist pressure
    • Liberalization of previously closed markets
  • 37. How? Agent vs. reinsurance-modell Insurance company Micro-finance Coopera-tive Insurance company Micro-finance Coopera-tive „ Agent“ „ Reinsurance“ General
    • Insurer develop products and carry the risk
    • Microfinance Institutions or cooperatives serve as distribution channels
    • Claim settlement often through distribution partners
    • Typical of life insurances
    • Microfinance Institute or cooperative develop products
    • Part of the risk is shifted to insurance company
    • Claim settlement through distribution partners
    • Typical of health insurances
    Re-insurer Insurer Distribution channel
  • 38. Introduction Seminar Microinsurances Actors and Approaches (Agro-)Cooperatives
  • 39. Cooperatives - principles
    • The insurer is owned by the insured
    • Incentive to keep premiums low and claims regulation high
    • Local control between the insured to reduce moral hazard
    • Wide variation in terms of members
      • From a dozen to several millions
    • As a consequence, similar variation in modes of operation
    • Insurance often based on established service models:
      • Credit cooperatives  Credit-life insurance
      • Health cooperatives  Health insurance
      • Farmer cooperatives  Crop / livestock insurance
  • 40. Kooperativen - Beispiele Churchill, Craig ed. 2006. Protecting the Poor: A Microinsurance Compendium International Labour Office (ILO), Munich Re Foundation.
  • 41. Introduction Seminar Microinsurances Actors and Approaches Micro-Finance Institutions
  • 42. From micro-credit to micro-insurance Core business: Micro credit (and partly social services) Credit protection through credit life insurance Double goal: More attractive credit products and improved risk profile of portfolio Connection of savings and insurance Savings similar to insurance („pay now, get back later“) High demand for savings products from target group More insurance products Health, property, crop, livestock
    • Closer to customer demand (health!)
    • Rising complexity and risk
    • Danger of cross-subsidising and financial stability
  • 43. Micro-Finance 1: Local embeddedness Muhammad Yunus Founder Grameen Bank
    • Not-for-profit / low-profit companies
    • Financially sustainable
    • The goal is to create “social businesses”
    • Locally adapted
    • Long-term learning processes
    • More socialisation then training
    • Alliances with profit oriented businesses in clearly-defined joint venture structures
  • 44. Micro-Finance 2: Standardisation icrofinance? Vikram Akula Founder SKS Microfinance
  • 45. Micro-Finance 1: Local embeddedness Akula, Vikram. 2008. Business Basics At the Base of the Pyramid. Harvard Business Review 86:53-57. Akula / SKS approach Traditionally Adopt a profit-oriented approach in order to access commercial capital.
    • Not-for-profit / low-profit organisations
    • Financially self-sustaining
    • Establish “social businesses” (Yunus)
    Standardise products, training and other processes in order to boost capacity — like „Starbucks and McDonalds“.
    • Locally adapted, learn on the ground
    • Process of socialisation, recruit officers from former clients
    • Average training time: 4-6 months (2 months at SKS)
    Use technology to reduce costs and limit errors.
    • Paper-based bookkeeping, local technology
    • SKS: Handhelds, internet-linked, special software
  • 46. Step-wise development of business models? Source : http://www.symbiotics.ch/en/microfinance-institutions.asp , Darius Capital Partners
    • Difficulty with microinsurances:
    • Risk pooling requires a big and widely-distributed portfolio
    • Lumpy investments into insurance knowledge, systems and accreditation
    •  Starting microinsurance incrementally is difficult!
  • 47. How many people do different providers reach? Roth, Jim, Michael J. McCord, and Dominic Liber. 2007. The Landscape of Microinsurance in the World’s 100 Poorest Countries . Appleton, WI: The MicroInsurance Centre, LLC.
  • 48. Which services do different providers offer? Roth, Jim, Michael J. McCord, and Dominic Liber. 2007. The Landscape of Microinsurance in the World’s 100 Poorest Countries . Appleton, WI: The MicroInsurance Centre, LLC.
  • 49. Thanks for your attention! Martin Herrndorf martin. [email_address] skype: herrndorf mobil ch: +41(0)76 2632601 Mobil de: +49(0)163 4311374 www.facebook.com/herrndorf

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